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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10734-10743, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479252

RESUMO

Glutenin is the main protein of flour and is a very important source of protein nutrition for humans. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is an important product of the Maillard reaction that occurs during the hot-processing of flour products, and it reacts with glutenin to facilitate changes in glutenin properties. Here, the effects of MGO on glutenin digestion during the heating process were investigated using a simulated MGO-glutenin system. MGO significantly reduced the digestibility of glutenin. The structure of MGO-glutenin and physicochemical properties were studied to understand the mechanism of the decrease of digestibility. These data suggest that changes in digestibility were caused by decreases in surface hydrophobicity and increases in disulfide bonds. MGO induces strong aggregation of glutenin after heating that led to the masking of cleavage sites for proteases. Moreover, carbonyl oxidation induced by MGO leads to intermolecular cross-linking of glutenin that increasingly masks or even destroys cleavage sites, further decreasing digestibility.


Assuntos
Glutens/química , Aldeído Pirúvico/química , Culinária , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Reação de Maillard , Oxirredução , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 249-259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468404

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate food preference of the elderly for the development of taurine-containing elderly-friendly foods (TEF). The subjects in this study were 278 elderly people who were over 65 years old. All data were collected by face to face interview. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20.0 for Windows. The 'low-salt diet', 'nutritional enriched diet', and 'swallow able diet' were diets that all subjects preferred. All subjects preferred a diet to be sold as three items in separate packaging, as a semi-cooked type. The food types and cooking methods that showed high preference and had a high intention to purchase were cooked rice, porridges, soups and stews, meat side dishes, fish side dishes, kimchi, and vegetable dishes and steaming Among the taurine-containing foods, whip-arm octopus, manila clam, dried anchovy, flatfish, pollack, laver, green laver, sea tangle, seaweed, cod, croaker, and cutlassfish were the preferred foods of most subjects. Elderly females preferred significantly more squid, octopus, eel, mudfish, and sea cucumber than that of elderly males (p < 0.05). Elderly males preferred and consumed significantly more taurine-supplement than did elderly females (p < 0.05). These results will be used as baseline data for development of a customized TEF for Korean elderly.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Culinária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Alimentos Marinhos , Verduras
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10401-10411, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441654

RESUMO

This research applied inhibitors to reduce the content of cooked off-flavor components (dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde) in heat-treated melon juice. The effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the formation and release of these four volatile sulfur compounds were also investigated. Results showed that GOD strongly inhibited the formation of the four compounds. In GOD-treated melon juice, S-methylmethionine was strongly protonated and not easily degraded into dimethyl sulfide. Moreover, the release of the dimethyl sulfide that did form was restrained by the hydrophobic interactions of gluconic acid and oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, gluconic acid (or glucose) and hydrogen peroxide could form a stable complex with methionine in an acidic matrix and thus prevented the methionine from producing 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide by the Maillard reaction during heat processing.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Culinária , Cucurbitaceae/enzimologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Glucose Oxidase/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Paladar
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10470-10480, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469565

RESUMO

Foodborne nanoparticles (FNPs) produced by roasting have attracted the attention of people, owing to their safety risk to body health. Herein, we reported the formation, physicochemical properties, elemental composition, biodistribution, and binding with human serum albumin (HSA) of FNPs extracted from roast squid. The results showed that the FNP size gradually decreased from 4.1 to 2.3 nm as the roasting temperature changed from 190 to 250 °C. The main component elements of FNPs are carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, and the carbon and nitrogen contents of FNPs increased with the roasting temperature rising. The surface of FNPs contained hydroxyl, amino, and carboxyl functional groups. The FNPs can emit fluorescence in ultraviolet light and show excitation-dependent emission behavior. Furthermore, it was found that the FNPs derived from roast squid could be accumulated in the stomach, intestine, and brain of BALB/c mice after oral feeding. Static fluorescence quenching of HSA was found by the Stern-Volmer equation and ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis after interaction with the FNPs. After the addition of FNPs, the α-helix content of HSA decreased and the morphological height of HSA increased, which indicated that the FNPs could cause structural changes in HSA. The atomic force microscopy characterization showed the formation of nanocorona between FNPs and HSA.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Animais , Culinária , Decapodiformes/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Tamanho da Partícula , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(12): 2366-2377, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411591

