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1.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 850-856, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910819

RESUMO

Conspiracy theories have been proliferating during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence suggests that belief in conspiracy theories undermines engagement in pro-health behaviors and support for public health policies. Moreover, previous work suggests that inoculating messages from opinion leaders that expose conspiracy theories as false before people are exposed to them can help to prevent belief in new conspiracies. Goals of this study were to: (a) explore associations between COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions, cooperation with public health recommendations, and support for public health policies among U.S. adults and (b) investigate trusted sources of COVID-19 information to inform strategies to address conspiracy beliefs. A cross-sectional, online survey was conducted with 845 U.S. adults in April 2020. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance and multivariable regressions. One-third (33%) of participants believed one or more conspiracies about COVID-19. Participants who believed conspiracies reported that their intentions to vaccinate were 3.9 times lower and indicated less support for COVID-19 public health policies than participants who disbelieved conspiracies. There were no differences in cooperation with public health recommendations by conspiracy belief endorsement in the multivariable regression analysis. Although there were some key differences in trusted sources of COVID-19 information, doctor(s) were the most trusted source of information about COVID-19 overall with 90% of participants trusting doctor(s). Doctor(s) may play a role in addressing COVID-19 conspiracy theories before people are exposed to them to promote COVID-19 prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública/tendências , Confiança/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Papel do Médico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866194

RESUMO

Prone burials are among the most distinctive deviant burials during the Middle Ages and early modern period. Despite their worldwide distribution, the meaning of this burial practice is still a matter of debate. So far, a comprehensive analysis of prone burials is lacking for Central Europe. By compiling evidence from Germany, Switzerland and Austria, this study investigates how these findings fit into the scope of medieval funerary practices. 95 prone burials from 60 archaeological sites were analyzed regarding geographical distribution, dating, burial features, body position, age-at-death and sex. We applied descriptive statistics accompanied by multiple correspondence analysis in order to highlight possible multivariate patterns in the dataset. Prone burials occur in funerary and non-funerary contexts, with a predominance of single churchyard burials, followed by favored and exterior location and settlements. In terms of grave features, the majority of churchyard burials do not differ from regular graves. Multivariate patterns appear to reflect diachronic changes in normative burial practices. We found a significant correlation between burial location and dating, due to a higher frequency of high medieval males in favored locations. In these cases, prone position is interpreted as a sign of humility, while similar evidences from late and post-medieval times are seen as an expression of deviancy. Apparent lack of care during burial reveals disrespect and possible social exclusion, with inhumations outside consecrated ground being the ultimate punishment. In some regions, apotropaic practices suggest that corpses should be prevented from returning, as attested in contemporaneous sources and folk beliefs. We hypothesize that the increase of prone burials towards the late and post-medieval period is linked to such practices triggered by epidemic diseases. The multiplicity of meanings that prone position might have in different contexts demands for careful interpretations within the same regional and chronological frame.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Arqueologia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cultura , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Intern Med J ; 50(9): 1123-1131, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767466

RESUMO

Rituals may be understood broadly as stereotyped behaviours carrying symbolic meanings, which play a crucial role in defining relationships, legitimating authority, giving meaning to certain life events and stabilising social structures. Despite intense interest in the subject, and an extensive literature, relatively little attention has been given to the nature, role and function of ritual in contemporary medicine. Medicine is replete with ritualistic behaviours and imperatives, which play a crucial role in all aspects of clinical practice. Rituals play multiple, complex functions in clinical interactions and have an important role in shaping interactions, experiences and outcomes. Longstanding medical rituals have been disrupted in the wake of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Medical rituals may be evident or invisible, often overlap with or operate alongside instrumentalised practices, and play crucial roles in establishing, maintaining and guaranteeing the efficacy of clinical practices. Rituals can also inhibit progress and change, by enforcing arbitrary authority. Physicians should consider when they are undertaking a ritual practice and recognise when the exigencies of contemporary practice are affecting that ritual with or without meaning or intention. Physicians should reflect on whether aspects of their ritual interactions are undertaken on the basis of sentiment, custom or evidence-based outcomes, and whether rituals should be defended, continued in a modified fashion or even abandoned in favour of new behaviours suitable for and salient with contemporary practice in the interests of patient care.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Betacoronavirus , Cultura , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760709

