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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321091

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: DENV-2 is the cause of most dengue epidemics worldwide and is associated with severe cases. METHODS: We investigated arboviruses in 164 serum samples collected from patients presenting with clinical symptoms of dengue fever and 152 mosquito pools. RESULTS: We detected the Asian II genotype of DENV-2 in humans and mosquitoes. Our results confirmed the circulation of the Asian II genotype in Brazil, in addition to the prevalent Asian/American genotype. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of Asian II genotype of DENV-2 in mosquito pools collected in a forest park may be related to a spillback event of human dengue virus.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/virologia , Animais , Brasil , Culicidae/classificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , Estações do Ano
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The genus Haemagogus Williston is restricted to Central America and North and middle of South America and it includes numerous species of yellow fever virus vectors. METHODS: Adult female and larvae mosquitoes were collected using hand aspirators and dipper and pipette, respectively. RESULTS: The first record of a species of Haemagogus and particularly of Haemagogus spegazzinii was from La Pampa, Argentina. With this registry, the number of species found in La Pampa province rises to 18. CONCLUSIONS: New information on breeding sites for the species and implications of this new record suggest a possible extension of distribution in the near future.


Assuntos
Culicidae/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Febre Amarela/transmissão
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 462, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing adult mosquito populations is an important component of disease surveillance programs and ecosystem health assessments. Inference from adult trapping datasets involves comparing populations across space and time, but comparisons based on different trapping methods may be biased if traps have different efficiencies or sample different subsets of the mosquito community. METHODS: We compared four widely-used trapping methods for adult mosquito data collection in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa: Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (CDC), Biogents Sentinel trap (BG), Biogents gravid Aedes trap (GAT) and a net trap. We quantified how trap choice and sampling effort influence inferences on the regional distribution of mosquito abundance, richness and community composition. RESULTS: The CDC and net traps together collected 96% (47% and 49% individually) of the 955 female mosquitoes sampled and 100% (85% and 78% individually) of the 40 species or species complexes identified. The CDC and net trap also identified similar regional patterns of community composition. However, inference on the regional patterns of abundance differed between these traps because mosquito abundance in the net trap was influenced by variation in weather conditions. The BG and GAT traps collected significantly fewer mosquitoes, limiting regional comparisons of abundance and community composition. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first systematic assessment of trapping methods in natural savanna ecosystems in southern Africa. We recommend the CDC trap or the net trap for future monitoring and surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Entomologia/métodos , Densidade Demográfica , Animais , África do Sul , Análise Espacial
4.
Biomedica ; 39: 172-198, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529859

RESUMO

The study of mosquitoes is important in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. In Ecuador, the study of local mosquito biodiversity was pioneered by two entomologists whose contributions span through the first half of the 20th century, Francisco Campos-Rivadeneira and Roberto Levi-Castillo. Both of them contributed to general aspects of Entomology and to particular insights in mosquito taxonomy. Their publications and discoveries were recognized by the international scientific community but went unnoticed in South America during their time. Today, very few citizens remember the names and contributions of these two scientists. Here, we provide an overview of their lives, a summary of their contributions, and we conclude with a broader outlook on the practice of science in Latin America during their time.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Entomologia/história , Agricultura/história , Animais , Culicidae/classificação , Equador , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Medicina Militar/história , Filatelia/história , Pesquisa/história
5.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 721, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tribe Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae) contains important vectors of the yellow fever virus and presents remarkable morphological and ecological diversity unequalled in other mosquito groups. However, there is limited information about mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from these species. As mitochondrial genetics has been fundamental for posing evolutionary hypotheses and identifying taxonomical markers, in this study we sequenced the first sabethine mitogenomes: Sabethes undosus, Trichoprosopon pallidiventer, Runchomyia reversa, Limatus flavisetosus, and Wyeomyia confusa. In addition, we performed phylogenetic analyses of Sabethini within Culicidae and compared its mitogenomic architecture to that of other insects. RESULTS: Similar to other insects, the Sabethini mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a control region. However, the gene order is not the same as that in other mosquitoes; the tyrosine (Y) and cysteine (C) tRNA genes have translocated. In general, mitogenome rearrangements within insects are uncommon events; the translocation reported here is unparalleled among Culicidae and can be considered an autapomorphy for the Neotropical sabethines. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides clear evidence of gene rearrangements in the mitogenomes of these Neotropical genera in the tribe Sabethini. Gene order can be informative at the taxonomic level of tribe. The translocations found, along with the mitogenomic sequence data and other recently published findings, reinforce the status of Sabethini as a well-supported monophyletic taxon. Furthermore, T. pallidiventer was recovered as sister to R. reversa, and both were placed as sisters of other Sabethini genera (Sabethes, Wyeomyia, and Limatus).


