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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 418-426, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Burning coal and firewood generates toxic emissions that are associated with respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease, and even death. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between county-level prevalence of household coal and firewood use and health outcomes, including total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality, as well as total and respiratory hospitalization rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ecological study included data on the use of household coal and firewood in 139 counties obtained from the 2015 Chilean National Socio-economic Characterization Survey. Total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality, as well as total and respiratory hospitalization rates, were obtained from the Department of Health Statistics. Poisson models with robust error variance, Pearson linear correlation coefficients, and scatterplots were used to explore associations between household coal and firewood use and morbidity-mortality, stratifying by geographic zone. RESULTS: Total, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality and total and respiratory hospitalization rates were 5.7 per 1,000, 552 per 100,000, 157 per 100,000, 92.5 per 1000, and 8.8 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. The median prevalence of coal use for residential cooking, heating, or water heating was 3.64%, while the median prevalence of firewood combustion was 12%. In southern counties, age- and gender-adjusted respiratory mortality increased 2.02 (95% CI: 1.17-3.50), 1.5 (95% CI: 1.11-1.89), and 1.76-fold (95% CI: 1.19-2.60) for each percentage increase in household coal and firewood use for heating, cooking and heating water, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of household coal and firewood used for heating and cooking was positively correlated with respiratory mortality and hospitalization in southern zone counties.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Madeira/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Chile/epidemiologia , Culinária , Feminino , Calefação , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
2.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942695

RESUMO

Due to the pandemic situation caused by the COVID-19 infection, some governments have implemented house confinement measures. The objective of our study is to learn the dietary patterns, consumption, and physical activity of the Spanish population before and during the period of confinement by COVID-19. A cross-sectional descriptive study based on a questionnaire during May 2020, coinciding with the period of confinement and the step forward into Phase 1, is carried out. During confinement, the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet increases (8.0% versus 4.7%; p < 0.001). No socio-demographic variables show statistical significance (p < 0.05) regarding good adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) before and during confinement. During confinement, consumption of homemade baking shows a higher increase (0.28% versus 4.60%; p = 0.004). During confinement, the number of subjects that practice exercise decreases (29.4% versus 28.8%; p = 0.004), as well as the time spent exercising (more than an hour, 26.6% versus 14.7%, p = 0.001). Mediterranean Diet adherence slightly increases during confinement, although consumption of 'unhealthy' food also increases. Moreover, the number of subjects that practice physical activity, as well as the time spent on it weekly, decreases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Culinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(4): 33-38, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748377

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal dysphagia, a swallowing disorder, is a common problem faced by older adults living in residential care. A direct management strategy for this disorder is to modify the texture of foods prior to serving using techniques such as chopping, mashing, liquid thickening, and reshaping. However, the process of texture modification causes foods to lose a significant amount of their nutritional value and reduces the motivation and fun of eating for diners. Eating is part of the enjoyment of life, and managing the nutrition status of older adults living in residential care is an important issue in aged societies. In this article, issues related to modified-texture foods, including their generally lower nutritional value, are discussed. In addition, combinations of cooking techniques that may increase tenderness in meat are explored to promote the future development of the soft-food meals for older adults living in residential care. One of the described techniques uses fresh fruits to pickle meat and vacuum low-temperature cooking technology that preserves the shape of meat after cooking and makes meat sufficiently soft to be broken up by the tongue. Vacuum low-temperature cooking allows for the precise control of cooking time and temperature, and professional cooking techniques may be used to improve the quality of the texture-softened foods. It is the hope of the authors that this article is used a reference for the future development of texture-softened foods for older adults living in residential care.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/dietoterapia , Alimentos , Instituições Residenciais , Idoso , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Carne , Vácuo
4.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115377, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798907

RESUMO

As demand of proteins from meats has significantly increased with economy growth, the population of livestock proliferates. Thus, heavy amount of livestock byproducts released from livestock industries will become more problematic if they are handled in an unsatisfactory manner. In this study, swine manure (SM) waste was directly valorized to be used as a reaction catalyst for biodiesel production. Pyrolysis was adapted to produce swine manure biochars at 500 (SMB@500) and 650 °C (SMB@650), and the materials were used for conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesels (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters: FAMEs). The properties of SMBs and resulting pyrolytic gases (i.e., H2, CO, and C1-2 hydrocarbons (HCs)) and liquids during pyrolysis were also characterized. SMBs used in this study included a large quantity of metallic contents that significantly contributed to the rapid reaction for biodiesel production. In detail, SMB@500 and SMB@650 showed higher than 96% of FAME yield at 305 and 210 °C of reaction temperature, while non-catalytic reaction using SiO2 showed similar FAME yield at 330 °C. Thus, this work offers a sustainable way to recycle organic and inorganic materials in livestock manures for energy (biodiesel, pyrolytic oil, H2, and C1-2 HCs) production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esterco , Animais , Catálise , Carvão Vegetal , Culinária , Esterificação , Dióxido de Silício , Suínos
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 837-849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759549

