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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0275469, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322519

RESUMO

Standardized cross-cultural databases of the arts are critical to a balanced scientific understanding of the performing arts, and their role in other domains of human society. This paper introduces the Global Jukebox as a resource for comparative and cross-cultural study of the performing arts and culture. The Global Jukebox adds an extensive and detailed global database of the performing arts that enlarges our understanding of human cultural diversity. Initially prototyped by Alan Lomax in the 1980s, its core is the Cantometrics dataset, encompassing standardized codings on 37 aspects of musical style for 5,776 traditional songs from 1,026 societies. The Cantometrics dataset has been cleaned and checked for reliability and accuracy, and includes a full coding guide with audio training examples (https://theglobaljukebox.org/?songsofearth). Also being released are seven additional datasets coding and describing instrumentation, conversation, popular music, vowel and consonant placement, breath management, social factors, and societies. For the first time, all digitized Global Jukebox data are being made available in open-access, downloadable format (https://github.com/theglobaljukebox), linked with streaming audio recordings (theglobaljukebox.org) to the maximum extent allowed while respecting copyright and the wishes of culture-bearers. The data are cross-indexed with the Database of Peoples, Languages, and Cultures (D-PLACE) to allow researchers to test hypotheses about worldwide coevolution of aesthetic patterns and traditions. As an example, we analyze the global relationship between song style and societal complexity, showing that they are robustly related, in contrast to previous critiques claiming that these proposed relationships were an artifact of autocorrelation (though causal mechanisms remain unresolved).


Assuntos
Música , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comparação Transcultural , Idioma , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cultura
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221614, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321489

RESUMO

The past 2 Myr have seen both unprecedented environmental instability and the evolution of the human capacity for complex culture. This, along with the observation that cultural evolution occurs faster than genetic evolution, has led to the suggestion that culture is an adaptation to an unstable environment. We test this hypothesis by examining the ability of human social learning to respond to environmental changes. We do this by inserting human participants (n = 4800) into evolutionary simulations with a changing environment while varying the social information available to individuals across five conditions. We find that human social learning shows some signs of adaptation to environmental instability, including critical social learning, the adoption of up-and-coming traits and, unexpectedly, contrariness. However, these are insufficient to avoid significant fitness declines when the environment changes, and many individuals are highly conformist, which exacerbates the fitness effects of environmental change. We conclude that human social learning reflects a compromise between the competing needs for flexibility to accommodate environmental change and fidelity to accurately transmit valuable cultural information.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Aprendizado Social , Humanos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Cultura
3.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5382213, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36225753

RESUMO

Dunhuang Feitian is a complex of Indian culture, Buddhist culture, Western culture, and Central Plains culture. It has been loved by artists since ancient times and is an important embodiment of the essence of grotto art. Dunhuang culture is an important cultural heritage used to build Chinese cultural identity. With the development of science and technology and the progress of society, the exchanges between cultures are increasingly deepened. These exchanges are not only reflected in language, economy, politics, film, and technology but also in science and technology. From a macroperspective, culture includes all products, and products are also an intuitive manifestation of culture. How to continue culture and consider the customs and taboos of the outside world while continuing retains the essence of culture to the greatest extent and integrates local characteristics, so that foreign culture can be integrated into it. Being well accepted by local people will become an important proposition for crosscultural communication and value expression. Therefore, based on cognitive thinking and Kansei engineering theory, this research explores and analyzes product design methods that integrate Spanish and Chinese cultures, hereinafter referred to as "Western-Chinese" cultures. Analyze the two cultures separately: from a certain culture, after the image investigation, extract the target image; from another culture, get the modeling design factors and then realize the product image modeling design of crosscultural Dunhuang integration and the Dunhuang culture. Value generation and realization reasonably recognize the connection between the two cultures, form a crosscultural integration design theory, and provide new ideas for product innovation design.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Idioma , China , Cultura , Humanos
5.
Curr Biol ; 32(20): R1136-R1140, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283380

RESUMO

In humans, culture can have a variety of meanings, from trends in music or art, to technological advances, to the ideologies and values that underpin a society. What all these meanings all have in common is that they encompass behaviours, skills and ideas that are not genetically determined, but rather learned from those around us, and shared in a group or society. Human societies also exhibit what is termed 'cumulative cultural evolution', when cultures build on themselves over generations of learners to exhibit more complex or effective behaviours, allowing us to go from a sled to a high-speed train, or from counting to calculus. But what about other species - do they also exhibit cultures?