Assuntos
Culicidae/classificação , Mitocôndrias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Culicidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Ordem dos Genes , Rearranjo Gênico , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia
6.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0217694, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433813

RESUMO

To document the diversity and distribution of mosquitoes inhabiting the Mexican state of Nuevo León, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. A total of 3,176 specimens were collected. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: The Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. These represent the two culicid subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 8 tribes, 12 genera, 25 subgenera, and 64 named species. Of these, 1 tribe, 2 genera, 5 subgenera, and 14 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Nuevo León. Three undescribed species were collected. Two are described in this study: Aedes (Ochlerotatus) amateuri Ortega & Zavortink n. sp., and Aedes (Protomacleaya) lewnielseni Ortega & Zavortink n. sp. The third belongs to the genus Wyeomyia. Twelve species previously recorded from Nuevo León were not collected during this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some species are reported.


Assuntos
Culicidae/classificação , Aedes/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Geografia , México
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 356, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne pathogens are important causes of diseases in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Knowledge of the mosquito fauna is needed for the appropriate control of the vectors that transmit the pathogens and prevent the diseases they cause. An important first step is to have an up-to-date list of the species known to be present in the country. Original occurrence records were obtained from published literature and critically scrutinized to compile a list of the mosquito species that occur within the borders of the Kingdom. RESULTS: Fifty-one species have been recorded in the Kingdom; however, the occurrence of two of these species is unlikely. Thus, the mosquito fauna of the Kingdom comprises 49 species that include 18 anophelines and 31 culicines. Published records are provided for each species. Problematic records based on misidentifications and inappropriate sources are discussed and annotated for clarity. CONCLUSION: Integrated morphological and molecular methods of identification are needed to refine the list of species and accurately document their distributions in the Kingdom.


Assuntos
Culicidae/classificação , Animais , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Arábia Saudita
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 368, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the medical importance of the genus Culex, the mitochondrial genome (mt genome) characteristics of Culex spp. are not well understood. The phylogeny of the genus and particularly the generic status of the genus Lutzia and the subgenus Culiciomyia remain unclear. METHODS: The present study sequenced and analyzed the complete mt genomes of Lutzia halifaxia, Lutzia fuscanus and Cx. (Culiciomyia) pallidothorax and assessed the general characteristics and phylogenetics of all known 16 mt genome sequences for species in the genera Culex and Lutzia. RESULTS: The complete mt genomes of Lt. halifaxia, Lt. fuscanus and Cx. pallidothorax are 15,744, 15,803 and 15,578 bp long, respectively, including 13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, two tRNAs and a control region (CR). Length variations in the Culex and Lutzia mt genomes involved mainly the CR, and gene arrangements are the same as in other mosquitoes. We identified four types of repeat units in the CR sequences, and the poly-T stretch exists in all of these mt genomes. The repeat units of CR are conserved to different extent and provide information on their evolution. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the Coronator and Sitiens groups are each monophyletic, whereas the monophyletic status of the Pipiens Group was not supported; Cx. pallidothorax is more closely related to the Sitiens and Pipiens groups; and both phylogenetics analysis and repeat unit features in CR show that Lutzia is a characteristic monophyletic entity, which should be an independent genus. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of the mt genome sequences and taxonomic discussion based on the mt genomes of Culex spp. and Lutzia spp. The research provides general information on the mt genome of these two genera, and the phylogenetic and taxonomic status of Lutzia and Culiciomyia.


