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1.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(4): 33-38, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748377

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal dysphagia, a swallowing disorder, is a common problem faced by older adults living in residential care. A direct management strategy for this disorder is to modify the texture of foods prior to serving using techniques such as chopping, mashing, liquid thickening, and reshaping. However, the process of texture modification causes foods to lose a significant amount of their nutritional value and reduces the motivation and fun of eating for diners. Eating is part of the enjoyment of life, and managing the nutrition status of older adults living in residential care is an important issue in aged societies. In this article, issues related to modified-texture foods, including their generally lower nutritional value, are discussed. In addition, combinations of cooking techniques that may increase tenderness in meat are explored to promote the future development of the soft-food meals for older adults living in residential care. One of the described techniques uses fresh fruits to pickle meat and vacuum low-temperature cooking technology that preserves the shape of meat after cooking and makes meat sufficiently soft to be broken up by the tongue. Vacuum low-temperature cooking allows for the precise control of cooking time and temperature, and professional cooking techniques may be used to improve the quality of the texture-softened foods. It is the hope of the authors that this article is used a reference for the future development of texture-softened foods for older adults living in residential care.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/dietoterapia , Alimentos , Instituições Residenciais , Idoso , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Carne , Vácuo
2.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127315, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535364

RESUMO

The study was conducted to assess the performance of improved and traditional cookstoves using wood as a fuel and three combinations of other fuel mixes - (i) wood and cow dung, (ii) wood and mustard stalks, and (iii) cow dung and mustard stalks). Energy and emission parameters such as specific energy consumption (SEC), emission factors (EFs) of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) were used to compare four different types of cookstoves. These included top-feed forced draft (TF-FD), top-feed natural draft (TF-ND), front-feed natural draft (FF-ND) and front-feed traditional (FF-TR) cookstoves. Controlled cooking test (CCT) was used as the test protocol. The results showed the performance of improved cookstove technologies can vary based on the fuel used for cooking. It was observed that emission factors for PM and CO increased by 67-96% and 45-90% respectively when all three improved cookstoves were tested with three fuel combinations against wood as cooking fuel. Among the tested cookstoves, a marked difference was observed between performance of forced draft and natural draft cookstoves. Forced draft cookstoves emitted higher amount of all pollutant emissions compared to natural draft cookstoves when used with mustard stalks in combination with either wood or cowdung. The results are of critical importance given that forced draft cookstoves have been promoted in geographical regions where fuel mix use is prevalent. Therefore, forced draft cookstove might not be the right choice when the goal is climate mitigation and reduction in impact on human health. It is imperative to study comprehensively the influence of various field variables on performance of cookstoves, which have severe implications on the performance of cookstoves.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Culinária/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Utensílios Domésticos , Índia , Material Particulado/análise , Fuligem , Tecnologia , Madeira/química
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339177

RESUMO

The use of biomass fuel is associated with the deterioration of human health and women are more likely to develop health conditions due to their exposure to indoor air pollution during cooking. This study was conducted to assess the pattern of fuel used for cooking in households as well as to determine the association between the types of fuel used with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and health status of women. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted between August 2016 and September 2018 in four rural areas and one semi-urban area of Udupi district, Karnataka, India. The study comprised 587 families including 632 women. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the type of fuel as well as self-reported health conditions. Overall, 72.5% of the families used biomass, where 67.2% families were currently using both biomass and liquefied petroleum gas while only biomass was used in 5.3% of the families for cooking. Among women, being ever exposed to biomass fuel was significantly associated with their age, literacy level, occupation and socio-economic status (p < 0.001). Those who were exposed to biomass fuel showed a significant association with self-reported ophthalmic (AOR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.79-8.29), respiratory (OR = 5.04; 95% CI: 2.52-10.07), cardiovascular (OR = 6.07; 95% CI: 1.88-19.67), dermatological symptoms /conditions (AOR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.07-12.55) and history of adverse obstetric outcomes (AOR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.08-5.57). A positive trend was observed between cumulative exposure to biomass in hour-years and various self-reported health symptoms/conditions (p < 0.001). It was observed that more than two-thirds of women using biomass fuel for cooking were positively associated with self-reported health symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are essential to determine the level of harmful air pollutants in household environment and its association with various health conditions among women in this region.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Biocombustíveis/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Biocombustíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Culinária/métodos , Culinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267871