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Música , Animais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Aves , Cultura
6.
Nurs Ethics ; 29(6): 1321-1322, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189864

Assuntos
Cultura , Amigos , Humanos , Confiança
7.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1866): 20210349, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314144

RESUMO

Thinking about possibilities plays a critical role in the choices humans make throughout their lives. Despite this, the influence of individuals' ability to consider what is possible on culture has been largely overlooked. We propose that the ability to reason about future possibilities or prospective cognition, has consequences for cultural change, possibly facilitating the process of cumulative cultural evolution. In particular, by considering potential future costs and benefits of specific behaviours, prospective cognition may lead to a more flexible use of cultural behaviours. In species with limited planning abilities, this may lead to the development of cultures that promote behaviours with future benefits, circumventing this limitation. Here, we examine these ideas from a comparative perspective, considering the relationship between human and nonhuman assessments of future possibilities and their cultural capacity to invent new solutions and improve them over time. Given the methodological difficulties of assessing prospective cognition across species, we focus on planning, for which we have the most data in other species. Elucidating the role of prospective cognition in culture will help us understand the variability in when and how we see culture expressed, informing ongoing debates, such as that surrounding which social learning mechanisms underlie culture. This article is part of the theme issue 'Thinking about possibilities: mechanisms, ontogeny, functions and phylogeny'.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Hominidae , Aprendizado Social , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Cognição , Cultura
8.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 21(1): 3-14, ene.-abr. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1397924

RESUMO

Introducción: el embarazo adolescente hace referencia a toda gestación que ocurre durante la adolescencia y comprende las mujeres de hasta 19 años. Irrumpe la vida de las adolescentes en momentos que no alcanzan la madurez física ni mental, con carencias nutricionales y enfermedades. Las causas son amplias y complejas, variando entre distintos grupos culturales y étnicos. Para los investigadores es importante conocer la forma de pensar de las jóvenes y madres respecto a embarazos en adolescentes, como construyen los sentidos y significaciones alrededor de embarazos a temprana edad, qué factores intervienen, de qué modo se puede educar a la población joven y adulta ante esta problemática que irrumpe con su proyecto de vida. Material y métodos: enfoque metodológico cualitativo descriptivo, con visión holística histórico-etnográfico, dado que se pretende conocer la manera de pensar de las adolescentes del estado de Guerrero en la región montaña alta ante un embarazo y las posibles causas de la misma. Resultados: el binomio revela que la falta de recursos económicos, educación, costumbres y tradiciones son las principales causas de un embarazo precoz y deserción escolar en la montaña Alta de Guerrero. Consideraciones finales: desde el término EMIC se manifiesta desacuerdo por el embarazo adolescente, se visualiza la incapacidad de las participantes para desarrollar el rol de crianza y educación, se refleja con ETIC la inmadurez física y psicológica de las adolescentes para adquirir la responsabilidad de una mujer adulta, el proyecto de vida se ve estancado en el mismo padrón de los padres.


Introduction: adolescent pregnancy refers to any gestation that occurs during adolescence and includes women up to 19 years of age. It bursts into the lives of adolescents at times when they do not reach physical or mental maturity, with nutritional deficiencies and illnesses. The causes are broad and complex, varying among different cultural and ethnic groups. For researchers, it is important to know the way of thinking of young women and mothers regarding teenage pregnancies, how they build meanings and meanings around early pregnancies, what factors intervene, how the young and adult population can be educated before this problem that bursts with his life project. Material and methods: the present investigation has a descriptive qualitative methodological approach, with a holistic historical-ethnographic vision, since it is intended to know the way of thinking of adolescents from the state of Guerrero in the high mountain region before a pregnancy and the possible causes of it. Results: the binomial reveals that the lack of economic resources, education, customs and traditions are the main causes of early pregnancy and school dropout in the High Mountain of Guerrero. Final considerations: the term EMIC shows disagreement with adolescent pregnancy, the inability of the participants to develop the role of upbringing and education, the physical and psychological immaturity of the adolescents to acquire the responsibility of an adult woman is reflected in ETIC, the life project is stagnated in the same pattern of the parents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez , Observação , Cultura , Transculturação
9.
Women Health ; 62(8): 688-699, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082451

