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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111774, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931386

RESUMO

Zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF) is an emerging class of metal organic frameworks exhibiting unique features such as crystalline nature with tunable pore size, large surface area and biocompatible nature. Exceptional thermal and chemical stabilities of ZIF-L make it a suitable candidate for biomedical applications. The present study has focused on the single step fabrication of catechin encapsulated ZIF-L and evaluation of its antibiofilm efficiency, larvicidal activity and dye degradation ability. The as- prepared CA@ZIF-L nanocomposite was characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results revealed that the CA@ZIF-L showed significant toxicity against mosquito larvae in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 63.43±1.25 µg/mL. CA@ZIF-L showed dose dependent reduction of biofilm formation in both ATCC and clinical MRSA strains. In addition, CA@ZIF-L exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity with around 92% degradation of methylene blue under direct sunlight. Overall, the present work highlights the possibility of employing the multifunctional CA@ZIF-L nanocomposite as a suitable material for biomedical and photocatalytic applications.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Nanocompostos/toxicidade , Zeolitas/química , Animais , Catálise , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imidazóis/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Azul de Metileno/química , Nanocompostos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 462, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing adult mosquito populations is an important component of disease surveillance programs and ecosystem health assessments. Inference from adult trapping datasets involves comparing populations across space and time, but comparisons based on different trapping methods may be biased if traps have different efficiencies or sample different subsets of the mosquito community. METHODS: We compared four widely-used trapping methods for adult mosquito data collection in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa: Centers for Disease Control miniature light trap (CDC), Biogents Sentinel trap (BG), Biogents gravid Aedes trap (GAT) and a net trap. We quantified how trap choice and sampling effort influence inferences on the regional distribution of mosquito abundance, richness and community composition. RESULTS: The CDC and net traps together collected 96% (47% and 49% individually) of the 955 female mosquitoes sampled and 100% (85% and 78% individually) of the 40 species or species complexes identified. The CDC and net trap also identified similar regional patterns of community composition. However, inference on the regional patterns of abundance differed between these traps because mosquito abundance in the net trap was influenced by variation in weather conditions. The BG and GAT traps collected significantly fewer mosquitoes, limiting regional comparisons of abundance and community composition. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents the first systematic assessment of trapping methods in natural savanna ecosystems in southern Africa. We recommend the CDC trap or the net trap for future monitoring and surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Entomologia/métodos , Densidade Demográfica , Animais , África do Sul , Análise Espacial
3.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 96-104, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478619

RESUMO

Big cities have thrived on all continents, so have domestic and industrial wastes not to mention the often irrational use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) detrimental to plants and animals. One hundred and eighty million tons of fertilizers and 2.4 million tons of pesticides are spread every year worldwide. Such pollutions, whether urban or rural, have a significant impact on the biology of mosquitoes. Today some urban spaces have properly become a land of plenty for mosquitoes. The combined use of fertilizer and pesticides in the country, quite paradoxically also favor their proliferation. Ironically the very reasons that account for the multitudes of mosquitoes are the exact reasons responsible for the depletion of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 105-113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478623

RESUMO

Mosquitoes occupy a major health problem, as a potential vector for the transmission of many pathogens, the most important of which in Morocco are Plasmodium parasites and West Nile fever virus. Acquiring knowledge about the biotypology of these mosquitoes is an essential step in any control strategy. Thus, the objective of this study is to draw up an inventory of the culicidian fauna in the Fez region (North-central part of Morocco) and to determine the physicochemical parameters influencing the production of mosquito larvae of aquatic habitats in this area. Mosquito larvae of the extant biotopes were sampled every two months between November 2015 and December 2016, by means of the "dipping" method. The physicochemical parameters of the various larval biotopes were collected six times during the year of follow-up. Mosquito species were identified using morphological criteria. The results were analyzed using ecological indices and the generalized linear model (Poisson model) on R software. The identification of the 1,122 mosquito larvae collected from the various studied breeding areas revealed the presence of 11 species belonging to two subfamilies (Culicinae and Anophelinae) and five genera (Anopheles, Culex, Culiseta, Aedes, and Uranotaenia). Anopheles were observed in small numbers in permanent, stagnant, and shallow habitats. The larvae of An. maculipennis s. l. (major vector of malaria in Morocco) were collected. Culex larvae, especially Cx. pipiens (the main vector of WNV in Morocco), were collected in the majority of the larval habitats and on the different types of environments. Two other species of Culex, which plays a significant role in the transmission of WNV, were also collected, particularly, Cx. perexiguus and Cx. theileri. The results found, via this first study of its kind at the regional level, also made it possible to update the list of Culicidae species reported in the Fez region. Four new species have been recorded: Aedes flavescens, Uranotaenia unguiculata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culex perexiguus. The results of this study will contribute to the provision of information for entomological surveillance and to better plan and guide vector control activities at local and national levels.