RESUMO

Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) by-products (peel and residue) on stability of sesame (Sesamum indicum) oil against oxidation. Antioxidant properties of extract of peel and residue at different time durations of extraction were determined and found that peel contains higher antioxidant potential than residue. Thus, extract of peel obtained after 24 h extraction was used to study its effectiveness on oxidative stability of sesame oil during accelerated oven storage and frying using the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (200 ppm) as the reference antioxidant (positive control) and oil without added antioxidant as the negative control. The oxidative stability of the oil was determined by evaluating peroxide value, p-anisidine value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, total oxidation (TOTOX) value, conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) values, and iodine value. Peel extract at different concentrations (200-1000 ppm) was tested. The oil added with peel extract exhibited higher stability against oxidation than the controls during oven storage test. Extract at 1000 ppm significantly increased the stability of sesame oil during frying as compared with controls. Thus, star fruit peel extract could be an alternative to synthetic antioxidants to suppress oxidation of edible oils.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Averrhoa/química , Culinária , Aditivos Alimentares , Extratos Vegetais , Óleo de Gergelim/química , Compostos de Anilina/análise , Temperatura Alta , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/análise , Óleo de Gergelim/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 965-971, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788515

RESUMO

The oil content of both 'raw' and hazelnut kernels was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced as the microwave power increased from 180 W to 360 W. The contents of fatty acids flucuated for all varieties with microwave power, with a significant (p < 0.05) increment observed for 'Sivri' hazelnut at 180 and 720 W. The maximum linoleic acid contents for 'Raw', 'Sivri' and 'Tombul' hazelnuts were found as 11.87%, 12.61% and 17.68% for nuts roasted at 540 W, unroasted and those roasted at 720 W, respectively. It was observed that K (9735.1 mg/kg) and Mg (2343.7 mg/kg) contents of the investigated samples were found at the maximum levels in unroasted 'Tombul' hazelnut, while the highest P (2845.0 mg/kg) and S (1795.3 mg/kg) contents are determined for hazelnut roasted at 720 W (p < 0.05). The highest Ca content in hazelnut kernel was also observed at 360 W with 2400.9 mg/kg. However, roasting process did not dramatically affect the mineral contents of samples.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Corylus/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Micro-Ondas , Corylus/classificação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Ácido Linoleico/análise
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 985-992, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788517

RESUMO

The oxidative stability of sunflower oil containing rosemary essential oil and extracts in the oil during frying were followed by measuring peroxide value. Variation in the values of L* of the frying oil containing extract was less than that of frying oil containing essential oil. a*-Value of the fried oil containing extract highly significant decreased. Increase in the value of b* of 1. and 2. frying oil with 0.5 % rosemary essential oil was less. b* Value of the frying oils containing rosemary extract increased compared to b* values of frying oils containing essential oil. b* Value of the frying oil that the essential oil of rosemary added showed less increase than b* value of the frying oil that extract of rosemary. The viscosity values of frying oils containing rosemary extract changed between 30.3 mPas (1. frying oil containing 0.5% extract) and 35.5 mPas (2. frying oil containing 0.5% extract). In addition, free fatty acidity values of frying oils containing essential oil at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% levels ranged from 0.160% (1. frying oil containing 0.5% essential oil) to 0.320% (1. frying oil containing 0.3% essential oil). Peroxide values of frying oils containing rosemary extracts were determined between 12.84 meq O2/kg (1. frying oil containing 0.1% extract) and 28.98 meq O2/kg (2. frying oil containing 0.1% extract). Peroxide value of frying made with 0.3 % the rosemary essential oil increased less than that of made with the raw sunflower oil (control) (p < 0.05). Whenever rosemary essential oil and rosemary extract compare, the essential oil seems to be more effective on the peroxide value of the frying oil. The essential oil of rosemary have been effected more from the extracts of rosemary on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil.