RESUMO

New technological solutions play an important role in preventing the spread of Covid-19. Many countries have implemented tracking applications or other surveillance systems, which may raise concerns about privacy and civil rights violations but may be also perceived by citizens as a way to reduce threat and uncertainty. Our research examined whether feelings evoked by the pandemic (perceived threat and lack of control) as well as more stable ideological views predict the acceptance of such technologies. In two studies conducted in Poland, we found that perceived personal threat and lack of personal control were significantly positively related to the acceptance of surveillance technologies, but their predictive value was smaller than that of individual differences in authoritarianism and endorsement of liberty. Moreover, we found that the relationship between the acceptance of surveillance technologies and both perceived threat and lack of control was particularly strong among people high in authoritarianism. Our research shows that the negative feelings evoked by the unprecedented global crisis may inspire positive attitudes towards helpful but controversial surveillance technologies but that they do so to a lesser extent than ideological beliefs.


Assuntos
Atitude , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Busca de Comunicante/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cultura , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Ativismo Político , Privacidade
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915908

RESUMO

New technological solutions play an important role in preventing the spread of Covid-19. Many countries have implemented tracking applications or other surveillance systems, which may raise concerns about privacy and civil rights violations but may be also perceived by citizens as a way to reduce threat and uncertainty. Our research examined whether feelings evoked by the pandemic (perceived threat and lack of control) as well as more stable ideological views predict the acceptance of such technologies. In two studies conducted in Poland, we found that perceived personal threat and lack of personal control were significantly positively related to the acceptance of surveillance technologies, but their predictive value was smaller than that of individual differences in authoritarianism and endorsement of liberty. Moreover, we found that the relationship between the acceptance of surveillance technologies and both perceived threat and lack of control was particularly strong among people high in authoritarianism. Our research shows that the negative feelings evoked by the unprecedented global crisis may inspire positive attitudes towards helpful but controversial surveillance technologies but that they do so to a lesser extent than ideological beliefs.


Assuntos
Atitude , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Busca de Comunicante/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cultura , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Ativismo Político , Privacidade
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1393, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seine-Saint-Denis is a deprived departement (French administrative unit) in the North-East of Paris, France, hosting the majority of South Asian migrants in France. In recent years, the number of migrants from Pakistan, which has a high prevalence of hepatitis C globally, increased. As a corollary, this study addressed the high proportion of Pakistani patients in the infectious diseases clinic of a local hospital, diagnosed with hepatitis C, but also hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It explored genealogies and beliefs about hepatitis and HIV transmission, including community, sexual and blood risk behaviours. The aim was to understand the ways these risk factors reduce or intensify both en route and once in France, in order to devise specific forms of community health intervention. METHODS: The study took place at Avicenne University-Hospital in Seine-Saint-Denis, and its environs, between July and September 2018. The design of the study was qualitative, combining semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, and ethnographic observations. The sample of Pakistani participants was selected from those followed-up for chronic hepatitis C, B, and/or HIV at Avicenne, and who had arrived after 2010 in Seine-Saint-Denis. RESULTS: Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, until saturation was reached. All participants were men from rural Punjab province. Most took the Eastern Mediterranean human smuggling route. Findings suggest that vulnerabilities to hepatitis and HIV transmission, originating in Pakistan, are intensified along the migration route and perpetuated in France. Taboo towards sexuality, promiscuity in cohabitation conditions, lack of knowledge about transmission were amongst the factors increasing vulnerabilities. Participants suggested a number of culturally-acceptable health promotion interventions in the community, such as outreach awareness and testing campaigns in workplaces, health promotion and education in mosques, as well as web-based sexual health promotion tools to preserve anonymity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to look at specific groups at risk, related to their countries of origin. In-depth understandings of such groups, using interdisciplinary approaches such as were employed here, can allow for culturally adapted, tailored interventions. However, French colour-blind policies do not easily permit such kinds of targeted approach and this limitation requires further debate.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Assunção de Riscos , Migrantes , Adulto , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , França , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , População Suburbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Intern Med J ; 50(9): 1123-1131, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929818