Assuntos
Culicidae/citologia , Ecossistema , Larva/citologia , Microbiologia da Água , Água/análise , Água/parasitologia , Animais , Contagem de Células , Fenômenos Químicos , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Urbanização , Poluição da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 35(1): 67-70, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442185

RESUMO

Roof gutters on houses that have become inundated with leaf litter and cannot drain properly are an often-overlooked man-made container habitat that is suitable for mosquito larval development. In order to reduce the amount of leaf litter debris in gutters, many homeowners install debris screens, commonly referred to as "gutter guards," on their roof gutters, but no study has examined the effect of gutter guards on mosquito production. The objective of this research was to determine the extent to which different types of gutter guards affect mosquito colonization and abundance of juvenile mosquitoes in gutter habitats. Three experimental gutters, each with 1 of 3 treatments (control with no gutter guard, a metal lock-in mesh screen gutter guard, or a foam filter gutter insert), were placed at 5 field locations to monitor mosquito colonization and production over 8 wk. Pupae were collected daily, and eclosed adults were identified to species. Mosquitoes colonized and larvae developed in all gutters regardless of the presence of a guard, although those with the foam filter guards were least likely to be colonized (P < 0.001). Once colonized, the control gutters without a gutter guard had the lowest mosquito abundance (P < 0.001), and the metal lock-in gutters had the highest abundance (P < 0.001). The results suggest that if standing water exists in a gutter, gutter guards are not an effective tool for mosquito control.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Ecossistema , Habitação , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Equipamentos e Provisões , Illinois , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 675: 260-272, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030133

RESUMO

Early warning systems for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) prediction are an ecological application where data from the interface of several environmental components can be used to predict future VBD transmission. In general, models for early warning systems only consider average environmental conditions ignoring variation in weather variables, despite the prediction from Schmalhausen's law about the importance of environmental variability for biological systems. We present results from a long-term mosquito surveillance program from Harris County, Texas, USA, where we use time series analysis techniques to study the abundance and West Nile virus (WNV) infection patterns in the local primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. We found that, as predicted by Schmalhausen's law, mosquito abundance was associated with the standard deviation and kurtosis of environmental variables. By contrast, WNV infection rates were associated with 8-month lagged temperature, suggesting environmental conditions during overwintering might be key for WNV amplification during summer outbreaks. Finally, model validation showed that seasonal autoregressive models successfully predicted mosquito WNV infection rates up to 2 months ahead, but did rather poorly at predicting mosquito abundance, a result that might reflect impacts of vector control for mosquito population reduction, geographic scale, and other artifacts generated by operational constraints of mosquito surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Culicidae/virologia , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Texas/epidemiologia
8.
J Insect Sci ; 19(2)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843583

RESUMO

The complex biologies of pestiferous mosquito species complicate the development of a single, across the board effective control measure. The use of traditional biological control through predators, parasitoids, and microbes, though part of a multimodal, integrated pest management approach, is scant in current standard mosquito control operations. At this time, traditional, whole organism mosquito biocontrol agents are not commercially available, and if their integration into a release program is desired, they must be developed in-house. The aim of our program was to incorporate releasing natural enemies to disrupt and suppress the target pest mosquito's population by matching the agent with the target's biology, before or concurrent to pesticide use. A current focus is suppressing peridomestic, container breeders of high medical significance, such as Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), (Diptera, Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera, Culicidae), through larval reduction with augmentative releases of laboratory-reared, native mosquito assassins Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Dyar & Knab). When raised in communal settings, Tx. rutilus' aggressive feeding behavior and cannibalistic tendencies require an extreme loss tolerance in adult production rates. In addition, offering prey mosquitoes exclusively as Tx. rutilus' juvenile food extends larval development by multiple days. While this may be desirous in the wild, it proves inefficient during production. Here, we provide an individual rearing method as well as an alternative diet protocol, which maximizes the adult yield while achieving quick development.


