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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250382, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930066

RESUMO

Voluntary contributions by citizen scientists can gather large datasets covering wide geographical areas, and are increasingly utilized by researchers for multiple applications, including arthropod vector surveillance. Online platforms such as iNaturalist accumulate crowdsourced biological observations from around the world and these data could also be useful for monitoring vectors. The aim of this study was to explore the availability of observations of important vector taxa on the iNaturalist platform and examine the utility of these data to complement existing vector surveillance activities. Of ten vector taxa investigated, records were most numerous for mosquitoes (Culicidae; 23,018 records, 222 species) and ticks (Ixodida; 16,214 records, 87 species), with most data from 2019-2020. Case studies were performed to assess whether images associated with records were of sufficient quality to identify species and compare iNaturalist observations of vector species to the known situation at the state, national and regional level based on existing published data. Firstly, tick data collected at the national (United Kingdom) or state (Minnesota, USA) level were sufficient to determine seasonal occurrence and distribution patterns of important tick species, and were able to corroborate and complement known trends in tick distribution. Importantly, tick species with expanding distributions (Haemaphysalis punctata in the UK, and Amblyomma americanum in Minnesota) were also detected. Secondly, using iNaturalist data to monitor expanding tick species in Europe (Hyalomma spp.) and the USA (Haemaphysalis longicornis), and invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe, showed potential for tracking these species within their known range as well as identifying possible areas of expansion. Despite known limitations associated with crowdsourced data, this study shows that iNaturalist can be a valuable source of information on vector distribution and seasonality that could be used to supplement existing vector surveillance data, especially at a time when many surveillance programs may have been interrupted by COVID-19 restrictions.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes/classificação , Ciência do Cidadão , Crowdsourcing , Culicidae/classificação , Carrapatos/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes/fisiologia , Ciência do Cidadão/métodos , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Culicidae/fisiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Densidade Demográfica , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1233, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623008

RESUMO

Climate drives population dynamics through multiple mechanisms, which can lead to seemingly context-dependent effects of climate on natural populations. For climate-sensitive diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, climate appears to have opposing effects in different contexts. Here we show that a model, parameterized with laboratory measured climate-driven mosquito physiology, captures three key epidemic characteristics across ecologically and culturally distinct settings in Ecuador and Kenya: the number, timing, and duration of outbreaks. The model generates a range of disease dynamics consistent with observed Aedes aegypti abundances and laboratory-confirmed arboviral incidence with variable accuracy (28-85% for vectors, 44-88% for incidence). The model predicted vector dynamics better in sites with a smaller proportion of young children in the population, lower mean temperature, and homes with piped water and made of cement. Models with limited calibration that robustly capture climate-virus relationships can help guide intervention efforts and climate change disease projections.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Geografia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Culicidae/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Equador/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 32848-32856, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372129

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are a widely diverse group of organisms, comprising ∼3,500 species that live in an enormous range of habitats. Some species are vectors of diseases that afflict hundreds of millions of people each year. Although understanding of mosquito olfaction has progressed dramatically in recent years, mosquito taste remains greatly understudied. Since taste is essential to feeding, egg laying, and mating decisions in insects, improved understanding of taste in mosquitoes could provide new mechanistic insight into many aspects of their behavior. We provide a guide to current knowledge in the field, and we suggest a wealth of opportunities for research that are now enabled by recent scientific and technological advances. We also propose means by which taste might be exploited in new strategies for mosquito control, which may be urgently needed as the geographical ranges of vector species increase with climate change.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Paladar , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Culicidae/metabolismo , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0235726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006968

RESUMO

Anthropogenic environments provide favorable conditions for some species, which is especially true of mosquitoes that present eclecticism at the moment of choice for the site of oviposition. In the present study, the diversity of mosquitoes was assessed by providing plastic containers, bamboo internodes, and tires in a forest, the forest edge, and peridomicile environments in a rural settlement area. Eighteen sampling points were chosen, delimited by a buffer of 200 m, placed in three environments: forest, forest edge, and peridomicile. In each environment, larvitraps were installed, separated by a minimum distance of 7 m and 1 m from the ground. A total of 10,131 immature mosquitoes of 20 species were collected. The most abundant species was Culex urichii (29.5%), followed by Trichoprosopon digitatum (27.1%), and Cx. (Melanoconion) spp. (10.4%). There was a difference in the composition of immature mosquito populations between larvitraps (p < 0.0005), and the plastic container hosted a greater diversity of species, whereas tires presented a greater abundance of individuals. The forest, forest edge, and peridomicile environments were also different with regard to diversity of immature mosquito populations (p < 0.0010). The forest edge was the environment with the greatest diversity of species, followed by the peridomicile and forest environments. In the forest and peridomicile, plastic container larvitraps had the greatest diversity, whereas the forest edge tire presented the largest number of individuals. Further, tire larvitraps collected the largest number of individuals in all environments. Ten species associated with the bamboo internode and tire were identified. The preference of species for artificial larvitraps, such as the plastic container and tire, even in wild environments was noted. These artificial objects may represent a risk factor for the population living in this region, as all vector species found in the study were present in plastic containers and tires.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Florestas
5.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(11): 877-880, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036938