RESUMO

Folic acid content was evaluated in food preparations containing wheat and corn flour submitted to baking, deep-frying, and steaming. Commercially fortified flours showed the absence of folic acid. Flours with laboratory folic acid fortification showed 487 and 474 µg of folic acid in 100 g of wheat and corn flours, respectively. In the corn flour preparations, the cake had the highest retention (99%) when compared to couscous (97%). Besides, the cake showed higher retention when compared to the wheat flour preparations due to the interactions of the folic acid with the hydrophobic amino acids of the Zein, a protein found in corn. In wheat flour preparations, vitamin retention was 87%, 80% and 57% in bread, cake, and White sauce respectively. These findings relate to the change of the physicochemical properties of food components that occurs during mixing and cooking of the ingredients.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Ácido Fólico/análise , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
5.
Food Chem ; 321: 126694, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244140

RESUMO

Red cabbage contains glucosinolates, precursors to health-promoting isothiocyanates. However, raw cabbage often releases mainly epithionitriles and nitriles from glucosinolates. To increase isothiocyanate formation, the effect of acid usage in the preparation of red cabbage was evaluated. Moreover, the effects of the chosen boiling method (acidic boiled red cabbage versus neutral boiled blue cabbage) on glucosinolate degradation were investigated using UHPLC-DAD-ToF-MS and GC-MS. The addition of vinegar significantly increased isothiocyanate formation of cabbage salad from 0.09 to 0.21 µmol/g fresh weight, while lemon juice only slightly increased isothiocyanate formation. Acidic boiled red cabbage degraded glucosinolates and increased nitrile formation, while in neutral boiled blue cabbage, glucosinolates were stable. However, shortly boiled blue cabbage (5 min) had the highest isothiocyanate levels (0.08 µmol/g fresh weight). Thus, for a diet rich in isothiocyanates it is recommended to acidify raw cabbage salads and prepare shortly boiled blue cabbage instead of red cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Culinária/métodos , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Saladas , Ácido Acético/química , Brassica/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Comportamento Alimentar , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hábitos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isotiocianatos/química , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 322: 126754, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283367

RESUMO

During storage of coffee, the key aroma 2-furfurylthiol becomes less active, the mechanisms of this loss and ways to mitigate it were investigated. Aroma profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and sensory properties were evaluated by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Quinones, as the oxidation products of hydroxydroquinone, was found to actively bind 2-furfurylthiol, which accounted for the loss of 2-furfurylthiol. To mitigate this loss, ingredients were screened for their ability to prevent 2-furfurylthiol from loss. Cysteine had the highest 2-furfurylthiol releasing efficiency and ascorbic acid was also selected due to its 2-furfurylthiol releasing ability in Fenton reaction system. Concentrations were optimized and the addition of 0.045 g/L cysteine and 0.05 g/L ascorbic acid directly protected aroma during storage, these included 2-furfurylthiol, dimethyltrisulfide, methyl furfuryl disulfide, 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-vinylguaiacol. Ultimately, sensory testing showed a direct enhancement in nutty, sulfurous and roasted aroma attributes, an increase in flavour intensity and preference over shelf life.


Assuntos
Café/química , Furanos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Café/metabolismo , Culinária/métodos , Cisteína/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Furanos/química , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Quinonas/química , Quinonas/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
7.
Food Chem ; 322: 126764, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325364

RESUMO

Plasmalogens are dietary phospholipids with beneficial health effects. In this work, plasmalogen characteristics and changes in beef during boiling, frying, and roasting were comprehensively investigated by liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. The alteration of plasmalogen fingerprint during cooking processes was found by untargeted omics approach, in which time of boiling, temperature of roasting, and meat core/surface of frying were responsible for the observed variations. Moreover, the targeted determination of representative plasmalogen species showed significant loss with a temperature- and time-dependent manner in roasting and frying. And frying even showed an extra loss in meat surface compared with core. Furthermore, an artificial neural network-based predictive model elucidated the dynamics of plasmalogen species during cooking. Finally, batter-coating pretreatment was performed to show its protection against plasmalogens loss during frying. These results might provide a potential strategy to better control and improve the quality of functional foodstuffs during cooking processes.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Plasmalogênios/análise , Plasmalogênios/química , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta , Redes Neurais de Computação , Carne Vermelha/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura de Transição
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348323