Assuntos
Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Entomologia/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores
9.
Theor Popul Biol ; 126: 51-58, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779889

RESUMO

Managing infectious diseases is a world public health issue, plagued by uncertainties. In this paper, we analyze the problem of viable control of a dengue outbreak under uncertainty. For this purpose, we develop a controlled Ross-Macdonald model with mosquito vector control by fumigation, and with uncertainties affecting the dynamics; both controls and uncertainties are supposed to change only once a day, then remain stationary during the day. The robust viability kernel is the set of all initial states such that there exists at least a strategy of insecticide spraying which guarantees that the number of infected individuals remains below a threshold, for all times, and whatever the sequences of uncertainties. Having chosen three nested subsets of uncertainties - a deterministic one (without uncertainty), a medium one and a large one - we can measure the incidence of the uncertainties on the size of the kernel, in particular on its reduction with respect to the deterministic case. The numerical results show that the viability kernel without uncertainties is highly sensitive to the variability of parameters - here the biting rate, the probability of infection to mosquitoes and humans, and the proportion of female mosquitoes per person. So, a robust viability analysis is a possible tool to reveal the importance of uncertainties regarding epidemics control.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Viabilidade Microbiana , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Processos Estocásticos
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(4): 923-934, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent the risk of mosquito-borne disease outbreaks, larval source management remains the most sustainable and effective mosquito control strategy. The present study aimed to determine the influence of environmental characteristics of mosquito larval habitats in an urban area of Marseille, France. Fourteen sites containing water were monitored every 2 weeks from May to October 2015 for mosquito species occurrence and larval density, and environmental parameters were measured at each visit. Rapid and accurate species identification of mosquito larvae was performed using an innovative MALDI-TOF MS method. RESULTS: A total of 6753 larvae (L1-L4) and pupae were collected, of which 35.8% (n = 2418) were speciated using MALDI-TOF MS. Correct identifications were obtained for 2259 specimens (93.4%). A total of five mosquito species were found, including Aedes (Ae.) albopictus, Culex (Cx.) p. pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. impudicus, and Culiseta (Cs.) longiareolata. Larvae of the Culex genus were predominant in both density and distribution. Small, shaded pools of shallow water favored Ae. albopictus colonization, whereas the wide distribution of Cx. p. pipiens demonstrated that this species was weakly influenced by environmental changes. CONCLUSIONS: The present work confirms that MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for mosquito speciation and suggests that understanding the environmental factors associated with the occurrence and density of mosquito species at the larval stage in Marseille may aid in the future implementation of mosquito control programs. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Culicidae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Cidades , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , França , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 197: 76-84, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414843

RESUMO

The prevalence of mosquito vector borne diseases and the resistance of mosquitoes to conventional pesticides have been of important public concern to the mosquito endemic countries. Present study was conducted to identify the native bio-larvicidal potential of the entomopathogenic nematodes; Steinernema siamkayai (KPR-4) Heterohabditis indica (KPR-8), Steinernema glaseri and Steinernema abbasi. The isolated nematodes were subsequently cultured and evaluated their larvicidal potential against the larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the tested four different nematode species, the S. abassi exerted the highest mortality against A. aegypti (97.33%), the H. indica (KPR-8) against A. stephensi (97.33%) and the S. siamkayai (KPR-4) against C. quinquefasciatus (98.67%). The maximal mosquito-larvicidal property of EPNs was found with the LC50 and LC90 values (IJs/larvae): S. abbasi = 12.47 & 54.35 on A. aegypti; H. indica KPR-8 = 19.88 & 66.81 on A. stephensi and S. siamkayai KPR-4 = 16.69 & 58.97 on C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The presently generated data on the molecular and larvicidal characteristics of the entomopathogenic nematodes form an important baseline data that upon further research would lead to the development of eco-friendly mosquito-control agent.


Assuntos
Culicidae/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/parasitologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anopheles/parasitologia , Sequência de Bases , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/parasitologia , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA Ribossômico/química , Índia , Larva , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Filogenia , Rabditídios/classificação , Rabditídios/genética , Rabditídios/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Strongyloidea/classificação , Strongyloidea/genética , Strongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloidea/fisiologia
12.
J Med Entomol ; 56(3): 716-724, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561702