RESUMO

In this systematic review, we aimed to explore the influence of sociocultural beliefs and practices on contraception and their uptake among women in low-income countries (LICs) and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). For this purpose, a literature search was conducted using four databases, namely Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed and EBSCOhost Research Platform. Twenty-five articles were selected and analyzed out of a total of 5180 retrieved and screened articles. We used thematic analysis to identify, interpret and report patterns and themes from these records. The analysis identified six factors influencing the uptake of contraceptive methods among women aged 13 to 65-years in LICs and LMICs in relation to their sociocultural beliefs and practices. We found that women's social status and responsibility were recognized at the individual level and the unique patriarchal culture at the partner level, while community-level factors included myths and misconceptions, cultural differences and religious beliefs. Thus, the main challenges to the uptake of contraceptive methods among women in terms of sociocultural norms occur at varying levels of society. This review suggests the need for future family planning programs and health education to target specific community levels and especially to consider diverse social and cultural backgrounds.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Renda
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2205914119, 2022 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122242

RESUMO

Conformist and anticonformist transmission of dichotomous cultural traits (i.e., traits with two variants) have been studied both experimentally, in many species, and theoretically, with mathematical models. Signatures of types of conformity to polychotomous traits (with more than two variants; e.g., baby names and syllables in bird song) have been inferred from population-level data, but there are few models that include individual-level biases among more than two discrete variants. We generalize the standard dichotomous trait conformity model by Boyd and Richerson to incorporate [Formula: see text] role models and [Formula: see text] variants. Our analysis shows that in the case of [Formula: see text] role models, under anticonformity, the central polymorphic equilibrium [Formula: see text] is globally stable, whereas under conformity, if initially the frequencies of [Formula: see text] variants are all equal to the maximum variant frequency in the population, there is global convergence to an equilibrium in which the frequencies of these variants are all [Formula: see text] and all other variants are absent. With a general number n of role models, the same result holds with conformity, whereas under anticonformity, global convergence is not guaranteed, and there may be stable frequency cycles or chaos. If both conformity and anticonformity occur for different configurations of variants among the n role models, a variety of novel polymorphic equilibria may exist and be stable. Future empirical studies may use this formulation to directly quantify an individual's level of (anti)conformist bias to a polychotomous trait.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Fenótipo , Cultura
11.
Clin Trials ; 19(6): 673-680, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To summarise the temporal trends of recruitment and methodological characteristics of critical care randomised controlled trials with the primary outcome of mortality. METHODS: PubMed was searched for articles meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Randomised controlled trials, with primary outcome of mortality, of adult and paediatric critical care patients treated in an intensive care unit, were included. Neonatal intensive care unit trials, non-English publications and conference proceedings or abstracts without full-length publications were excluded. Duplicate literature search, article selection and quality assessment were performed by two reviewers with disputes resolved through discussion. Data were extracted into a custom-designed Research Electronic Data Capture database. RESULTS: The search identified 67,199 records of which 230 were included. The annual number of critical care randomised controlled trials published increased gradually over a 30-year period from 0 in 1990 to 19 in 2014 with stabilisation at 8-11 between 2015 and 2020. Twenty-seven percent of randomised controlled trials were low risk in all categories using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Methodological characteristics such as registration on clinical trials registries and data safety monitoring committee presence significantly (p < 0.001) increased over time. The median recruitment was 376 patients (interquartile range 125-895) with significant increase (p = 0.002) from 62 (interquartile range: 33-486) in 1991 to 725 (interquartile range: 537-2600) in 2020. This was accompanied by an increase in recruitment times. Thus overall, recruitment rates did not increase. Early cessation occurred in 23% (54/230) of randomised controlled trials with no temporal trend. CONCLUSION: The number, size and some methodological qualities of critical randomised controlled trials with primary outcome of mortality have increased over time, but rates of recruitment and early cessation have been unchanged.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Cultura , Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e172, 2022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098443

RESUMO

In theory, observed correlations between genetic information and behaviour might be useful to members of the WEIRD (western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) populations. Guiding young people to choose educational opportunities that best match their abilities would benefit both the individual and society. In practice, however, such choices are far more profoundly limited by the culture people have inherited than their genes.