RESUMO

Rituals may be understood broadly as stereotyped behaviours carrying symbolic meanings, which play a crucial role in defining relationships, legitimating authority, giving meaning to certain life events and stabilising social structures. Despite intense interest in the subject, and an extensive literature, relatively little attention has been given to the nature, role and function of ritual in contemporary medicine. Medicine is replete with ritualistic behaviours and imperatives, which play a crucial role in all aspects of clinical practice. Rituals play multiple, complex functions in clinical interactions and have an important role in shaping interactions, experiences and outcomes. Longstanding medical rituals have been disrupted in the wake of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Medical rituals may be evident or invisible, often overlap with or operate alongside instrumentalised practices, and play crucial roles in establishing, maintaining and guaranteeing the efficacy of clinical practices. Rituals can also inhibit progress and change, by enforcing arbitrary authority. Physicians should consider when they are undertaking a ritual practice and recognise when the exigencies of contemporary practice are affecting that ritual with or without meaning or intention. Physicians should reflect on whether aspects of their ritual interactions are undertaken on the basis of sentiment, custom or evidence-based outcomes, and whether rituals should be defended, continued in a modified fashion or even abandoned in favour of new behaviours suitable for and salient with contemporary practice in the interests of patient care.


Assuntos
Comportamento Ritualístico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Betacoronavirus , Cultura , Humanos , Pandemias
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745186

RESUMO

Cultured meat grown in vitro from animal cells has the potential to address many of the ethical, environmental, and public health issues associated with conventional meat production. However, as well as overcoming technical challenges to producing cultured meat, producers and advocates of the technology must consider a range of social issues, including consumer appeal and acceptance, media coverage, religious status, regulation, and potential economic impacts. Whilst much has been written on the prospects for consumer appeal and acceptance of cultured meat, less consideration has been given to the other aspects of the social world that will interact with this new technology. Here, each of these issues is considered in turn, forming a view of cultured meat as a technology with a diverse set of societal considerations and far-reaching social implications. It is argued that the potential gains from a transition to cultured meat are vast, but that cultural phenomena and institutions must be navigated carefully for this nascent industry to meet its potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Carne/provisão & distribução , Animais , Cultura , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764817

RESUMO

The city of Clarkston (Georgia) is home to many refugees and immigrants, including Bhutanese and Burmese populations. Use of gutka and paan masala is common in these populations. While gutka and paan masala contain toxic ingredients including carcinogens, little research has examined general use, perceptions of risk, cultural norms, and access to these products among Bhutanese and Burmese populations in the southern U.S. This study uses focus groups and key informant interviews to develop an understanding of gutka and paan masala use among Bhutanese and Burmese refugee populations residing in Clarkston, focusing in particular on knowledge and perceptions of harm, patterns of and reasons for use, access to gutka and paan masala, and resources for cessation and prevention of gutka and paan masala use. We conducted 21 focus groups with Bhutanese and Burmese youths and adults and 11 key informant interviews. We analyzed data using MAXQDA and a grounded theory approach. Emerging themes included mixed understandings of ingredients and harms associated with gutka and paan masala use. The continued use of paan masala was perceived to be due to cultural traditions. Youths, particularly Bhutanese, were perceived as a rising group of users of gutka and paan masala. Widespread availability and accessibility in Clarkston made it easy for both adults and youths to acquire and use gutka and paan masala. Few participants knew about prevention efforts or resources in their communities. In conclusion, culturally-relevant awareness and education programs as well as health promotion materials regarding gutka and paan masala are much needed in Bhutanese and Burmese communities. More regulatory actions are needed, such as better warning signs in businesses to inform customers of ingredients in these products and their health risks, age restrictions on gutka and paan masala purchase, and compliance checks.