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the variables associated with the composition of mosquito species in rain pools of 'Bosque de Ezeiza', a large peri-urban forested park of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. A total of 12 rain pools were sampled biweekly over a 1-yr period in search of mosquito immature stages. Mosquito immature stages were present in all the occasions in which water bodies were recorded. A total of 14 species of five genera were identified, with the highest abundances observed in autumn and spring. The total abundance varied among dates according to previous temperature, precipitation, and flooding conditions. Only one species, Psorophora cyanescens (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae), was associated with extreme conditions (high temperature and prolonged period of drought). Besides drought periods, two main variables were related to species composition: temperature, which accounted for seasonal changes in species composition, and flooding history, which accounted for the predominance of floodwater mosquito species on recently flooded dates and for that of stagnant water species on dates with a longer permanence of water. Regarding the pools, the most important variables accounting for species composition were the insolation level and the variability in the flooded area, with floodwater mosquitoes associated with pools with high variability in the flooded area. Interestingly, Culex (Mel.) pilosus (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) showed temporal and spatial dynamics more similar to floodwater species than to stagnant water species in the rain pools studied.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Animais , Argentina , Cidades , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Parques Recreativos , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
13.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 28: 90-97, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551773

RESUMO

Mosquito specific viruses such as densonucleosis viruses ('densoviruses') have long been suggested as alternative mosquito control agents in the face of increasing insecticide resistance. Densoviruses are very species-specific and have been found to infect many important mosquito species. While some strains are highly pathogenic, other strains are more benign. Densoviruses have been proposed as a way to reduce mosquito populations through pathogenic interactions, but genetic strategies such as viral paratrangenesis offer new approaches. As small single-stranded DNA viruses, densoviruses can be easily genetically modified for the expression of genes or non-coding RNAs. A growing literature and variety of techniques have shown the potential for the use of densoviruses in the control of mosquitoes or mosquito-borne pathogens as well as the usefulness of densoviruses as molecular tools for understanding mosquito biology.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Densovirus/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/virologia
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(12): 709, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413967

RESUMO

Short-term impacts of aerial application of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on Culicidae and Chironomidae were investigated over several years in temporary waters of the Dyje and Morava floodplains in Eastern Austria. The sampling followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) approach with sampling dates immediately before and shortly after the application and was repeated for 3 years. To test for effects of the Bti treatment on the two Diptera families, linear mixed-effects models were used. Data analysis included the factors Before-After and Control-Impact as fixed effects, while general temporal and spatial variables were random effects. One hundred sixteen taxa of chironomids were identified. Abundance varied between 2 and 1125 larvae per m2, while culicid densities reached values of several 100 ind. per liter. Total culicid abundance significantly decreased after the Bti treatment, whereas no significant effects were found on the abundance of total chironomids and dominant chironomid subfamilies, tribes, and genera, on relative proportions of chironomid feeding guilds, diversity, and species composition. Further studies from this area are needed to extend the investigation over a period of several weeks in order to reveal possible delayed effects of the larvicide application.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Chironomidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Áustria , Chironomidae/microbiologia , Culicidae/microbiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16179, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385841

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases are responsible for more than one million deaths per year. Alternative methods of mosquito control to insecticides such as genetic control techniques are thus urgently needed. In genetic techniques involving the release of sterile insects, it is critical to release insects of high quality. Sterile males must be able to disperse, survive and compete with wild males in order to inseminate wild females. There is currently no standardized, fast-processing method to assess mosquito male quality. Since male competitiveness is linked to their ability to fly, we developed a flight test device that aimed to measure the quality of sterile male mosquitoes via their capacity to escape a series of flight tubes within two hours and compared it to two other reference methods (survival rate and mating propensity). This comparison was achieved in three different stress treatment settings usually encountered when applying the sterile insect technique, i.e. irradiation, chilling and compaction. In all treatments, survival and insemination rates could be predicted by the results of a flight test, with over 80% of the inertia predicted. This novel tool could become a standardised quality control method to evaluate cumulative stress throughout the processes related to genetic control of mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Controle de Mosquitos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Culicidae/genética , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Insetos/genética , Insetos/fisiologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14902, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297725

RESUMO

Two members of 6-cysteine (6-cys) protein family, P48/45 and P230, are important for gamete fertility in rodent and human malaria parasites and are leading transmission blocking vaccine antigens. Rodent and human parasites encode a paralog of P230, called P230p. While P230 is expressed in male and female parasites, P230p is expressed only in male gametocytes and gametes. In rodent malaria parasites this protein is dispensable throughout the complete life-cycle; however, its function in P. falciparum is unknown. Using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology we disrupted the gene encoding Pfp230p resulting in P. falciparum mutants (PfΔp230p) lacking P230p expression. The PfΔp230p mutants produced normal numbers of male and female gametocytes, which retained expression of P48/45 and P230. Upon activation male PfΔp230p gametocytes undergo exflagellation and form male gametes. However, male gametes are unable to attach to red blood cells resulting in the absence of characteristic exflagellation centres in vitro. In the absence of P230p, zygote formation as well as oocyst and sporozoite development were strongly reduced (>98%) in mosquitoes. These observations demonstrate that P230p, like P230 and P48/45, has a vital role in P. falciparum male fertility and zygote formation and warrants further investigation as a potential transmission blocking vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Culicidae/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Flagelos/metabolismo , Genótipo , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Parasitos/genética
17.
US Army Med Dep J ; (1-18): 8-13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165716