Assuntos
Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796570

RESUMO

The evidence regarding the effects of household air pollution on angina pectoris is limited in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). We sought to examine the association between household air pollution and angina pectoris across several countries. We analyzed data of individuals from 46 selected countries participating in the cross-sectional World Health Survey (WHS) 2002-2003. Pooled and stratified (sex, continent) logistic regression with sampling weights was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to quantify associations between the use of different household fuels with angina pectoris. In the pooled sample, we observed lower odds of angina pectoris with electricity use (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.83) compared to those households reporting the use of gas as a household fuel. Increased odds of angina pectoris were observed with the use of agriculture/dung/shrub/other (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.30-2.09), mixed (solid and non-solid fuels) (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.56), and mixed solid fuel use (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25). Higher odds of angina pectoris were observed mainly with solid fuel use. The results highlight the importance of addressing these issues, especially in regions with a high proportion of solid fuel users and increasing levels of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Angina Pectoris , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141267, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777507

RESUMO

Numerous studies have been conducted to assess air pollution and human health risks arising from exposure to outdoor cooking, but limited standards have been implemented around the world to assure fuel quality. While charcoal briquettes and lumps are a popular fuel choice for grilling, almost no data specifying their properties are available to consumers. Because the properties of fuels affect the flue gases, it is critical to understand how the quality of grilling briquettes and lumps translates not only into the quality of the grilled food, but, even more importantly, how their emissions impact human safety and the environment. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of the quality of charcoal briquettes and lumps on potentially harmful emissions during grilling. To analyze their quality, we used reflected light microscopy to identify a range of contaminants, including biomass, mineral matter, coal, coke, metal, rust, plastics, glues, and synthetic resins, in 74 commercially available products made in Poland, the United States of America, Ukraine, Germany, Belarus, the Czech Republic, and the Republic of South Africa. Our data show that majority of the products analyzed do not meet the existing quality standard EN 1860-2:2005 (E) of less than 1% contaminants, some of these products contain up to 26.6% of impurities. The amount of contaminants correlates with particulate matter, as well as CO and CO2. The contribution of biomass is especially significant because it can be used to predict harmful particulate matter emissions during grilling. The relationship between the composition of charcoal briquettes and lump charcoal and their emissions is particularly strong during the first 15 to 20 min after ignition (when emissions are the highest), therefore, this initial stage is especially unsafe to consumers, and staying away from the grill during this time is recommended.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Culinária , República Tcheca , Alemanha , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Polônia , República de Belarus , África do Sul , Ucrânia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading causes of neonatal and child mortality. Despite several national efforts to reduce the incidence of mortality among children, India is one of the largest contributors to under-five mortality in the world. In this study, we examined the effects of indoor pollution on ARI among under-five children in India. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried using nationally representative data from the 2015-2016 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). This study is based on 247,743 living children under the age of five years. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the impact of indoor air pollution on children's ARI. RESULTS: Almost two-thirds of households (65.2%) used biomass fuels for cooking, 54.9% of households had a separate kitchen, and 47.2% of households had a smoker. About 2.7% of children suffered from ARI in the past two weeks preceding the survey. The use of biomass fuels (OR [odds ratio]: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.20), households having no separate kitchen (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14-1.30), and smoking behavior of household members (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12) were associated with greater risk of ARI among under-five children even after adjusting for age of child, sex of child, birth order, maternal age, maternal education, caste, religion, wealth quintile, any HH members suffer from tuberculosis (TB), and household crowding. Furthermore, the results revealed that the combined effects of biomass fuels and households without separate kitchen increased the likelihood of children's ARI by 36% (Adjusted OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.21-1.51). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest policy interventions to reduce the exposure of indoor air pollution, particularly among the impoverished groups. The government should ensure cleaner fuels for cooking, such as LPG and electricity, to minimize the risk of respiratory diseases among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pré-Escolar , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797100

RESUMO

Although an impact of processing on immunogenicity of food proteins has clearly been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We applied 3 different processing methods: wet heating (60 °C) and low- or high-temperature (50 °C or 130 °C, respectively) dry-heating in absence or presence of reducing sugars, to ß-lactoglobulin (BLG), lysozyme and thyroglobulin, which represent dietary proteins with different pI or molecular weight. Uptake of the soluble fraction of the samples was tested in two types of, genetically homogeneous, antigen-presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells derived from THP-1 monocytes). This revealed a strong correlation between the uptake of the different protein samples by macrophages and dendritic cells, and confirmed the key role of hydrophobicity, over aggregation, in determining the uptake. Several uptake routes were shown to contribute to the uptake of BLG by macrophages. However, cytokine responses following exposure of macrophages to BLG samples were not related to the levels of uptake. Together, our results demonstrate that heat-treatment-induced increased hydrophobicity is the prime driving factor in uptake, but not in cytokine production, by THP-1 macrophages.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Proteínas na Dieta/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Culinária , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Células THP-1
12.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115169, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663729