RESUMO

Ensuring affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030 is part of the internationally agreed Sustainable Development Goals (SDG7). With roughly 3 billion people still lacking access to clean cooking solutions in 2017, this remains an ambitious task. The use of solid biomass such as wood and cow dung for cooking causes household air pollution resulting in severe health hazards. In this context, the Indian government has set up a large program promoting the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in rural areas. While this has led millions of households to adopt LPG, a major fraction of them continues to rely heavily on solid biomass for their daily cooking. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of simple health messaging on the propensity of these households to use LPG more regularly. Our results from rural Rajasthan are encouraging. They show that health messaging increases the reported willingness to pay for LPG, and substantially increases actual consumption. We measure this based on a voucher, which can only be used if LPG consumption is doubled until a certain deadline. Households exposed to health messaging use the voucher about 30% more often than households exposed to a placebo treatment. We further show that the impact of our very brief, but concrete health messaging is close to the effect of a 10% price reduction for a new LPG cylinder. Finally, our study raises some interesting questions about gender-related effects that would be worth consideration in future research.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Poluição do Ar , Bassia scoparia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Conhecimento , Masculino , Petróleo , População Rural
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 363, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood acute lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia is recognized as the single largest cause of childhood death globally accounting for 16% of the overall deaths. Some studies also reported a higher prevalence of childhood acute respiratory infection in Ethiopia, which ranges from 16% up to 33.5%. Concerning the risk factors, there are limited community-based studies in Ethiopia in general, and in the current study region in particular. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of childhood acute respiratory infection and associated factors in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: As part of the wider stove trial project, a cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2018 among a total of 5830 children aged less than 4 years old in randomly selected clusters. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify factors linked with childhood acute lower respiratory infection and adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of effect with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: A total of 5830 children were included in the study within 100 clusters. Out of which 51.7% were male and 48.3% female. The prevalence of childhood lower acute respiratory infection was 19.2% (95% CI: 18.2-20.2) and found to decrease among children living in homes with chimney, eaves space and improved cookstove than children living in households with no chimney, eaves space and improved cookstove with estimated AOR of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.51-0.70), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.60-0.84) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.28-0.67) respectively. It was also associated with other cooking-related factors such as cow dung fuel use [AOR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.02-2.33)], child spending time near stove during cooking [AOR = 1.41 (95% CI: 1.06-1.88), presence of extra indoor burning events [AOR = 2.19 (95% CI: 1.41-3.40)] and with frequent cooking of meals [AOR = 1.55 (95% CI: 1.13-2.13)]. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of childhood acute lower respiratory infection was demonstrated by this study and it was found to be associated with household ventilation, cooking technology, and behavioral factors. Therefore, we recommend a transition in household ventilation, cooking technologies as well as in child handling and in the peculiar local extra indoor burning practices.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Culinária/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Biomassa , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 980-988, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180222

RESUMO

Thermal processing of pulse crops influences the type and levels of prebiotic carbohydrates present. Pulses such as common bean and chickpea are rich sources of prebiotic carbohydrates, including sugar alcohols (SAs), raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), resistant starch (RS), and amylose. This study determined the changes in prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations of seven common bean and two chickpea market classes after thermal processing (cooking, cooling, and reheating). A 100-g serving of common bean provides 0.7 to 10.6 mg of SAs, 3.9 to 5.2 g of RFOs, 57 to 143 mg of FOSs, 2.6 to 3.9 g of RS, and 25 to 33 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced RFOs but increased SAs, FOSs, and RS in many cases. A 100-g serving of chickpea (cooked at 90 °C for 4 hr) provides 1.2 to 1.7 g of SAs, 2.5 to 3.2 g of RFOs, 26 to 43 mg of FOSs, 3.6 to 5.3 g of RS, and 24 to 30 g of amylose; cooling and reheating reduced SAs and RFOs but increased FOSs, RS, and amylose concentrations. Processing methods change the nutritional quality of pulse crops by changing the type and quantity of prebiotic carbohydrates.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Cicer/química , Phaseolus/química , Prebióticos/análise , Rafinose/análise , Amilose/análise , Culinária/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Temperatura Alta , Valor Nutritivo , Transição de Fase , Sementes/química , Amido/análise
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(4): 391-401, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132349