Assuntos
Cultura , Adolescente , Genética , Humanos
13.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7401144, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060882

RESUMO

Ecological civilization refers to the sum of the material production and consumption mode, social organization and management system, values and ethics, and resource development and environmental influence mode between man and nature created in the practice of transforming nature, adapting to nature, conserving nature, and savoring nature. The construction of ecological civilization is an important part of the realization of the new rural construction goal of "production development, well-off life, civilized village customs, clean village appearance, and democratic management." With the comprehensive promotion of the construction of a new socialist countryside in China, the ancient villages, as the source foundation of Chinese national culture and the real record of historical information, have become an urgent and severe topic for the current village renovation and protection. This article studies the architectural modeling, village layout, space, color application, and other aspects of ancient Huizhou village architecture, appreciates some elements of form aesthetics, and explores its rich content in modern society, cultural background, and economic conditions. At the same time, starting from the architectural characteristics of ancient Huizhou villages, integrate and understand the characteristics of village layout, architectural shape, and space color application in Huizhou traditional ancient village architecture, and analyze the harmonious beauty, overall beauty, nature, and coordination covered in Huizhou traditional ancient village architecture beauty and other beautiful features. To study the architectural shape, village layout, space, and color application in Huizhou's ancient village buildings, appreciate some elements of morphological aesthetics, and explore its rich content contained in modern society, cultural background, and economic conditions. At the same time, starting from the architectural characteristics of Huizhou ancient villages, we can integrate and understand the characteristics of village layout, architectural shape, and spatial color application in Huizhou traditional ancient villages, and analyze the characteristics of harmony, overall beauty, nature, and coordinated beauty covered in the architecture of Huizhou traditional ancient villages. This study is of great practical significance to promote the comprehensive improvement and protection of historical buildings, traditional residential communities, historical features, and surrounding ecological environment in ancient villages, and to realize the unity of ecology and civilization, efficiency and energy saving, healthy and sustainable development of ancient villages.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , População Rural , China , Civilização , Cultura , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(37): e2201692119, 2022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074817

RESUMO

Culture, a pillar of the remarkable ecological success of humans, is increasingly recognized as a powerful force structuring nonhuman animal populations. A key gap between these two types of culture is quantitative evidence of symbolic markers-seemingly arbitrary traits that function as reliable indicators of cultural group membership to conspecifics. Using acoustic data collected from 23 Pacific Ocean locations, we provide quantitative evidence that certain sperm whale acoustic signals exhibit spatial patterns consistent with a symbolic marker function. Culture segments sperm whale populations into behaviorally distinct clans, which are defined based on dialects of stereotyped click patterns (codas). We classified 23,429 codas into types using contaminated mixture models and hierarchically clustered coda repertoires into seven clans based on similarities in coda usage; then we evaluated whether coda usage varied with geographic distance within clans or with spatial overlap between clans. Similarities in within-clan usage of both "identity codas" (coda types diagnostic of clan identity) and "nonidentity codas" (coda types used by multiple clans) decrease as space between repertoire recording locations increases. However, between-clan similarity in identity, but not nonidentity, coda usage decreases as clan spatial overlap increases. This matches expectations if sympatry is related to a measurable pressure to diversify to make cultural divisions sharper, thereby providing evidence that identity codas function as symbolic markers of clan identity. Our study provides quantitative evidence of arbitrary traits, resembling human ethnic markers, conveying cultural identity outside of humans, and highlights remarkable similarities in the distributions of human ethnolinguistic groups and sperm whale clans.