Assuntos
Culicidae/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Animais , Culicidae/classificação , Feminino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
J Med Entomol ; 56(5): 1270-1274, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144723

RESUMO

The Chiang Mai (CM) form of the genus Lutzia, subgenus Metalutzia, in Thailand is diagnosed and formally named Lt. chiangmaiensis Somboon & Harbach, n. sp. The species is contrasted with related species, and information is provided on its bionomics and distribution.


Assuntos
Culicidae/classificação , Animais , Culicidae/anatomia & histologia , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pupa/anatomia & histologia , Pupa/classificação , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tailândia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 214, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of immature habitats is an important focus for investigations of mosquito community ecology, and may improve our understanding of how environmental variables increase risk of mosquito-borne diseases by influencing the distributions and abundances of species. In Patagonia region, where climatic and ecological factors could be only borderline suitable for mosquito development, relatively little is known about larval ecology. The present study focuses on associations of environmental conditions in natural aquatic habitats with abundances of mosquito species that have colonized such habitats in Patagonia. METHODS: We described the mosquito community composition within 26 natural temporary pools, and assessed the general relationships between environmental variables (pH, water temperature, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, aquatic plant cover and main nutrients) and larval abundances using redundancy analysis (RDA). Additionally, we compiled monthly climate data and vegetation indices for each larval habitat, and estimated the probability of presence for two of the most abundant species, describing through generalized linear models (GLM) the environmental, climatic and landscape variables-probability of occurrence relationships. RESULTS: Seven species belonging to the genera Culex and Aedes were identified, with Culex apicinus, Cx. acharistus and Aedes albifasciatus being the most abundant. Mean larval densities were low (6.8 ± 2.8 larvae/dip), and the highest species richness and larval densities were recorded in northern and central areas. Aedes albifasciatus, a species of sanitary importance, was widely distributed, being the only one collected south of the 45th parallel of S latitude. RDA indicated that aquatic conductivity, pH, water depth, dissolved oxygen, ammonia and soluble reactive phosphorous accounted for the main part of the variation in the species composition. According to GLMs, wind speed was the variable that best described the presence of Ae. albifasciatus, and the probability of finding this species was positively associated with high wind speed values. On the other hand, the EVI vegetation index was the only variable included in the Cx. apicinus model, whereby there was a great probability of presence in arid areas with lower EVI values. CONCLUSIONS: Our results enhance our knowledge of larval habitat ecology under the extreme environmental conditions of Patagonia and will guide future efforts to understand how multiple effects can affect mosquito ecology and public health at higher latitudes.


Assuntos
Culicidae/embriologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Argentina , Temperatura Baixa , Culicidae/classificação , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 198, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 70 arboviruses have been identified in Australia and the transmission cycles of most are poorly understood. While there is an extensive list of arthropods from which these viruses have been recovered, far less is known about the non-human hosts that may be involved in the transmission cycles of these viruses and the relative roles of different mosquito species in cycles of transmission involving different hosts. Some of the highest rates of human infection with zoonotic arboviruses, such as Ross River (RRV) and Barmah Forest (BFV) viruses, occur in coastal regions of north-eastern Australia. METHODS: Engorged mosquitoes collected as a part of routine surveillance using CO2-baited light traps in the Rockhampton Region and the adjoining Shire of Livingstone in central Queensland, north-eastern Australia, were analysed for the source of their blood meal. A 457 or 623 nucleotide region of the cytochrome b gene in the blood was amplified by PCR and the amplicons sequenced. The origin of the blood was identified by comparing the sequences obtained with those in GenBank®. RESULTS: The most common hosts for the mosquitoes sampled were domestic cattle (26/54) and wild birds (14/54). Humans (2/54) were an infrequent host for this range of mosquitoes that are known to transmit arboviruses causing human disease, and in an area where infections with human pathogens like RRV and BFV are commonly recorded. The blood meals identified in the most abundant vector analysed, Culex annulirostris, were from 10 different vertebrate hosts. The notable detection of chimpanzee blood in two mosquitoes, presumably obtained from a nearby zoo, extends the known range of hosts for this species. Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. sitiens fed almost exclusively on a variety of bird species. CONCLUSIONS: While human-mosquito-human transmission of arboviruses like RRV can occur, this study highlights the potential importance of zoonotic cycles of transmission, including avian species, of arboviruses that are indigenous to Australia. Further studies on larger samples of blood-engorged mosquitoes are required to validate the trends observed herein. Moreover, serological and virological evidence that the hosts on which the mosquitoes are feeding are being infected with arboviruses of interest are required.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Culicidae/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Arbovirus/genética , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Aves , Mordeduras e Picadas/parasitologia , Bovinos , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/virologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Pan troglodytes
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 153, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last 50 years, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has experienced rapid population growth and urbanization. Urbanization is known to influence biodiversity, and there appears to be a link between the emergence of arboviruses and urban growth. Very little is known about the UAE mosquito species richness and dominant vectors. We performed a mosquito survey comparing peri-urban sites in Dubai and Al Ain to a protected, natural site in Fujairah emirate. We measured mosquito biodiversity and species composition, and screened mosquito pools for common arboviruses to measure arbovirus activity in the region. RESULTS: We report ten species of mosquitoes from the UAE, with highest species diversity in the natural site, a protected wadi near the eastern coast. The predominant mosquito was Culex perexiguus, and was associated with peri-urban habitats. The site with lowest mosquito species diversity but relatively high species richness was the peri-urban site of Al Ain Zoo, where we identified Bagaza virus and Barkedji virus, two flaviviruses, in pools of Cx. perexiguus. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased mosquito biodiversity was associated with increased levels of urbanization. The predominance of two species at peri-urban sites was related to the availability of their larval habitats. Arboviruses were associated with the presence of a single predominant mosquito species, Cx. perexiguus.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae , Animais , Arbovirus/classificação , Biodiversidade , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Urbanização
13.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e9, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785563