RESUMO

This investigation was carried out to offer insight into the formation and antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from various sugar-amino acid model systems active in the roasting of sesame seeds. Reducing sugars (glucose, fructose, and xylose) and amino acids (serine, cystine, arginine, and lysine) present in sesame seeds were used to prepare the MRPs at various reaction times, and then the effect of reaction time on the MRPs derived from the various model systems was investigated. Within the first 15 min, the amounts of free amino groups decreased around 40% remaining amino groups of Lys-sugar model and around 75% remaining amino groups of Arg-sugar model. Results indicated that reducing sugar and free amino groups decreased obviously in Lys- and Arg-model systems. Based on correlation coefficient of antioxidant activities assessment and MRP formation in the Lys- and Arg-model systems above 0.978 and an extremely significant correlation in Pearson test exists, a conclusion could be made that these model systems are critical contributing factors in MRP formation during the roasting of sesame seeds. These findings offer insight into the formation and antioxidation of MRPs during the sesame seeds roasting.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Antioxidantes , Culinária/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Sesamum/química , Açúcares , Água , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Food Chem ; 317: 126464, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114275

RESUMO

Oat rice kernels were subjected to decortication (DOR), decortication and enzyme deactivation (DDOR), decortication and cooking (DCOR), as well as combined decortication, enzyme deactivation and cooking (DDCOR). The starch fractions were isolated and their structural features were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and scanning electron microscope. In the cooked oat rice samples (DCOR and DDCOR), in addition to losing a significant amount of the A-type crystalline structure, there was an enhancement in the proportion of V-type crystallinity. The cooking process completely destroyed the periodic lamellar structure of oat starch on the SAXS profile. The Mw values (1.195 × 107-1.459 × 107 g/mol) were in the following order: DOR > DDOR > DCOR > DDCOR. The data was in line with the results for crystallinity, double helix content, degree of order, melting enthalpy, and those obtained for textural parameters, resistant starch content, and bile acid binding capacity.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Culinária/métodos , Amido/química , Cristalização , Enzimas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
13.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 600-610, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017103

RESUMO

This study was the first to evaluate the influence of the combination strategies of flavor addition and microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) processing for salt reduction implications. In freshly prepared mashed potatoes, a 30% and 50% salt reduction (w/w) in comparison to a 100% salt sample with three flavor variations (no additional flavor, garlic, and pepper) were investigated. Also, using the ideal profile method (IPM), the influence of MATS versus retort processing, in comparison to a freshly prepared sample, and flavor addition on mashed potato sensory properties and acceptance was investigated. Chemical characterization using the electronic tongue for nonvolatile compounds and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for volatile analysis was completed. IPM revealed the ideal data were consistent at both the panel and consumer levels from a sensory and hedonic perspective. Results demonstrated the ideal mashed potato product would remain low in bitterness but have more intense pepper and potato aromas and flavors than the current samples evaluated. The salt level could be reduced by 50% while still maintaining flavor and overall acceptance in freshly prepared samples, but this was accompanied by a loss in saltiness intensity perception. The saltiness intensity was not different from the freshly prepared samples when processed via MATS but was different when processed by the retort. For chemical characterization, the electronic tongue showed a high discrimination index (>89%) and correlated highly (>0.8) with many sensory attributes. As salt concentration in the mashed potatoes decreased, the recovery of volatile compounds decreased. The present work contributes to the understanding of product reformulation for the purpose of salt reduction. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Product developers need strategies to bring salt down to target levels while maintaining consumer acceptance. The combination strategies of flavor addition and MATS processing may allow for a new strategy to assist product developers in reaching salt reduction targets. Furthermore, developers should bear in mind that noticeable intensity differences may not alter the preference for the product. Thus, intensity differences that result in changes in acceptance should be the focus of quality insurance rather than utilizing just noticeable differences.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Culinária/instrumentação , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Alho/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Piper nigrum/química , Paladar
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(3): 167-183, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051355

RESUMO

Red palm olein is known to be high in carotenes and vitamin E (tocols) and possess various nutritional benefits. This study evaluates the effect of prolonged heating using three common cooking techniques i.e. deep-fat fryer, microwave oven and conventional oven, on the profiles of carotenes and tocols as well as the physico-chemical changes occurring in red palm olein when compared to conventional palm olein. Physico-chemical changes in all oils were gauged based on their peroxide, p-anisidine and total oxidation values, acidity, and fatty acid composition. Both red palm olein and palm olein were thermally stable based on their lower rate of hydrolytic and oxidative degradations as well as higher tocols retention, which allow the oils to undergo heating up to 3 hours using deep-fat fryer and conventional oven. Nevertheless, red palm olein seemed not suitable for prolonged heating processes considering lower retention of carotenes. Microwave heating also influenced the stability of phytonutrients.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Culinária/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Vitamina E/análise , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(3): 185-190, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051358