Assuntos
Identificação Social , Cachalote , Acústica , Animais , Cultura , Oceano Pacífico , Vocalização Animal
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 969658, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062115

RESUMO

Background: The best way to prevent COVID-19 is to observe health protocols. Therefore, identifying the reasons of following these protocols in order to plan and make intervention seems necessary. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of observing health protocols related to prevention of COVID-19 among the Iranian adult women with a qualitative approach. Method: In this qualitative study, the conventional content analysis approach was used. saturation was obtained after face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 38 women from Kermanshah who were selected through purposeful sampling and snowball sampling. Guba and Lincoln criteria were used for the strength of the research and Graneheim and Lundman method was used for its analysis. Results: After analyzing the interviews, 5 categories, 12 subcategories and 110 initial codes were obtained. Categories and sub-categories were: 1- Individual factors (personality traits, health literacy about COVID-19); 2- Perceived risk having underlying disease in oneself and family, history of getting COVID-19 and death in close relatives; 3- Fear of the destructive consequences of the disease (concern about the economic consequences of getting the disease, concern about the treatment process); 4- Social and cultural factors (social monitoring, religious insight, ability to properly manage social interactions, impressionability from important others); 5- Environmental factors (supportive living environment, access to health and anti-infective materials). Conclusion: Increasing the adherence of adult women to health instructions related to COVID-19 requires interventions at different levels of individual, environmental and social, and without accurate knowledge of the customs and culture of a society effective interventions cannot be established.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3498622, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159761

RESUMO

Tourism is evolving constantly as a result of the growth of the creative economy. Currently, ethnic cultural tourism is the focus of cultural tourism's overall development, while cultural tourism's development is primarily driven by considerations of social economy, cultural protection, and cultural inheritance. The first section of the article defines cultural and creative tourism. Second, this essay examines the evolution of creative and cultural tourism in general. In the end, cultural tourism's overall development is unquestionably superior to other development, and the other two commonly receive poor ratings. Its overall development score ranges from 4.4 to 4.9, and its average value without overall development is 4.42. The highest score is 4.89, with the average for cultural tourism with limited development being 4.49 and the average for cultural tourism with full development being 4.71. In a nutshell, the paper's proposal for evaluating the entire development of cultural tourism is doable.


Assuntos
Cultura , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Turismo
17.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(5): 111-119, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127764

RESUMO

Respect for autonomy is an important principle of medical ethics. Individuals exist within socially embedded networks that include many people, and develop their sense of self and decision-making capacity through network relationships. The concept of relational autonomy has been proposed as a feasible alternative to individual autonomy. Within the framework of relational autonomy, an individual builds up their decision-making capacities through continuous interaction, delivering information and knowledge to the medical team, family, and other important relations while considering their own social and cultural backgrounds within the contexts of trust, caring, and sincere collaboration. The authors of this study integrated the concept of relational autonomy and analyzed the decision-making autonomy of critical patients. When a patient has decision-making capacity, health professionals must provide a trusting, open, and caring communication environment for all important stakeholders to interact, discuss, and assist patients to demonstrate their autonomy. If a patient is unconscious or unable to make decisions, their wishes need to be respected. However, if this patient has not signed a document of intent, the legal representative must respect patient autonomy in accordance with their previous wishes and values. However, the disease prognosis is not easy to predict, the public and health professionals lack knowledge of advance directives, and it is considered taboo to talk about death. Advance directives remain unpopular. Therefore, we hope this article may assist health professionals to demonstrate patient relational autonomy in medical decision situations.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Autonomia Relacional , Comunicação , Cultura , Morte , Humanos
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 185-195, sept. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399261

RESUMO

Introduction: Rice is a staple food in Costa Rica representing almost 24 % of the total calorie intake in the diet. Consumers have become more quality conscious about the rice consumed, so producers need to focus on the quality of rice along with production. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical profile and consumer preference of five Costa Rican rice varieties: Palmar 18, Basmatico, Chin Chin, INTA-Miravalles, and CR- 5272. Materials and methods: Proximate analysis, amylose, and mineral content were performed in the raw grain. Two different sessions were performed (n=120 each) to evaluate consumer preference measurements using the John Brown R-Index (RJB) index. The first sensory panel selected the best cooking preparation and the second, the preferred rice variety. Instrumental color measurements (L*, C*, hº, DE) were applied to the cooked rice varieties (76-96ºC for 38 min). Results: Regarding the physicochemical characterization, INTAMiravalles showed the highest protein content (8.2%), while Basmatico and Chin Chin, the lowest. Four varieties presented high amylose content (AC) and INTA-Miravalles reported an intermediate AC. The mineral content varied among varieties. INTA-Miravalles showed the highest N, followed by Palmar 18. The cooking preparation from the regulatory agency was preferred by consumers. The consumers' preference of the varieties ranked from high to low: Basmatico>Chin Chin=CR5772>Palmar 18=INTA-Miravalles. Conclusions: This study suggests that consumer preference for cooked rice was influenced by physicochemical characteristics such as protein, AC, mineral content, and aromatic attributes. Consumer acceptance is an important factor to consider when new varieties are developed. The water-to-rice ratio during cooking played an important role in cooked rice sensory quality(AU)