RESUMO

The heating of edible oils during cooking activities promotes the emissions of pollutants that have adverse impacts on the health of humans. This study investigated the evaporative emissions of fifteen (15) commonly used cooking oils. Split-plot experimental design under the response surface methodology framework was used to study singular and interaction effects of influencing parameters (temperature, volume of cooking oil and time) on cooking oil evaporation rate and pollutants emissions (i.e. Particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤1 µm (PM1.0); ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5); ≤10 µm (PM10); Total Suspended Particulate (TSP); Total Volatile Organic Compounds -TVOCs, and Carbon Monoxide- CO) on a groundnut oil sample that served as a case study. Obtained values of density, viscosity, kinematic viscosity, smoke, flash and fire points were; 873-917 kg/m3; 1.12-9.7 kg/ms; 2.4-3.4 m2/s; 96 -100 °C; 124-179 °C and 142-186 °C, respectively. The role of temperature as the most significant parameter influencing the rate of evaporative emissions was established. Evaporation rate and pollutants emission from unrefined samples were the highest. The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis results suggested a strong relationship between the actual values and the predicted values as R-squared values obtained were greater than 0.8 for all the responses. These results suggest that minimal rates of evaporation and pollutants emission from heating cooking oils can be achieved with a high volume of the cooking oil at moderate temperature levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Óleos , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(8): 1698-1709, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661531

RESUMO

Indoor surfaces are extremely diverse and their interactions with airborne compounds and aerosols influence the lifetime and reactivity of indoor emissions. Direct measurements of the physical and chemical state of these surfaces provide insights into the underlying physical and chemical processes involving surface adsorption, surface partitioning and particle deposition. Window glass, a ubiquitous indoor surface, was placed vertically during indoor activities throughout the House Observations of Microbial and Environmental Chemistry (HOMEChem) campaign and then analyzed to measure changes in surface morphology and surface composition. Atomic force microscopy-infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopic analyses reveal that deposition of submicron particles from cooking events is a contributor to modifying the chemical and physical state of glass surfaces. These results demonstrate that the deposition of glass surfaces can be an important sink for organic rich particles material indoors. These findings also show that particle deposition contributes enough organic matter from a single day of exposure equivalent to a uniform film up to two nanometers in thickness, and that the chemical distinctness of different indoor activities is reflective of the chemical and morphological changes seen in these indoor surfaces. Comparison of the experimental results to physical deposition models shows variable agreement, suggesting that processes not captured in physical deposition models may play a role in the sticking of particles on indoor surfaces.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Culinária , Adsorção , Aerossóis , Tamanho da Partícula
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1037, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia, like other nations, has experienced a shift in dietary patterns away from home cooking of nutritious foods, towards a reliance on pre-prepared convenience meals. These are typically energy-dense, nutrient-poor and contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity and chronic disease burden. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a community-based cooking program instigated a change to participants' skills, attitudes, knowledge, enjoyment and satisfaction of cooking and cooking confidence (self-efficacy). METHODS: The pseudo-random, pre-post study design consisted of an intervention and a control group. Participant recruitment and group allocation was based on their program start dates. Intervention participants were surveyed three times (baseline, 7 weeks and 6 months) and the control group were surveyed at baseline and 5 weeks. All participants were registered via an online website and were 18 years or over. Upon consent, participants were offered four levels of commitment, defined by different assessments. The minimum participation level included an online survey and levels 2, 3 and 4 involved attendance at a clinic with increasing functional, anthropometric and biomarker measurements. Primary endpoints were participants' cooking confidence as a proxy for self-efficacy. Secondary endpoints were dietary intake, physical activity levels, body composition, anthropometry, blood, urine and faecal biomarkers of systemic, physical and mental health. DISCUSSION: The community cooking program provided participants with information and advice on food sourcing, preparation and nutrition to improve home cooking skills. The study was designed to explore whether food literacy programs are efficacious in improving participant physical health and well-being in order to combat the rise in obesity and diet-related disease. It will support future use of public health cooking program initiatives aimed at improving food literacy, self-efficacy and physical and mental health. The extensive data collected will inform future research into the relationship between diet, the gut-microbiota and human health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered on 16.08.2019 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN12619001144101 . Protocol version 4.