RESUMO

This study was designed to assess whether churches in endemic dengue districts in Merida, Mexico provide suitable breeding habitats for mosquitoes and are potential sites for dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Churches were inspected for immature and adult mosquitoes once every week from November 2015 to October 2016. A total of 10,997 immatures of five species were collected. The most abundant species were Aedes aegypti (6,051) and Culex quinquefasciatus (3,018). The most common source of immature Ae. aegypti were buckets followed by disposable containers. Adult collections yielded 21,226 mosquitoes of nine species. The most common species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (15,215) and Ae. aegypti (3,902). Aedes aegypti were found all year long. Female Ae. aegypti (1,380) were sorted into pools (166) and assayed for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Two pools were positive for DENV (DENV-1 and 2). In conclusion, we demonstrated that some churches in Merida are infested with mosquitoes all year long and they potentially serve as sites for DENV transmission and should therefore be considered for inclusion in mosquito and arboviruses control and surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Ecossistema , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Culicidae/classificação , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , México , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Religião
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180106, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Haemagogus capricornii and Hg. janthinomys females are considered morphologically indistinguishable. We analyzed morphometric variability between Brazilian populations of these species using wing geometric morphometry. METHODS: Size and shape at intra- and interspecific levels were analyzed in 108 Hg. capricornii and Hg. janthinomys females. RESULTS: Geometric morphometry indicated size and shape variables can differentiate these species at interspecific level. However, at intraspecific level, results show relative differentiation. Two populations of Hg. capricornii had a smaller centroid size with no significant differences between them, whereas all Hg. janthinomys populations showed significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: Both species were correctly identified by geometric morphometry.


Assuntos
Culicidae/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Brasil , Culicidae/classificação , Feminino , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Genomics ; 111(4): 607-611, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581026

RESUMO

Mosquitoes as Sabethes chloropterus, Sabethes glaucodaemon, Sabethes belisarioi are species of medical and epidemiological importance for arboviruses transmission such as yellow fever and St. Louis encephalitis. Despite this, no information about these three species mitochondrial DNA has been found in literature. Our study presents a mitochondrial genome description, including identity, SNPs, mutation rate, and phylogeny analysis using COX1, COX2, NADH4, NADH5, CYOB genes. The Sa. chloropterus, Sa. glaucodaemon and Sa. belisaroi mitochondrial genome sizes 15.609 bp, 15.620 bp, 15.907 bp, respectively, with 37 functional genes, presenting about 4.982 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 13.291 identical sites between them, besides all genes with dN/dS < 1 ratio, and also a greater approximation between Sa. glaucodaemon and Sa. chloropterus than with Sa. belisarioi. Due to the importance of mitochondrial DNA for population structure studies, evolution, and others, we expect that this data can contribute to other studies related to these mosquitoes and their viruses.