RESUMO

Adequate sexual competitiveness of sterile males is a prerequisite for genetic control methods, including the sterile insect technique. During the past decade several semi-field and open-field trials demonstrated that irradiated male mosquitoes can be competitive.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Infertilidade Masculina , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Culicidae/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Radiação Ionizante
6.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(11): 888-897, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952061

RESUMO

Sleep is a phenomenon conserved across the animal kingdom, where studies on Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that sleep phenotypes and molecular underpinnings are similar to those in mammals. However, little is known about sleep in blood-feeding arthropods, which have a critical role in public health as disease vectors. Specifically, sleep studies in mosquitoes are lacking despite considerable focus on how circadian processes, which have a central role in regulating sleep/wake cycles, impact activity, feeding, and immunity. Here, we review observations which suggest that sleep-like states likely occur in mosquitoes and discuss the potential role of sleep in relation to mosquito biology and their ability to function as disease vectors.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Culicidae/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Animais , Culicidae/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Sono/genética
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008450, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) disease outbreaks have been occurring in South America since 2015, and has spread to North America. Because birth defects and cases of Guillain Barré have been associated with infection with ZIKV, this has drawn global attention. ZIKV is generally considered an Aedes-transmitted pathogen. The transmission of ZIKV through blood by Aedes mosquito bites has been recognized as the major transmission route. However, it is not clear whether there are other transmission routes that can cause viral infection in mosquitos. The aim of the present study is to describe the susceptibility of Armigeres subalbatus, which often develop in human waste lagoons, to ZIKV, through oral infection in adult mosquitoes and urine infection in larvae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five-day-old female Ar. subalbatus ingested infectious blood meals containing ZIKV. After 4, 7, and 10 days of ingesting infectious blood meals, ZIKV could be detected in the midguts, salivary glands, ovaries, and collected saliva of mosquitoes. The ZIKV infection rate (IR) on day 10 reached 40% in salivary glands and 13% in saliva, indicating that these mosquitoes were able to transmit ZIKV. In addition, ZIKV infection was also discovered in mosquito ovaries, suggesting the possibility of vertical transmission of virus. Moreover, Ar. subalbatus transmitted ZIKV to infant mice bitten by infectious mosquitoes. In a second experiment, 1st-instar larvae of Ar. subalbatus were reared in water containing ZIKV and human urine. After pupation, pupae were placed in clean water and transferred to a mosquito cage for emergence. Although ZIKV RNA was detected in all of the larvae tested, ZIKV was not detected in the saliva of any adult Ar. subalbatus. Considering that there are more uncontrollable factors in nature than in the laboratory environment, the possibility that the virus is transmitted to adult mosquitoes via larvae is very small period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adult Ar. subalbatus could be infected with ZIKV and transmit ZIKV through mosquito bites. Therefore, in many rural areas in China and in undeveloped areas of other Asian countries, the management of human waste lagoons in the prevention and control of Zika disease should be considered. Corresponding adjustments and modifications should also be made in prevention and control strategies against ZIKV.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culicidae/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/virologia , Camundongos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Saliva/virologia , Zika virus/genética , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/urina , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008362, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559197

RESUMO

Arboviruses are among the most important emerging pathogens due to their increasing public health impact. In Kenya, continued population growth and associated urbanization are conducive to vector spread in both urban and rural environments, yet mechanisms of viral amplification in vector populations is often overlooked when assessing risks for outbreaks. Thus, the characterization of local arbovirus circulation in mosquito populations is imperative to better inform risk assessments and vector control practices. Aedes species mosquitoes were captured at varying stages of their life cycle during different seasons between January 2014 and May 2016 at four distinct sites in Kenya, and tested for chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses by RT-PCR. CHIKV was detected in 45 (5.9%) and DENV in 3 (0.4%) mosquito pools. No ZIKV was detected. Significant regional variation in prevalence was observed, with greater frequency of CHIKV on the coast. DENV was detected exclusively on the coast. Both viruses were detected in immature mosquitoes of both sexes, providing evidence of transovarial transmission of these arboviruses in local mosquitoes. This phenomenon may be driving underlying viral maintenance that may largely contribute to periodic re-emergence among humans in Kenya.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/transmissão , Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Arbovírus , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Culicidae/fisiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008433, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574163