Assuntos
Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Adulto , Areca/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Butão , Cultura , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Georgia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco sem Fumaça/provisão & distribução , Migrantes , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237771, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804940

RESUMO

It is widely believed that conspiracy theory beliefs are the product of perceived lack of control. However, to date there is mixed evidence, at best, to support this claim. We consider the reasons why conspiracy theory beliefs do not appear to be based in any straightforward way on control beliefs, interrogating existing findings and presenting new data that call the relationship into question. Across six studies conducted online using MTurk samples, we observed no effect of control manipulations on conspiracy theory beliefs, while replicating previously reported correlational evidence of their association. The results suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not suitable for compensating for threats to control. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy between experimental and correlational effects and examine the limitations of the studies.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Cultura , Opinião Pública , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834012

RESUMO

Despite their burden and high prevalence, mental health disorders of children and adolescents remain neglected in many parts of the world. In developing countries, where half of the population is younger than 18 years old, one of every five children and adolescents is estimated to suffer from a mental health disorder. It is then essential to detect these conditions through screening in a timely and accurate manner. But such screening is fraught with considerable ethical, social, and cultural challenges. This study systematically identifies, for the first time, these challenges, along with potential solutions to address them. We report on the results of an international multi- and inter-disciplinary three-round Delphi survey completed by 135 mental health experts from 37 countries. We asked these experts to identify and rank the main ethical, social, and cultural challenges of screening for child and adolescent mental health problems in developing nations, and to propose solutions for each challenge. Thirty-nine significant challenges emerged around eight themes, along with 32 potential solutions organized into seven themes. There was a high degree of consensus among the experts, but a few interesting disagreements arose between members of the panel from high-income countries and those from low- and middle-income nations. The panelists overwhelmingly supported mental health screening for children and adolescents. They recommended ensuring local acceptance and support for screening prior to program initiation, along with careful and comprehensive protection of human rights; integrating screening procedures into primary care; designing and implementing culturally appropriate screening tools, programs, and follow-up; securing long-term funding; expanding capacity building; and task-shifting screening to local non-specialists. These recommendations can serve as a guide for policy and decision-making, resource allocation, and international cooperation. They also offer a novel approach to reduce the burden of these disorders by encouraging their timely and context-sensitive prevention and management.


Assuntos
Cultura , Países em Desenvolvimento , Programas de Rastreamento , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental/ética , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(7): 435-441, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741874

RESUMO

 Japan is currently one of the countries with a long life expectancy, in which a great number of older people need care for their daily living. Japan has become increasingly internationalized due to an increase in foreigners and international marriages. As the number of elderly foreigners and foreign-born Japanese increase, older adults who do not use Japanese as their first language will need more opportunities to receive care. We examined characteristics such as country of origin, language spoken, lifestyle, living environment, and cultural background of elderly people who were either foreign permanent residents living in Japan or foreign-born Japanese (hereinafter referred to as elderly with an international background, in short, EIB) receiving care support. Ichushi-web, a medical literature database, was used [last search date: June 2, 2018]. These searches extracted 205 papers. After the first and second extraction procedures, only two papers matched this theme. These two reports were for Korean residents in Japan, so-called special permanent residents, and repatriates from China and their spouses, many of whom were aged 75 years old and above. The number of permanent residents in Japan who speak a foreign language as their first language is increasing. Inhibition of communication between EIB and healthcare welfare service providers is expected to be an obstacle while accessing care support services. For this reason, we must provide them with information related to Japanese healthcare services. Medical interpretation efforts are scattered and the response to EIB in the event of disasters has been discussed. From the perspective of multicultural coexistence, it is necessary to provide long-term care insurance services and medical services to EIB. Such efforts may include development and sharing of tools and the placement of staff who can communicate with non-Japanese speakers. Staff must also understand various illness- and health awareness-related issues. In the future, considering the increasing number of EIB who may require care services, we must consider cultural backgrounds and language diversification for EIB. These issues require clarification and development of acceptable solutions.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Cultura , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Administração em Saúde Pública , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração
17.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 164-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742508