Assuntos
Culicidae/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Animais , Culicidae/classificação , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
16.
Parasitology ; 146(4): 462-471, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269696

RESUMO

Australian mosquito species significantly impact human health through nuisance biting and the transmission of endemic and exotic pathogens. Surveillance programmes designed to provide an early warning of mosquito-borne disease risk require reliable identification of mosquitoes. This study aimed to investigate the viability of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a rapid and inexpensive approach to the identification of Australian mosquitoes and was validated using a three-step taxonomic approach. A total of 300 mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from south-eastern New South Wales and morphologically identified. The legs from the mosquitoes were removed and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Fifty-eight mosquitoes were sequenced at the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene region and genetic relationships were analysed. We create the first MALDI-TOF MS spectra database of Australian mosquito species including 19 species. We clearly demonstrate the accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of Australian mosquitoes. It is especially useful for assessing gaps in the effectiveness of DNA barcoding by differentiating closely related taxa. Indeed, cox1 DNA barcoding was not able to differentiate members of the Culex pipiens group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens molestus, but these specimens were correctly identified using MALDI-TOF MS.


Assuntos
Culicidae/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Austrália , Culicidae/classificação
17.
Trends Parasitol ; 35(1): 32-51, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391118

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are widely despised for their exasperating buzzing and irritating bites, and more poignantly because, during blood-feeding, females may transmit pathogens that cause devastating diseases. However, the ability to transmit such viruses, filarial worms, or malaria parasites varies greatly amongst the ∼3500 recognised mosquito species. Applying omics technologies to sample this diversity and explore the biology underlying these variations is bringing increasingly greater resolution that enhances our understanding of mosquito evolution. Here we review the current status of mosquito omics, or 'mozomics', resources and recent advances in their applications to characterise mosquito biology and evolution, with a focus on the intersection of evolutionary and functional genomics to understand the putative links between gene and genome dynamism and mosquito diversity.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Inseto , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
18.
Acta Trop ; 191: 77-86, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593818

RESUMO

We found a species of LutziaTheobald (1903) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai Province and other provinces in northern Thailand which bears morphological and DNA sequence differences from the three species of Lutzia, subgenus Metalutzia Tanaka, previously recorded from Thailand, namely Lt. fuscana (Wiedemann), Lt. halifaxii (Theobald) and Lt. vorax Edwards. The adults of the Chiang Mai form (CM form) have abdominal banding patterns similar to those of Lt. vorax from Japan (which includes the type locality of this species), but differ in having the mediocubital crossvein usually positioned before rather than beyond the radiomedial crossvein. The thoracic and abdominal integument of Lt. vorax larvae is covered with relatively short pointed spicules whereas it is covered by denser, longer and more acutely pointed spicules in the CM form. Some differences are also found in the development of thoracic seta 1-M, and abdominal setae 8-II and 8-III. The pupa of the CM form clearly differs from the pupa of Lt. vorax in having setae 1 and 5 of abdominal segments V and VI branched rather than single. The characters of the wing, larva and pupa of the CM form are similar to those of Lt. fuscana and Lt. halifaxii. However, whereas the phallosome of males of the CM form is similar to males of Lt. vorax and Lt. halifaxii, it is distinct from males of Lt. fuscana. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II sequences revealed that the CM form falls outside a clade comprised of specimens of Lt. vorax from Japan, Korea, Thailand and Bhutan (Kimura 2-parameter, K2P, genetic distances 3.9-5.6, and 5.1-6.6, respectively). However, the two gene sequences of the CM form are not clearly distinct from clades comprised of sequences from specimens of Lt. fuscana and Lt. halifaxii (K2P 0.2-2.4%). However, based on the combination of morphological and molecular data, the current study provides evidence that the CM form is a previously unrecognized species of the genus Lutzia.