Introducción: el arroz es un alimento básico de consumo en Costa Rica que representa casi el 24% de la ingesta total de calorías en la dieta. Los consumidores se han vuelto más conscientes de la calidad del arroz que consumen, por lo que los productores deben enfocar esfuerzos en la calidad y producción del arroz. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el perfil fisicoquímico y la preferencia del consumidor de cinco variedades de arroz de Costa Rica: Palmar 18, Basmatico, Chin Chin, INTA-Miravalles y CR-5272. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó el análisis proximal, contenido de amilosa (CA) y de minerales en el grano crudo y color instrumental en el arroz cocido. Se realizaron dos mediciones de preferencia de los consumidores (n=120) utilizando el índice R de James Brown (RJB). En la primera se seleccionó el mejor método de preparación y en la segunda, la variedad de arroz preferido. El color instrumental (L*, C*, hº, DE) se midió a las variedades de arroz cocinado (76-96ºC por 38 min). Resultados: Miravalles mostró el mayor contenido en proteínas (8,2%), mientras que Basmatico y Chin Chin, el menor. Cuatro variedades presentaron un alto CA y el INTAMiravalles reportó un CA intermedio. El contenido mineral varió entre las variedades. INTA-Miravalles mostró el mayor contenido de nitrógeno, seguido de Palmar 18. El método de cocción del ente regulador fue el preferido por los consumidores. La preferencia de los consumidores por las variedades de mayor a menor fue: Basmatico > Chin Chin = CR5772 > Palmar 18 = INTA-Miravalles. Conclusiones: La preferencia de los consumidores por el arroz cocido se vio influenciada por características fisicoquímicas como proteína, CA, minerales y atributos aromáticos. La aceptación de los consumidores es un factor importante cuando se desarrollan nuevas variedades. La relación agua/ arroz durante la cocción desempeñó un papel importante en la calidad del arroz cocido(AU)


Assuntos
Oryza , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Alimentos , Minerais , Cultura , Dieta , Amilose
19.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 37(7): 596-603, Sep. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207482

RESUMO

Introducción: La evaluación del lenguaje en el contexto de las alteraciones neurológicas se fundamenta, tradicionalmente, en el uso de la lengua estándar de la comunidad en la que tiene lugar. Las variables dialectales constituyen un tema «olvidado». El objetivo de esta revisión es aportar recursos y guías de trabajo para superar esta limitación. Desarrollo: (1) Revisión de conceptos propios de la dialectología (lengua, dialecto, líneas isoglosas, idiolecto, registro, «variante estándar», bilingüismo). (2) Caracterización fundamental de las dialectologías española y catalana y búsqueda de recursos online para el desarrollo de instrumentos en neurología. (3) Búsqueda ad hoc en PubMed (palabras clave: dialect, aphasia, multilingual). Conclusiones: (1) Se aportan recursos online para promover un adecuado desarrollo de instrumentos de evaluación en lenguas castellana y catalana, considerando aspectos dialectales. (2) Se aportan unas guías de trabajo orientadas a la introducción de variables dialectales en los test de lenguaje para asegurar su objetivo último: evaluar el uso real de la lengua, y no el conocimiento cultural de la lengua estándar. (AU)