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are of major importance to human and animal health due to their ability to transmit various pathogens. In Europe the role of mosquitoes in public health has increased with the introduction of alien Aedes mosquitoes such as the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus; the Asian bush mosquito, Ae. japonicus; and Ae. koreicus. In Austria, Ae. japonicus has established populations in various regions of the country. Aedes albopictus is not known to overwinter in Austria, although isolated findings of eggs and adult female mosquitoes have been previously reported, especially in Tyrol. Aedes koreicus had not so far been found in Austria. Within the framework of an alien mosquito surveillance program in the Austrian province of Tyrol, ovitraps were set up weekly from May to October, 2018, at 67 sites- 17 in East Tyrol and 50 in North Tyrol. Sampling was performed at highways and at urban and rural areas. DNA obtained from mosquito eggs was barcoded using molecular techniques and sequences were analysed to species level. Eggs of alien Aedes species were found at 18 out of 67 sites (27%). Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus were documented at highways and urban areas in both East and North Tyrol. Aedes koreicus was found in East Tyrol. During this mosquito surveillance program, eggs of Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus, and Ae. koreicus were documented in the Austrian province of Tyrol. These findings not only show highways to be points of entry, but also point to possible establishment processes of Ae. japonicus in Tyrol. Moreover, Ae. koreicus was documented in Austria for the first time.


Assuntos
Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Áustria , Culicidae/genética , Ovos , Feminino , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Saúde Pública , População Rural , População Urbana
11.
Science ; 368(6491): 634-637, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381721

RESUMO

Some flying animals use active sensing to perceive and avoid obstacles. Nocturnal mosquitoes exhibit a behavioral response to divert away from surfaces when vision is unavailable, indicating a short-range, mechanosensory collision-avoidance mechanism. We suggest that this behavior is mediated by perceiving modulations of their self-induced airflow patterns as they enter a ground or wall effect. We used computational fluid dynamics simulations of low-altitude and near-wall flights based on in vivo high-speed kinematic measurements to quantify changes in the self-generated pressure and velocity cues at the sensitive mechanosensory antennae. We validated the principle that encoding aerodynamic information can enable collision avoidance by developing a quadcopter with a sensory system inspired by the mosquito. Such low-power sensing systems have major potential for future use in safer rotorcraft control systems.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos/prevenção & controle , Aeronaves , Culicidae/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Visão Noturna/fisiologia , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Biônica , Simulação por Computador , Robótica/métodos
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007446, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320389

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are important vectors for pathogens that infect humans and other vertebrate animals. Some aspects of adult mosquito behavior and mosquito ecology play an important role in determining the capacity of vector populations to transmit pathogens. Here, we re-examine factors affecting the transmission of pathogens by mosquitoes using a new approach. Unlike most previous models, this framework considers the behavioral states and state transitions of adult mosquitoes through a sequence of activity bouts. We developed a new framework for individual-based simulation models called MBITES (Mosquito Bout-based and Individual-based Transmission Ecology Simulator). In MBITES, it is possible to build models that simulate the behavior and ecology of adult mosquitoes in exquisite detail on complex resource landscapes generated by spatial point processes. We also developed an ordinary differential equation model which is the Kolmogorov forward equations for models developed in MBITES under a specific set of simplifying assumptions. While mosquito infection and pathogen development are one possible part of a mosquito's state, that is not our main focus. Using extensive simulation using some models developed in MBITES, we show that vectorial capacity can be understood as an emergent property of simple behavioral algorithms interacting with complex resource landscapes, and that relative density or sparsity of resources and the need to search can have profound consequences for mosquito populations' capacity to transmit pathogens.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Culicidae/fisiologia , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores , Algoritmos , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Vetores de Doenças , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Monte Carlo , Oviposição , Probabilidade
13.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(5): 473-484, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298634