Assuntos
Culicidae/anatomia & histologia , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Animais , Masculino , Tailândia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 672, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global strategy for elimination of lymphatic filariasis is by annual mass drug administration (MDA). Effective implementation of this strategy in endemic areas reduces Wuchereria bancrofti in the blood of infected individuals to very low levels. This minimises the rate at which vectors successfully pick microfilariae from infected blood, hence requiring large mosquito numbers to detect infections. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using trained community vector collectors (CVCs) to sample large mosquito numbers with minimal supervision at low cost for potential scale-up of this strategy. METHODS: CVCs and supervisors were trained in mosquito sampling methods, i.e. human landing collections, pyrethrum spray collections and window exit traps. Mosquito sampling was done over a 13-month period. Validation was conducted by a research team as quality control for mosquitoes sampled by CVCs. Data were analyzed for number of mosquitoes collected and cost incurred by the research team and CVCs during the validation phase of the study. RESULTS: A total of 31,064 and 8720 mosquitoes were sampled by CVCs and the research team, respectively. We found a significant difference (F(1,13) = 27.1606, P = 0.0001) in the total number of mosquitoes collected from southern and northern communities. Validation revealed similar numbers of mosquitoes sampled by CVCs and the research team, both in the wet (F(1,4) = 1.875, P = 0.309) and dry (F(1,4) = 2.276, P = 0.258) seasons in the southern communities, but was significantly different for both wet (F(1,4) = 0.022, P = 0.005) and dry (F(1,4 ) = 0.079, P = 0.033) seasons in the north. The cost of sampling mosquitoes per season was considerably lower by CVCs compared to the research team (15.170 vs 53.739 USD). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the feasibility of using CVCs to sample large numbers of mosquitoes with minimal supervision from a research team at considerably lower cost than a research team for lymphatic filariasis xenomonitoring. However, evaluation of the selection and motivation of CVCs, acceptability of CVCs strategy and its epidemiological relevance for lymphatic filariasis xenomonitoring programmes need to be assessed in greater detail.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/parasitologia , Erradicação de Doenças/economia , Filariose Linfática/economia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Características de Residência , Estações do Ano , Wuchereria bancrofti/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 642, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance system was set up at Barkedji, Senegal after the first outbreak of Rift valley fever in West Africa in 1988. This system was recently updated using more sampling methods and collecting in greater number of ponds and villages sites. METHODS: For the current study, mosquitoes were sampled biweekly between July and December 2012 and 2013 using CDC+CO2 light traps set at ground and canopy level, mosquito nets baited with goat, sheep, human or chicken, light traps baited with goat, sheep and chicken; bird-baited traps using pigeons or chickens placed either at the ground or canopy level. Collected mosquitoes were identified, pooled and screened for arboviruses. RESULTS: A total of 42,969 mosquitoes in 4,429 pools were processed for virus isolation. Ten virus species were identified among 103 virus isolates. West Nile virus (WNV; 31 isolates), Barkedji virus (BARV; 18), Sindbis virus (SINV; 13), Usutu virus (USUV; 12), Acado virus (ACAV; 8), Ndumu virus (NDUV; 9), Sanar virus (SANV; 7), Bagaza virus (BAGV; 3), Rift valley fever virus (RVFV; 1), and Yaounde virus (YAOV; 1) were isolated from 9 ponds (91 strains) and 7 villages (12 strains). Only 3 virus species (WNV, NDU and SINV) were isolated from villages. The largest numbers of isolates were collected in October (29.1% of total isolates) and November (50.5%). Viruses were isolated from 14 mosquito species including Cx. neavei (69.9% of the strains), Cx. antennatus (9.7%), and Ma. uniformis (4.8%). NDUV, ACAV, and SINV are herein reported for the first time in the Barkedji area. Isolation of ACAV and SANV from a pool of male Ma. uniformis and USUV and BARV from a pool of male Cx. neavei, are reported for the first time to our knowledge. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the Barkedji area is characterized by a high diversity of viruses of medical, veterinary and unknown importance. Arboviruses were first detected in July at the beginning of the rainy season and peaked in abundance in October and November. The Barkedji area, an enzootic focus of several potentially emerging arboviruses, should be surveilled annually to be prepared to deal with future disease emergence events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae/virologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Columbidae/virologia , Culicidae/classificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Cabras/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Senegal/epidemiologia , Ovinos/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
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