RESUMO

This study mainly focuses on the process of electrocoagulation (EC) for the wastewater treatment from biodiesel production using waste cooking oil. The effects of current density, initial pH and electrolysis time on the EC process using aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes were investigated for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 62.7% and 63.4% at optimum conditions for Al (current density: 43 mA/cm2, pH: 5, time: 21 min) and Fe (current density: 47 mA/cm2, pH: 7.7, time: 30 min) electrodes, respectively. At these optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of oil & grease, total phosphorus (TP), orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total suspended solids (TSS) were determined respectively to be above 89.9%, 98.9%, 99.5%, 86.7% for Al electrodes and 90.8%, 98.5%, 97.6%, 89.6% for Fe electrodes. Total operating costs were also found to be 6.43 €/m3 and 7.01 €/m3 for Al and Fe electrodes, respectively. The results indicate that the EC process using both types of electrodes seems to ensure an efficient treatment of biodiesel wastewater in terms of oil & grease and TP.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Alumínio , Culinária , Eletrocoagulação , Eletrodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resíduos Industriais
6.
Waste Manag ; 96: 1-8, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376953

RESUMO

Samples of sunflower Waste Cooking Oils (WCOs) subjected to several cycles of frying were treated with water under four different combinations of temperature and pH. Several aspects of the chemical composition of edible, non-treated and processed samples was determined by three different analytic techniques: headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas-chromatography (GC), 1H NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS spectrometry. Thus, a characteristic chemical fingerprint of each sample was derived and proposed as useful set of tools for the optimization of recycling of WCOs. On the basis of the presented results, a mini-plant for the production of bio-lubricants and bio-solvents with a circular economy approach was designed and herein described.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Reciclagem
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9002-9008, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322885

RESUMO

The diphenylurea 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) is the residue of concern left in edible tissues of broilers fed diets containing the anticoccidial nicarbazin. When chicken meat is submitted to thermal processing, p-nitroaniline (p-NA) is expected from DNC degradation. This work aimed at evaluating whether thermal processing of DNC-containing chicken meat induces p-NA appearance. First, a hydrolysis assay was performed in aqueous solutions at 100 °C in different pH, confirming that DNC cleavage yields p-NA. Then a novel LC-MS/MS method was used to detect traces of this aromatic amine in DNC-containing chicken breast fillets subjected to cooking methods. Our evidence showed p-NA occurrence in such chicken meat samples, which corroborated results from hydrolysis assay. The p-NA appearance in fillets was rather discrete during boiling treatment, but its concentration became pronounced over time for grilling, frying, and roasting, achieving respectively 326.3, 640.0, and 456.9 µg/kg. As far as we are concerned, no other research identified degradation products from DNC residue in heat-processed chicken fillets. Therefore, this study leads to additional approaches to assess impacts on food safety.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Carbanilidas/química , Coccidiostáticos/química , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Carne/análise , Nicarbazina/química , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbanilidas/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Culinária , Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Nicarbazina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8520-8526, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310120

RESUMO

Reactive carbonyl species (RCS), such as acrolein (ACR), glyoxal (GO), and methylglyoxal (MGO), have received extensive attention recently as a result of their high activity and toxicity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, propyl gallate (PG), a common food antioxidant, was found to effectively trap more ACR than butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole through the formation of mono-ACR adducts (PG-ACR) and di-ACR adducts (PG-2ACR). The two adducts were successfully purified, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of their high-resolution mass spectrometry and 1H, 13C, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance data. We further identified that PG-ACR had the ability to continue to trap GO and MGO to form PG-ACR-GO and PG-ACR-MGO, respectively, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, we verified that PG could inhibit the production of ACR, GO, and MGO via trapping these RCS simultaneously to form the corresponding adducts in pound cakes using LC-MS/MS.


Assuntos
Acroleína/química , Antioxidantes/química , Galato de Propila/química , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Biológicos , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(8): 814-823, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314552