Assuntos
Culinária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Austrália , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Satisfação Pessoal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111003, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678765

RESUMO

Consumption of fish is one of the predominant sources of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, the effect of various cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling and frying) on the levels of PFASs in fish muscle and the intake of PFASs was explored by using grass carp collected from Tangxun Lake, Wuhan, China. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFASs in raw fish fillets, with the concentrations ranging from 59.6 to 136 ng/g ww, followed by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) (7.73-51.9 ng/g ww). The concentrations of long-chain PFASs in fish increased after cooking, while those of short-chain PFASs decreased. The amounts of PFASs in the cooked fish fillets decreased except PFOS. Short-chain PFASs, including PFBS and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), were dominant in cooking juice. The highest amounts of PFBS in the juices were observed after boiling and frying, even higher than those in cooked fish fillets, suggesting that the release of short-chain PFASs to the cooking juices could not be neglected. Based on these results, the intake of short-chain PFASs amount through cooked fish fillets slightly decreased, but the intake of PFOS amount increased. However, consumption of cooking juice (fish soup) could increase the exposure risk of PFBS. Comprehensively considering the increase of PFOS and decrease of total PFASs, boiling may be the relatively better method to cook fish. As PFASs are ubiquitous and inevitable in aquatic food, it is thus important to choose appropriate cooking processes and dietary habits for reducing the intake of different PFASs from fish.


Assuntos
Carpas , Culinária/métodos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Carpas/metabolismo , China , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos , Lagos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2694-2701, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627505

RESUMO

Coicis Semen is widely used as a raw material which can be used as both medicine and food among people. According to the ancient monographs on materia medica and relevant documents on the processing specifications in various provinces and cities, herba logical study on the historical evolution of the processing methods of Coicis Semen was conducted in this paper from the aspects of collecting and processing methods of Coicis Semen, the processing methods in the past dynasties and the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen. The results showed that the processing methods of Coicis Semen recorded in monographs on materia medica mainly included stir-frying, glutinous rice stir-frying, salt processing(including salt cooking and salt stir-frying), stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east, and ginger juice stir-frying, etc. Among them, stir-frying, and stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east are still used nowadays. The bran stir-frying is the improved version of glutinous rice stir-frying in order to be adaptive to the modern-day situation and the needs of the present. In addition, the ancient shell removal and kernel keeping method are also included in the processing procedures in modern local processing specifications, which are combined with frying to form a new method named "Fazhi" processing( "Fazhi" means a processing method of multiple procedures). The 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia records that Coicis Semen is helpful to clear dampness and promote diuresis, strengthen the spleen and prevent diarrhea, eliminate impediment, discharge pus, resolve toxin and a mass, etc., which are consistent with those contained in ancient monographs on materia medica. After the "Fazhi" processing, the cold nature of Coicis Semen has been removed and its nature,flavour and meridian tropism have been changed, so its application scopes expanded. The results of this study clearly traced the history of the collecting and proces-sing of Coicis Semen, summarized the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen contained in both ancient and modern literature, and provided a historical basis for the standardization of the subsequent processing technology of Coicis Semen, the clinical application of various processed products, and the further development and utilization of medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Coix , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Gengibre , Materia Medica , Oryza , Culinária , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628680