RESUMO

Anthropophilic female mosquitoes are well known for their strong attraction to human hosts, but plant nectar is a common energy source in their diets. When sugar sources are scarce, female mosquitoes of some species can compensate by taking larger and more frequent blood meals. Male mosquitoes are exclusively dependent on plant nectar or alternative sugar sources. Plant preference is likely driven by an innate attraction that may be enhanced by experience, as mosquitoes learn to recognize available sugar rewards. Nectar-seeking involves the integration of at least three sensory systems: olfaction, vision and taste. The prevention of vector-borne illnesses, the determination of the mosquitoes' ecological role, and the design of efficient sugar-baited traps will all benefit from understanding the molecular basis of nectar-seeking.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Néctar de Plantas , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 160, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Practical, field-ready age-grading tools for mosquito vectors of disease are urgently needed because of the impact that daily survival has on vectorial capacity. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in combination with chemometrics and predictive modeling, can forecast the age of laboratory-reared mosquitoes with moderate to high accuracy. It remains unclear whether the technique has utility for identifying shifts in the age structure of wild-caught mosquitoes. Here we investigate whether models derived from the laboratory strain of mosquitoes can be used to predict the age of mosquitoes grown from pupae collected in the field. METHODS: NIRS data from adult female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (2, 5, 8, 12 and 15 days-old) were analysed against spectra from mosquitoes emerging from wild-caught pupae (1, 7 and 14 days-old). Different partial least squares (PLS) regression methods trained on spectra from laboratory mosquitoes were evaluated on their ability to predict the age of mosquitoes from more natural environments. RESULTS: Models trained on spectra from laboratory-reared material were able to predict the age of other laboratory-reared mosquitoes with moderate accuracy and successfully differentiated all day 2 and 15 mosquitoes. Models derived with laboratory mosquitoes could not differentiate between field-derived age groups, with age predictions relatively indistinguishable for day 1-14. Pre-processing of spectral data and improving the PLS regression framework to avoid overfitting can increase accuracy, but predictions of mosquitoes reared in different environments remained poor. Principal components analysis confirms substantial spectral variations between laboratory and field-derived mosquitoes despite both originating from the same island population. CONCLUSIONS: Models trained on laboratory mosquitoes were able to predict ages of laboratory mosquitoes with good sensitivity and specificity though they were unable to predict age of field-derived mosquitoes. This study suggests that laboratory-reared mosquitoes do not capture enough environmental variation to accurately predict the age of the same species reared under different conditions. Further research is needed to explore alternative pre-processing methods and machine learning techniques, and to understand factors that affect absorbance in mosquitoes before field application using NIRS.


Assuntos
Culicidae/química , Culicidae/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Aedes/química , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Entomologia/métodos , Feminino , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mosquitos Vetores/química , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(4): 393-403, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191853

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are considered to be the deadliest animals on Earth because the diseases they transmit claim at least a million human lives every year globally. Here, we discuss the scales at which the effects of ecological factors cascade to influence epidemiologically relevant behaviors of adult mosquitoes. In particular, we focused our review on the environmental conditions (coarse-scale variables) that shape the life-history traits of larvae and adult mosquitoes (fine-scale traits), and how these factors and their association, in turn, modulate adult behaviors to influence mosquito-borne disease transmission. Finally, we explore the integration of physical, physiological, and behavioral information into predictive models with epidemiological applications.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Culicidae/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Animais , Culicidae/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva , Traços de História de Vida , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 81, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Culiseta longiareolata is a cosmopolitan species and has implicated in the transmission of avian malaria, tularemia, and arboviruses. Despite the wide distribution of Cs. longiareolata in Iran, little is known about its biology and physiology. The current research was conducted to study the autogeny behavior in this potential vector. During 2018, larvae and pupae were collected from Nazloo region in Urmia City using standard methods. Mosquitoes were reared in cages and fed by 5% sugar in laboratory conditions and were then dissected in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under a stereo microscope. RESULTS: In total, 230 adult female Cs. longiareolata mosquitoes were dissected. Egg rafts were observed in the ovary of only 10.86% unfed female mosquitoes. Autogeny behavior is a significant factor in the growth of population without a blood feeding. Therefore, it is necessary to study how autogenous reproduction affects mosquito-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Laboratórios , Animais , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Ovário/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Reprodução
18.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105385, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027836