RESUMO

Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis. Mucocutaneous involvement is the most prominent finding, but triggering factors are not well-known. We decided to assess the beliefs of patients with Behçet's disease regarding the potential role of food, mucosal injury, menstruation, and stress in the appearance of symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with Behçet's disease who fulfilled the International Study Group criteria for Behçet's disease and referred to the outpatient Behçet's clinic of Motahari, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, were included. A questionnaire was designed by the research team consisting of the rheumatologist involved in the study, two dietitians, and a psychiatrist. The patients were interviewed face-to-face to fill in the questionnaire. The assessed variables were all food categories, menstruation, psychological stress, and oral mucosal injury as the potential triggers of symptoms onset. The most common foods reported as triggers for oral ulcers were eggplant (78.3%), melon (68.3%), walnut (68.2%), and cantaloupe (66.7%). Walnut was reported by three patients (5%) as the most common trigger for genital ulcers. Nervous tension (83%) and annoying arguments (45%) were the two most common psychological stress triggers for oral ulcers. Seven patients (11.7%) reported tooth brushing, as the trigger for oral ulcers. The irregular menstrual cycle was a trigger for oral ulcers in only two patients. Food items such as eggplant, walnut and melon were common self-reported triggers for mucocutaneous lesions in patients with Behçet's disease. Nervous tension and annoying arguments were also common psychological triggers for oral aphthous ulcers.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/psicologia , Cultura , Alimentos , Menstruação/psicologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Síndrome de Behçet/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Úlceras Orais/complicações , Úlceras Orais/psicologia , Dor/etiologia , Recidiva
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745187

RESUMO

Proof-of-principle for large-scale engineering of edible muscle tissue, in vitro, was established with the product's introduction in 2013. Subsequent research and commentary on the potential for cell-based meat to be a viable food option and potential alternative to conventional meat have been significant. While some of this has focused on the biology and engineering required to optimize the manufacturing process, a majority of debate has focused on cultural, environmental, and regulatory considerations. Animal scientists and others with expertise in muscle and cell biology, physiology, and meat science have contributed to the knowledge base that has made cell-based meat possible and will continue to have a role in the future of the new product. Importantly, the successful introduction of cell-based meat that looks and tastes like conventional meat at a comparable price has the potential to displace and/or complement conventional meat in the marketplace.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Carne/provisão & distribução , Animais , Cultura , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
19.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 9-14, 2020 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638596

RESUMO

Searching for an answer whether medicine is a science or an art, especially in today's time when the emphasis is on the biotechnological aspects of treatment, the intention of this paper is to reflect on the outcomes of the encounter of medicine and art. Those that are recognised at least in the complementarity of the methodology, creating additional life values. By presenting authentic actions, this is a call for additional health improvement interventions, without allowing the biopsychosocial approach to human integrity to be forgotten. The inspiration for this view was the prestigious title of the European Capital of Culture that the Town of Rijeka was awarded for the year 2020. This city is also a kind of capital of health culture in many ways.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Cultura , Medicina nas Artes , Croácia , História do Século XXI , Música
20.
S Afr Med J ; 110(3): 204-209, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has very low and unchanging organ donation rates. A key point in the pathway of organ donation is obtaining informed consent from the family, which is necessary before organ donation can proceed. There is no published SA research on the consent rate and factors that influence this. OBJECTIVES: To describe the number of requests for consent and factors influencing this process in the SA context. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study was performed of all requests to families for organ donation in Western Cape Province, SA, by Groote Schuur Hospital (state sector), Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (state sector) and Netcare (private sector) transplant co-ordinators from 1 May 2017 to 1 May 2018 to describe factors influencing consent rates. RESULTS: The 6 co-ordinators (3 state sector and 3 private sector) recorded data of 83 consecutive families approached in 16 hospitals over the 1-year period. Consent to organ donation was granted for 23 family requests (n=18 (state sector); n=5 (private sector)). The number of families approached was greater in the state sector (n=74) than in the private sector (n=9). The overall consent rate was 27.7% (24.3% (state sector); 55.5% (private sector)). The majority of referrals came from trauma and emergency units (n=55; 66.3%) and very few from intensive care units (n=25; 30.1%). Immediate fluid resuscitation was required in 56 (67.5%) potential donors. The majority of families (n=74; 89.2%) were receptive to the organ donation request, independent of their ultimate decision regarding donation. The main reason given for refusing to consent was that it was against their religion (n=21) or culture (n=18). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the number of families approached for consent to organ donation were low in the Western Cape (lower in the private sector), with a low consent rate (lower in the state sector). Donor management by clinical teams needs to be ongoing and active during the consent process. Consent discussions (and public awareness initiatives) need to be sensitive to and deal with religious and cultural reservations about organ donation.


Assuntos
Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Família , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Estudos Prospectivos , Religião , África do Sul
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