Introduction: In the context of neurological disorders, language assessment is traditionally based on the use of the standard language of the community in which the assessment is performed. Dialectal variables constitute a ‘forgotten’ topic. This review aims to provide resources and working guidelines to overcome this limitation. Development: The study was conducted as follows: 1) review of basic concepts of dialectology (language, dialect, isogloss line, idiolect, register, ‘standard variant’, bilingualism); 2)characterisation of Spanish and Catalan dialectologies and search for online resources for the development of neurological assessment tools; 3) ad hoc search on the PubMed database (keywords ‘dialect’, ‘aphasia’ and ‘multilingual’). Conclusions: We provide online resources to promote adequate development of assessment tools in Spanish and Catalan, accounting for Dialectal considerations. We propose a set of working guidelines for the introduction of Dialectal variables in language tests to ensure their ultimate objective: to evaluate the real use of the language, and not cultural knowledge of the standard language. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Afasia/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico da Situação de Saúde , Cultura , Neurologia
20.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(5): 326-333, Sep-Oct 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207827

RESUMO

Objetivo: El dolor se califica como un fenómeno subjetivo, sin embargo, casi todas las mujeres reconocen que el dolor de parto es la forma más severa de dolor que una mujer experimenta en su vida. La analgesia obstétrica está infrautilizada en los países en desarrollo debido a mitos y tabúes culturales. Por lo tanto, el presente estudio pretende identificar los conocimientos de las mujeres nigerianas sobre la analgesia del parto y explorar qué mitos y factores dificultan el uso de la analgesia en el parto. Método: En este estudio se adoptó un diseño cuantitativo descriptivo transversal. La población a estudio consistió predominantemente en mujeres embarazadas de la «etnia Yoruba». Se utilizó un cuestionario semiestructurado adaptado para obtener datos de las participantes de los centros de salud seleccionados en el estado de Ekiti, Nigeria. Los datos recogidos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencial y se representaron en forma de tablas y gráficos. El nivel de significación estuvo fijado en p ≤ 0,05. Resultados: Un total de 236 encuestadas fueron incluidas en el estudio (n = 236). Los resultados de este estudio revelaron que las participantes tenían un conocimiento muy pobre de las estrategias de tratamiento del dolor del parto, ya que solo 26,3% conocía las estrategias de tratamiento del dolor utilizadas para aliviar el dolor del parto. Un elevado número de las participantes (56,8%) creía que el dolor del parto no debía aliviarse con el uso de fármacos, estando muy de acuerdo en que la analgesia era «un signo de debilidad» (57,2%). Asimismo, más de la mitad (51,7%) de las participantes temían que el alivio del dolor administrado durante el parto pudiera causar daños al feto. La creencia de que experimentar el dolor del parto completa la maternidad (49,6%), la religión (50,4%) y la cultura (54,5%) se señalaron como factores que influyen en la aceptación de la analgesia del parto entre las participantes.(AU)


Objective: Pain is termed as a subjective phenomenon, however almost all women acknowledge that labor pain is the most severe form of pain a woman experiences in her lifetime. Obstetric analgesia is underutilized in developing countries due to cultural myths and taboos. Hence, the present study aims to identify Nigerian women's knowledge of labor analgesia and to explore what myths and factors hinder with the use of analgesia in labor. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted in this study. The population of the study predominantly consisted of pregnant women from the «Yoruba ethnic group». An adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from participants from selected Health Care Centers in Ekiti state, Nigeria. The collected data was analyzed using a descriptive and inferential statistics and was represented in form of tables and charts with level of significance set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 236 respondents were included in the study (n = 236). Findings from this study revealed that, the participants showed very poor knowledge on labor pain management strategies, with only 26.3% being aware of pain management strategies used in relieving labor pain. An elevated number of the participants (56.8%) believed that labor pain should not be relieved with the use of drugs, strongly agreeing that analgesia was «a sign ofweakness» (57.2%). Also, more than half (51.7%) of participants had fears that pain relief administered during labor can cause harm to the unborn baby. Belief that experiencing labor pain completes one's motherhood (49.6%), Religion (50.4%) and Culture (54.5%), were reported as factors influencing the uptake/acceptance of labor analgesia among participants.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Trabalho de Parto , Cultura , Religião , 57374 , Mães , Analgesia Epidural , Analgesia , Dor do Parto , Analgesia Obstétrica , Nigéria , Estudos Transversais , Epidemiologia Descritiva , 24960 , Inquéritos e Questionários
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