RESUMO

In this study, the oil uptake and fatty acid composition of fried potato slices were determined. Some pre-treatments such as blanching, freezing, and blanching-freezing were applied to potato slices before frying while the untreated samples were used as a control. The frying process was carried out in sunflower and olive oils. The percentage oil uptake in slices varied from 4.26% to 10.35% when fried in sunflower oil. In the case of the control samples slices fried in olive oil contained high monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) content (5.45%), and lesser oil uptake was observed than those processed in sunflower oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid is 5.99%) (p < 0.05). The oil uptake was also compared in the case of potato slices fried in two different oils after pre-treatments. The maximum oil uptake was observed in the case of blanched-frozen potatoes, whereas minimum oil uptake was observed in frozen only slices for both oils. The fatty acid contents in oils extracted from fried potato slices showed that the predominant fatty acids were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The best results were observed in frozen potato slices fried in both sunflower and olive oils.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Azeite de Oliva , Solanum tuberosum/química , Óleo de Girassol , Culinária/métodos , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Ácidos Esteáricos/análise , Óleo de Girassol/química
16.
J Food Prot ; 83(3): 467-475, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065649

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The behavior of radiocesium in wild animal meats upon cooking was investigated. The ratio of the concentration change (processing factor, Pf), remaining ratio (food processing retention factor, Fr), and removal ratio of radiocesium in the meats by grilling, boiling, and steaming were determined. Differences in cooking methods, rather than differences in meat parts or animal species, clearly influenced the Pf, Fr, and removal ratios. The mean Fr values were 0.9 (range, 0.7 to 1.0) for grilling, 0.6 (range, 0.4 to 0.7) for boiling, and 0.5 (range, 0.4 to 0.7) for steaming. The removal effect of grilling (11%) was lower than that of boiling (41%) or steaming (47%). The mean value of Pf was 1.2 (range, 1.1 to 1.6) for grilling, 0.8 (range, 0.6 to 0.9) for boiling, and 0.8 (range, 0.7 to 1.0) for steaming. The radiocesium concentration in the meats increased only upon grilling, but not by boiling or steaming. This difference is due to the lower removal effect of grilling than that of boiling and steaming. Therefore, boiling and steaming were more effective than grilling for removing radiocesium and reducing its concentration in wild animal meats. Furthermore, the ratio of water content fluctuations due to boiling was negatively correlated with Pf and Fr. It was evident that greater reductions in water content resulted in lower concentrations and improved radiocesium removal in the meats. These results suggest that some of the radiocesium naturally present in the meats is soluble in water and that the radiocesium dissolved in water can be removed from the meat with the release of water from the tissue.


Assuntos
Césio/análise , Culinária/métodos , Cervos , Carne/análise , Sus scrofa , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Suínos
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1244-1251, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat, recognized carcinogens, are risk factors for colorectal neoplasia, including polyps, the precursor for colorectal cancer. The mechanism is unclear. One possible explanation is the mutagenic activity of these foods, perhaps due to generation during cooking [e.g., heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake]. Few studies have evaluated meat intake and sessile serrated lesion (SSL) risk, a recently recognized precursor, and no study has evaluated meat cooking methods and meat-derived mutagens with SSL risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated intakes of meat, meat cooking methods, and inferred meat mutagens with SSL risk and in comparison to risk of other polyps. METHODS: Meat, well-done meat, and inferred meat mutagen intakes were evaluated. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs among cases (556 hyperplastic polyp, 1753 adenoma, and 208 SSL) and controls (3804) in the large colonoscopy-based, case-control study, the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study. RESULTS: The highest quartile intakes of red meat (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.93), processed meat (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.17), well-done red meat (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.60), and the HCA 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQX; OR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.49, 4.16) were associated with increased risk of SSLs in comparison to the lowest quartile intake. CONCLUSIONS: High intakes of red and processed meats are strongly and especially associated with SSL risk and part of the association may be due to HCA intake. Future studies should evaluate other mechanism(s) and the potential for primary prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Culinária/métodos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Carne/análise , Mutagênicos/efeitos adversos , Aminas/efeitos adversos , Aminas/análise , Aminas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênicos/análise , Mutagênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Tennessee/epidemiologia
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 789-799, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078753