RESUMO

Archaeology has yet to capitalise on the opportunities offered by bioarchaeological approaches to examine the impact of the 11th-century AD Norman Conquest of England. This study utilises an integrated multiproxy analytical approach to identify and explain changes and continuities in diet and foodways between the 10th and 13th centuries in the city of Oxford, UK. The integration of organic residue analysis of ceramics, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of human and animal bones, incremental analysis of δ13C and δ15N from human tooth dentine and palaeopathological analysis of human skeletal remains has revealed a broad pattern of increasing intensification and marketisation across various areas of economic practice, with a much lesser and more short-term impact of the Conquest on everyday lifestyles than is suggested by documentary sources. Nonetheless, isotope data indicate short-term periods of instability, particularly food insecurity, did impact individuals. Evidence of preferences for certain foodstuffs and cooking techniques documented among the elite classes were also observed among lower-status townspeople, suggesting that Anglo-Norman fashions could be adopted across the social spectrum. This study demonstrates the potential for future archaeological research to generate more nuanced understanding of the cultural impact of the Norman Conquest of England, while showcasing a method which can be used to elucidate the undocumented, everyday implications of other large-scale political events on non-elites.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/química , Culinária/história , Dieta/história , Classe Social/história , Animais , Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Bovinos , Cerâmica/análise , Feminino , Cabras , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos , Suínos , Dente/química , Reino Unido
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fuels burned in households for cooking cause indoor air pollution, exposing those who are cooking. Despite the mounting evidence of the effects of fuels use on health, few studies focus on the effect of cooking fuels have on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate atherosclerosis biomarker in the early stages of pregnancy. This study aimed to examine the association between the use of cooking fuels and CIMT during early trimester of pregnancy among cooking women in Myanmar. METHODOLOGY: In this cross-sectional study, a part of an ongoing birth cohort analysis, a total of 192 cooking pregnant women over 18 years with gestational weeks less than 18 were recruited from 15 rural health centers in Nay Pyi Taw from September to November 2019. Sociodemographic data, residential data, and fuels use data were collected with semi-structured questionnaires in face-to-face interviews. Anthropometric, hemodynamic, blood lipids, and ultrasound CIMT measurements were performed under standard protocols. Multiple linear regression was modeled to explore associations. RESULTS: The study included 70 firewood fuel users, 26 charcoal fuel users, and 96 electricity fuel users. Following adjustments for potential confounding factors, firewood use was significantly associated with the increase of all CIMT analyzed. Importantly, a greater increase of mean CIMT of the right common carotid artery (RCCA; ß = 0.033 mm; 95%CI: 0.006, 0.058; P<0.05) had significant association with charcoal use compared to firewood use (ß = 0.029 mm; 95%CI: 0.010, 0.049; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the indoor use of cooking fuels that cause indoor air pollution, such as firewood and charcoal, is a considerable risk factor for human health and is associated with increased CIMT, wherein charcoal use contributes to more increase of mean CIMT of the RCCA. Measures to prevent health risks related to the use of such fuels should be instituted early on during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Culinária/métodos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38591-38601, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623684

RESUMO

The copper pots with an inner coating layer of tin have been remarkably used in many countries for a long time. In this study, leaching of some metals from tin-lined copper pots into food simulators at different pHs (4, 5.5, 7, and 8.5) during boiling processing (95 °C for 1, 2, and 3 h) or refrigerated storage (4 °C for 1, 2, and 3 days) was investigated. Citric acid and sodium hydroxide were used to adjust the pH of food simulators. The leaching concentrations of metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to indicate the surface morphological properties of cookware. Based on the preliminary experiments, metals including Al, Sn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Na, Cr, Mg, and Zn were selected to analyze in acidic treatments. Furthermore, Al, Cu, Sn, Na, and Ca were analyzed for neutral and alkaline ones. Results showed that the boiling temperature for 3 h resulted in a much higher migration of metals compared with cold storage for 3 days. Mn and Cr showed the lowest metal concentration during cooking and cold storage, respectively. The concentration of Sn in acidic simulators was remarkably higher than the other metals during both cooking and refrigerated storage. However, Ca during cold storage, as well as Na during both cooking and cold storage, showed the most migration in alkaline solutions, among the other pHs. An acidic simulator with pH 4 showed the most considerable release of metals from copper pots. SEM results indicated more intense surface corrosion by acidic solution (pH 4) than alkaline one. In general, longer cooking and cold storage durations led to increasing metals release. The migration of the studied metals demonstrates the impurities of the tin layer of these cookwares that may lead to acute and/or chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Cobre , Metais Pesados/análise , Culinária , Utensílios de Alimentação e Culinária , Metais , Estanho
20.
Food Chem ; 332: 127434, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645669

RESUMO

The baking in N2 and CO2 atmosphere decreased by 50% the acrylamide, while this level was 99% in SO2. The highest acrylamide content was detected in the control sample as 39.03 µg/kg. Additionally, the lowest HMF content was determined in S-bread as 14.85 mg/kg. The baking atmosphere has a significant impact on L* and a* colour values of bread. The highest L* value was measured in S-bread as 71.2, whereas it was the lowest in the control sample as 49.1. According to the Pearson results, acrylamide showed a negative correlation between L* value. However, no correlation was detected between colour values and HMF. Acrylamide had a positive correlation with flavour, although it did not affect the taste features of bread. No correlation between HMF and sensory properties was determined. The result of the study suggested that inert or inhibitor baking atmosphere may help prevent the Maillard reactions in bakery products.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos , Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Farinha/análise , Furaldeído/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Paladar , Triticum/química
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