RESUMO

Lung cancer is known to cause high mortality and morbidity. The study aimed to explore the association between rs3733845 and rs3733846 polymorphisms in the promoter region of miR-143/145 and the risk of lung cancer among 575 nonsmoking cases and 575 cancer-free controls in a Chinese female population. We genotyped two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of miR-143/145 in 575 cases and 575 controls using TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between polymorphisms in the promoter of miR-143/miR-145 and risk of lung cancer females. Crossover analysis was used to explore the interaction between the two SNPs and environmental risk factors (cooking oil fume exposure and passive smoking exposure). The results showed that both rs3733845 and rs3733846 polymorphisms were associated with an increased lung adenocarcinoma risk in dominant model (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.329, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 1.026-1.723, p = 0.031 and adjusted OR = 1.450, 95% CI = 1.112-1.890, p = 0.006, respectively). The results of crossover analysis revealed that rs3733845 and rs3733846 risk genotypes along with cooking oil exposure increased lung cancer risk by 1.862-fold and 2.260-fold, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.862, 95% CI = 1.105-3.138, p = 0.020 for rs3733845; adjusted OR = 2.260, 95% CI = 1.354-3.769, p = 0.002 for rs3733846). There was positive multiplicative interaction between the two SNPs and cooking oil fume exposure (adjusted OR = 1.362, 95% CI = 1.078-1.719, p = 0.009 for oil × rs3733845; adjusted OR = 1.399, 95% CI = 1.122-1.745, p = 0.003 for oil × rs3733846). In nonsmoking females, rs3733845 and rs3733846 polymorphisms might be associated with lung adenocarcinoma risk. Moreover, the interactions between the two SNPs and cooking oil fume exposure were statistically significant on a multiplicative scale rather than an addictive scale.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Culinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fumar
10.
Planta ; 250(3): 803-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267230

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Bambara groundnut has the potential to be used to contribute more the climate change ready agriculture. The requirement for nitrogen fixing, stress tolerant legumes is clear, particularly in low input agriculture. However, ensuring that existing negative traits are tackled and demand is stimulated through the development of markets and products still represents a challenge to making greater use of this legume. World agriculture is currently based on very limited numbers of crops, representing a significant risk to food supplies, particularly in the face of climate change which is expected to increase the frequency of extreme events. Minor and underutilised crops can help to develop a more resilient and nutritionally dense future agriculture. Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.[, as a drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing, legume has a role to play. However, as with most underutilised crops, there are significant gaps in knowledge and also negative traits such as 'hard-to-cook' and 'photoperiod sensitivity to pod filling' associated with the crop which future breeding programmes and processing methods need to tackle, to allow it to make a significant contribution to the well-being of future generations. The current review assesses these factors and also considers what are the next steps towards realising the potential of this crop.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas , Vigna , Culinária/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vigna/genética , Vigna/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 8053-8060, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276393

RESUMO

The development of analytical methods for acrylamide formed during food processing is of great significance for food safety, but limited by its inherent characteristics, the analysis of acrylamide is a continuing challenge. In this study, an efficient derivatization strategy for acrylamide based on thiol-ene click reaction with cysteine as derivatization reagent was proposed, and the resulting derivative was then analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C4D). After systematic investigation including catalyst dosage (0-20 mM), reaction temperature (30-90 °C) and time (1-60 min), and cysteine concentration (0.2-3.6 mM), acrylamide could be efficiently labeled by 2.0 mM cysteine at 70 °C for 10 min using 4 mM n-butylamine as catalyst. Application of 10 mM triethylamine as separation buffer, the labeled acrylamide was analyzed within 2.0 min, and the relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area were less than 0.84% and 5.6%, indicating good precision. The C4D signal of acrylamide derivative showed a good linear relationship with acrylamide concentration in the range of 7-200 µM with the correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated to be 0.16 µM and 0.52 µM, respectively. Assisted further by the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample pretreatment, the developed derivatization strategy and subsequent CE-C4D method were successfully applied for the determination of acrylamide in potato products.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Química Click/métodos , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Culinária , Cisteína/química , Temperatura Alta , Limite de Detecção , Tubérculos/química
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 52-56, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309799

RESUMO

Background: Chronic aluminum toxicity (CAT) in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients is now a rare clinical disorder, unlike in the past, because of improvements in hemodialysis water purification systems and discontinuation of use of aluminum hydroxide as a phosphate binder. The use of aluminum utensils for cooking could be an unrecognised cause of the CAT. Objective: To assess the association between aluminum kitchen utensils used for cooking meals and chronic aluminum toxicity (CAT) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Material and Methods: In this case control study, a total of 31 (cases n=10; controls n=21) patients on MHD for more than one year were included. Cases were defined as patients with clinical manifestations (including laboratory parameters) of CAT and high (>200 mcg/L) serum aluminum levels. Control group was chosen from the same hemodialysis facilities. Association between use of aluminum utensils for cooking and occurrence of CAT was assessed. Results: The mean age of patients in the cases and the control group was 52.90 and 52.95 years respectively with on significant difference (p=0.99). There was no difference in mean duration of dialysis (p=0.78), serum calcium level (p=0.06), serum phosphate level (p=0.19), serum albumin level (p=0.06), history of hypertension (p=1.00) and history of diabetes (n=0.12) between two groups. Mean haemoglobin (p<0.05) and mean iPTH (p<0.05) was significantly lower in the cases as compared to control group. Thirteen patients had history of use of aluminum utensils [cases 10 (76.90%) and control 3 (23.10%); p<0.05]. All cases i.e. 10 (100%) had exposure to aluminum utensils whereas three (14.3%) patients in the control group had exposure to aluminum utensils whereas 18 (85.7%) patients had no exposure. The relative risk of having CAT because of use of aluminum utensils compared to not using was 28.46 (1.81 to 445.3) and the odd's ratio estimated was 120 (5.45 to 2642). Conclusion: Use of aluminum utensils for cooking meals is associated with CAT. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Alumínio/envenenamento , Culinária/instrumentação , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos
13.
Food Chem ; 300: 125192, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362158