RESUMO

The landscape's structure can play a relevant role in epidemic patterns of arboviruses, influencing factors such as abundance, movement, and dispersal ability in arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts, besides promoting alterations in the rate of potential infectious contacts between these organisms. In the Americas, yellow fever (YF) exhibits only the sylvatic cycle, in which the virus circulates in sylvatic areas among non-human primates, being transmitted by mosquitoes of the Haemagogus and Sabethes genera. In this study, we investigate some aspects of the landscape in relation to diversity and abundance of culicid species associated with YF transmission. Studies were performed in the Cantareira State Park, a remnant of the Atlantic Forest located in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, where the YF virus circulated recently with dozens of deaths in howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba), in addition to reported human cases. Mosquito collections were carried out monthly from February 2015 to April 2017. Mosquitoes were collected from three sites using battery-powered aspirator (12-volt battery), CDC, and Shannon traps for adults, and suction samplers and entomological spoons in breeding sites to collect immature forms. 703 mosquitoes belonging to 12 species of the Aedini and Sabethini tribes were collected. Aedes scapularis and Psorophora ferox exhibited higher abundance, while Haemagogus leucocelaenus, the main vector of YF in São Paulo state, showed lower abundance in all sampled areas. The site with longer edge between forest area and anthropic area presented more richness and abundance of YF vector species, while the site with larger forest cover area and shorter edges between forest and anthropic areas exhibited an inverse pattern. Statistically significant differences were observed between the composition of potential YF vector species among the investigated sites. Although Hg. leucocelaenus occurred in all sampled sites, the different patterns of distribution and abundance of other mosquitoes such as Aedes scapularis and Psorophora ferox suggest that these species may be involved in the transmission of sylvatic YF in the study area.


Assuntos
Culicidae/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Culicidae/classificação , Culicidae/virologia , Entomologia , Florestas , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Febre Amarela/parasitologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 103, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne viral infections have in recent years, become a public health threat globally. This review aimed to provide an overview of the ecological and epidemiological profiles of mosquito-borne viral infections in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). METHODS: A search of literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed and the WHO website using the following keywords: "Democratic Republic of the Congo", "Zaire", "Belgian Congo" and either of the following: "mosquito-borne virus", "arbovirus", "yellow fever", "dengue", "chikungunya", "West Nile", "Rift Valley fever", "O'nyong'nyong", "Zika", "epidemiology", "ecology", "morbidity", "mortality". Published articles in English or French covering a period between 1912 and October 2018 were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 37 articles were included in the review. The findings indicate that the burden of mosquito-borne viral infections in DRC is increasing over time and space. The north-western, north-eastern, western and central regions have the highest burden of mosquito-borne viral infections compared to south and eastern highland regions. Yellow fever, chikungunya, dengue, Zika, Rift Valley fever, West Nile and O'nyong'nyong have been reported in the country. These mosquito-borne viruses were found circulating in human, wildlife and domestic animals. Yellow fever and chikungunya outbreaks have been frequently reported. Aedes aegypti and Ae. simpsoni were documented as the main vectors of most of the mosquito-borne viral infections. Heavy rains, human movements, forest encroachment and deforestation were identified as drivers of mosquito-borne viruses occurrence in DRC. CONCLUSIONS: Mosquito-borne viral infections are becoming common and a serious public health problem in DRC. In the current context of climate change, there is urgent need to improve understanding on ecological and epidemiology of the diseases and strengthen surveillance systems for prompt response to epidemics in DRC.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Viroses/transmissão , Animais , Culicidae/fisiologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
20.
Malar J ; 19(1): 38, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between irrigation and the proliferation of adult mosquitoes including malaria vectors is well known; however, irrigation schemes are treated as homogenous spatio-temporal units, with little consideration for how larval breeding varies across space and time. The objective of this study was to estimate the spatio-temporal distribution of pools of water facilitating breeding at the Bwanje Valley Irrigation Scheme (BVIS) in Malawi, Africa as a function of environmental and anthropogenic characteristics. METHODS: Irrigation structure and land cover were quantified during the dry and rainy seasons of 2016 and 2017, respectively. These data were combined with soil type, irrigation scheduling, drainage, and maintenance to model suitability for mosquito breeding across the landscape under three scenarios: rainy season, dry season with limited water resources, and a dry season with abundant water resources. RESULTS: Results demonstrate seasonal, asymmetrical breeding potential and areas of maximum breeding potential as a function of environmental characteristics and anthropogenic influence in each scenario. The highest percentage of suitable area for breeding occurs during the rainy season; however, findings show that it is not merely the amount of water in an irrigated landscape, but the management of water resources that determines the aggregation of water bodies. In each scenario, timing and direction of irrigation along with inefficient drainage render the westernmost portion of BVIS the area of highest breeding opportunity, which expands and contracts seasonally in response to water resource availability and management decisions. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the geography of breeding potential across irrigated spaces can have profound effects on the distribution of malaria risk for those living in close proximity to irrigated agricultural schemes. The methods presented are generalizable across geographies for estimating spatio-temporal distributions of breeding risk for mosquitoes in irrigated schemes, presenting an opportunity for greater geographically targeted strategies for management.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Culicidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Malaui , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Chuva , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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