RESUMO

Mosquito surveillance data can be used to develop bionomic profiles of vector species to inform abatement plans. Thus, surveillance was conducted in the months following Allied occupation of Japan at the conclusion of World War II. Mosquito surveillance in Nagasaki, Japan, began one month after the nuclear bomb destroyed much of the city. The resulting specimens housed within the US National mosquito collection are documented here for the first time. Specimen labels were digitized and specimens were photographed to record specimen condition as part of the process for making them readily available to researchers.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Culicidae/fisiologia , Animais , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Japão , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Militares , II Guerra Mundial
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(29): E6920-E6926, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967151

RESUMO

Isoxazolines are oral insecticidal drugs currently licensed for ectoparasite control in companion animals. Here we propose their use in humans for the reduction of vector-borne disease incidence. Fluralaner and afoxolaner rapidly killed Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex mosquitoes and Phlebotomus sand flies after feeding on a drug-supplemented blood meal, with IC50 values ranging from 33 to 575 nM, and were fully active against strains with preexisting resistance to common insecticides. Based on allometric scaling of preclinical pharmacokinetics data, we predict that a single human median dose of 260 mg (IQR, 177-407 mg) for afoxolaner, or 410 mg (IQR, 278-648 mg) for fluralaner, could provide an insecticidal effect lasting 50-90 days against mosquitoes and Phlebotomus sand flies. Computational modeling showed that seasonal mass drug administration of such a single dose to a fraction of a regional population would dramatically reduce clinical cases of Zika and malaria in endemic settings. Isoxazolines therefore represent a promising new component of drug-based vector control.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Psychodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Humanos
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 74(12): 2699-2706, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29797795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito mortality has been documented in numerous studies of spatial repellents but the concentration-dependent toxicity of spatial repellent vapors has not been documented. To address this issue, prallethrin, flumethrin, metofluthrin, transfluthrin, and meperfluthrin were selected for comparative study against Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ae. aegypti (L.), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Mosquito were exposed to vapors of each chemical for 2, 4, and 24 h with mortality recorded at each time point. A second experiment involved exposing mosquitoes to vapors for 2 h, then transferring them to untreated holding containers and held for 24 h. For these mosquitoes, readings were only taken after 24 h to allow for metabolic detoxification and recovery. RESULTS: LC50 and LC90 data indicated that transfluthrin and meperfluthrin had the greatest toxicity across all species, followed by metofluthrin, prallethrin, and flumethrin. CONCLUSION: Our findings, through the direct comparison of these compounds, suggest that transfluthrin, meperfluthrin, and metofluthrin be considered for further development. The vapor toxicity for the aforementioned compounds significantly exceeds prallethrin, which is currently market available as an adulticidal active ingredient in public health pest control. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Inseticidas/química , Piretrinas/química , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Volatilização
20.
Acta Trop ; 182: 251-256, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are responsible for spreading many diseases and their populations are susceptible to environmental changes. The ecosystems in the Three Gorges Region were probably altered because of changes to the environment during the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world's largest hydroelectric dam by generating capacity. METHODS: We selected three sites at which to monitor the mosquitoes from 1997 to 2009. We captured adult mosquitoes with battery-powered aspirators fortnightly between May and September of each year in dwellings and sheds. We identified the mosquito species, and examined changes in the species density during the TGD construction. We monitored changes in the species and density of mosquitoes in this area for 13 years during the TGD construction and collected information that could be used to support the control and prevention of mosquito-borne infections. RESULTS: We found that the mosquito species composition around the residential areas remained the same, and the density changed gradually during the TGD construction. The changes in the populations tended to be consistent over the years, and the densities were highest in July, and were between 3 and 5 times greater in the sheds than in the dwellings. CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito species and populations remained stable during the construction of the TGD. The mosquito density may have increased as the reservoir filled, and may have decreased during the clean-up work. Clean-up work may be an effective way to control mosquitoes and prevent mosquito-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rios , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dinâmica Populacional
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