RESUMO

Dietary fiber has several benefits for humans, and the development of healthier rice with an improved dietary fiber composition has attracted increasing amounts of attention. Based on the method of AOAC 2002.02, we developed a simplified method to screen polished rice containing high total dietary fiber (TDF). Mutant cw with a high TDF content could be distinguished easily from R7954 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica) by the digestion-resistant phenotype, which is characterized as an almost intact grain after hydrolysis by pepsin, pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The individuals identified from the F2 population showed digestion resistance all had TDF content higher than 5%, while those without a digestion-resistant phenotype had TDF content lower than 5%. The phenotype of digestion resistance could be a valuable index for identifying rice with higher TDF content, and the identification of this phenotype provides a simplified, economical and high throughput method for high TDF rice breeding.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Oryza/química , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise , Pepsina A/química , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Amido/análise , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1814-1821, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342707

RESUMO

Commercially available japonica rice and indica rice with different trade names were collected,and then based on the method of rice stir-frying,their many indexes were evaluated,for example the physical and chemical properties such as appearance color,grain type,broken kernel ratio,length-width ratio,1 000-grain weight,specific heat capacity,moisture content,amylose content,and protein content. The discriminant function analysis was used to determine the effective factors affecting the quality of rice as excipients. The results showed that two types of rice could be distinguished by rice color parameter a*,grain parameter circularity,1 000-grain weight and amylose content. These four effective factors can be used as the quality evaluation indexes for fried rice as excipients.Protein is one of the main components of rice,and its content affects the quality of rice. There is a significant difference in the protein content between japonica rice and indica rice. Therefore,protein content should be used as one of the evaluation indexes for rice quality. After comprehensive consideration,it is suggested that the red-green value a*shall not be less than 0. 50; the circularity not less than 53. 0,the 1 000-grain weight not less than 16. 0 g,the amylose content not less than 12. 0% and the protein content not less than4. 0% in the japonica rice; the red-green value a*shall not be lower than-1. 0,the circularity not less than 41. 0,the 1 000-grain weight not less than 13. 0 g,the amylose content not less than 9. 0% and the protein content not less than 3. 5% in the indica rice. In this study,the quality evaluation standards for rice as excipients( japonica rice,indica rice) were supplemented and improved,laying foundation for the development of quality standards for rice as excipients with the rice stir-frying method.


Assuntos
Culinária , Excipientes , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/química , Amilose , Temperatura Alta
15.
Food Chem ; 298: 125085, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260951

RESUMO

Plantain is a climacteric fruit having economic relevance in several tropical regions. Unripe plantain is an alternative source of indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre) and undigestible starch fraction. Unripe plantain flour was explored in this work as an alternative ingredient (whole and pulp) in spaghetti formulations. Chemical composition, cooking quality, texture analysis, and microstructure of spaghetti formulations were analyzed. The microstructure results showed that the presence of fiber in the food matrix helped the reduction of the starch granule swelling in the cooking process. Spaghetti made with whole plantain flour exhibited lower rapidly starch fraction, with increased resistant starch fractions. Overall, the whole unripe plantain flour exhibited good potential for gluten-free spaghetti having highest content of fiber and lower starch digestion rates.