RESUMO

To investigate the influence of heat treatment and egg matrix on egg custard (EC) proteins, 12 different kinds of ECs with different egg/water ratios (1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, or 1:3, v/v) and different heating temperatures (80, 90, or 100 °C) and times (10, 15, or 20 min) were prepared and evaluated for the digestibility, structure, eliciting capacity and sensitizing capacity using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence spectra, ELISA, and a BALB/c mouse model, respectively. The physicochemical properties of EC proteins were significantly affected by heat treatment and egg matrix, which showed the increased digestibility and partially unfolded structure. The eliciting capacity of EC evaluated by IgE binding to sera from egg-allergic patients was reduced after heat treatment, and the EC made by heating at 100 °C for 20 min with a whole egg/water ratio of 1:2 (v/v) was the weakest. The sensitizing capacity of EC was also reduced in the BALB/c mouse model, which showed the significantly decreased levels of specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a, mMCP-1 and histamine in the mouse sera, as well as cytokine secretions of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, compared with the raw egg (RE) group. Results demonstrate that heat treatment and egg matrix significantly reduced the eliciting and sensitizing capacity of EC by changing the tertiary structure and increasing the digestibility of EC proteins. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Egg custard (EC) is one kind of savory food suitable for all ages, and is also a traditional supplementary food for infants and young children in China. However, limited information is available on the allergenicity of egg custard. In this work, we evaluated how the structure, digestibility, and allergenic potential of egg allergens in EC were altered by the degree of thermal treatment and egg matrix, and elucidated the links between the physicochemical properties and allergenic potential of EC affected by heat treatment and egg matrix. Our results demonstrate that heat treatment and egg matrix significantly reduced the eliciting and sensitizing capacity of EC by changing the tertiary structure and increasing the digestibility of EC proteins.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/imunologia , Culinária/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/sangue , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/prevenção & controle , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 320: 108540, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044624

RESUMO

Low-temperature long-time (LTLT) cooking may lead to risk of potential survival of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens in cooked meat. In this study, the effect of LTLT cooking on C. perfringens was investigated at temperatures commonly used by caterers. Brain heart infusion broth (BHIB) and meat cubes in pouches (vacuumed or non-vacuumed) were inoculated with C. perfringens (NCTC 8238) and heated at temperatures of 48 °C, 53 °C, 55 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. The viability of C. perfringens in BHIB and meat was monitored using plate counting and the D-value of each thermal treatment was determined. The recovery of C. perfringens after thermal treatment was assessed using optical density measurements. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess the physiological status (death/injury) of C. perfringens cells in BHIB. The results showed that the required log reduction (6-log) of C. perfringens can be achieved at 55 °C but not at 48 °C or 53 °C. The D-values at all temperatures were higher in meat compared to BHIB while the D-value at 55 °C was higher in non-vacuum compared to vacuum sealed meat. C. perfringens cells were able to recover and grow to pathogenic levels when thermal treatment was unable to achieve the required 6-log reduction. In BHIB, percentage of dead cells increased gradually at 48 °C, 53 °C and 55 °C while an immediate increase (>95%) was observed at 60 °C and 70 °C. These results are important to food safety authorities allowing to set the time-temperature combinations to be used in LTLT cooking to obtain safe meat.


Assuntos
Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Culinária/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Vácuo
20.
Food Chem ; 316: 126269, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044701

RESUMO

This study investigated the comparative effects of boiling, roasting, deep-frying methods on the content of nutritional and potentially harmful components in peanuts. After cooking, the contents of total reducing sugar, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids and almost all individual amino acids were reduced. Free methionine disappeared after heating processing, whereas fructose, starch, cis-palmitoleic acid and saturated fatty acids were increased in processed samples. Micronutrients including flavonoids and phenolic reduced significantly after boiling process but increased after roasting process. Both of frying and roasting promoted the formation of potentially harmful components including HMF, acrylamide and furan. The overall compositional difference between samples were further displayed and identified by a combination application of HCA and PCA, which showed that the roasting and frying process had a significant impact on the nutritional composition of peanuts.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Culinária/métodos , Carboidratos/química , Temperatura Alta , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química
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