Assuntos
Farinha , Plantago/química , Culinária , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Amido/química
16.
Food Chem ; 299: 125078, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279129

RESUMO

The fragility of biscuits yields checking (cracks) and eventually breakage, which originated mainly from heterogeneity in water distribution in the thickness dimension (surface vs centre) and also to the plan dimension (edge vs centre) of the product. The objective of the BRICE project is to study the impact of the distribution of water on the occurrence of checking and breakage (C&B) in biscuits, considering a round and thick biscuit and a rectangular and thinner biscuit presenting piercing points. C&B counting was performed over 15 days of storage (the time needed to reach stability). A higher C&B occurrence was observed in the round biscuits, while rectangular biscuits had a near-zero C&B rate. The Karl Fischer method was combined with an automated NIR imaging system to monitor the water distribution at the centres and surfaces of the products, as well as the apparition of C&B. The results confirmed that minuscule water gradients are involved.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química , Culinária , Transição de Fase
17.
Food Chem ; 298: 125081, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260952

RESUMO

The impact of kansui on the dough rheology and quality characteristics of chickpea-wheat composite flour-based noodles was investigated. For noodle dough, both the relative crystallinity and degree of order obtained from X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy increased with the low level of kansui addition (0.5-1.5%), followed by a decreased trend at higher levels of alkali concentration (2.0-3.0%). Such variation was in accordance with the trend observed for G' and G″. Based on the confocal laser scanning microscopic observation for cooked noodle samples, the low concentration of kansui addition (0.5-1.5%) protected the well-embedded starch granules being disassociate from the gluten network, whereas with the increased alkali addition (2.0-3.0%), the protein network was impaired with a greater amount of ruptured starch granules being disassociated from the gluten network. The observation corresponded well with the electrophoretic profile, and the results of cooking properties, -SH content, and textural properties of cooked noodles.


Assuntos
Cicer/química , Farinha , Triticum/química , Carbonatos/química , Culinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutens/química , Microscopia Confocal , Potássio/química , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química , Difração de Raios X
18.
Food Chem ; 298: 125096, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272051

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to test different models for predicting furan content in a dough system, based on partial least squares regression using colour images. Starch dough systems were fried at five temperatures between 150 and 190 °C and for 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 min. The furan content was quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the corresponding images were simultaneously obtained and processed in order to extract 2914 features. Good furan content predictions were obtained using computer vision image chromatic features using correlation coefficient of prediction (Rp = 0.86). However, the best prediction correlation was obtained using the image textural features (Rp = 0.93), when the number of features was reduced to 10 by algorithms applications. These results suggest that furan content in fried dough systems can be predicted using features of computer vision images.


Assuntos
Pão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Furanos/análise , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Cor , Culinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Amido , Triticum
19.
Food Chem ; 298: 125087, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272052

RESUMO

In this study, comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and traditional thermal processing methods (baking and steaming) on cod proteins. Results showed that HHP, but not baking or steaming, was able to increase the content of soluble protein nitrogen (1.42-fold), compared with control. Total peptide contents of HHP-treated samples were also significantly higher than baked and steamed ones. In addition, protein oxidation was greatly increased after baking (1.56-fold) and steaming (1.97-fold), whereas HHP did not exhibit any appreciable effect. Furthermore, the allergenicity of cod was significantly reduced after HHP as reflected by the attenuated IgE and IgG-binding capacities (67-84% relative to control), while baking and steaming resulted in higher allergenicity. This study strongly supports the potential of HHP for reducing allergenicity, avoiding protein oxidation, and improving digestibility of cod and other protein-rich foods susceptible to quality deterioration during thermal processing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/química , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Gadus morhua , Animais , Culinária , Digestão , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/farmacocinética , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão Hidrostática , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxirredução , Carbonilação Proteica , Vapor , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 965-972, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302560

RESUMO

The effects of grilling on health risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food remain poorly understood. The changes of concentrations, distributions, and risks of PAHs in vegetables and animal-based foods before and after grilling were investigated in this study. The sum of 16 (∑16) PAH concentrations in grilled vegetables and grilled animal-based foods were 60.4-1936 and 69.1-4668 ng/g, respectively. Grilling markedly increased the ∑16 PAH concentrations in most foods analyzed. Grilling clearly increased the low-molecular-weight PAH contributions to the ∑16 PAH concentrations in vegetables but increased the heavier PAH contributions to the ∑16 PAH concentrations in some animal-based foods. With the grilling, the total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations of the 16 PAHs in Chinese chives and enoki mushrooms and most animal-based foods were improved significantly. Source assessments indicated that environmental sources contributed PAHs to the raw foods and high-temperature pyrolysis during grilling contributed large proportions of the PAHs in the grilled foods. The carcinogenic risks to humans from the exposure of PAHs in vegetables and animal-based foods were estimated. Grilling increased the total risks of PAHs in vegetables and animal-based foods by factors of 3.12 and 5.49, respectively. Total risks of PAHs in the 11 foods were 3.43 times higher when the foods were grilled than when raw. The results suggested that the negative effects of grilling on human health should be of great concern.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Carne/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Culinária/métodos , Humanos
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