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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499673

RESUMO

Bangladesh govt. launched a nationwide vaccination drive against SARS-CoV-2 infection from early February 2021. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines and examine the factors associated with the acceptance in Bangladesh. In between January 30 to February 6, 2021, we conducted a web-based anonymous cross-sectional survey among the Bangladeshi general population. At the start of the survey, there was a detailed consent section that explained the study's intent, the types of questions we would ask, the anonymity of the study, and the study's voluntary nature. The survey only continued when a respondent consented, and the answers were provided by the respondents themselves. The multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 605 eligible respondents took part in this survey (population size 1630046161 and required sample size 591) with an age range of 18 to 100. A large proportion of the respondents are aged less than 50 (82%) and male (62.15%). The majority of the respondents live in urban areas (60.83%). A total of 61.16% (370/605) of the respondents were willing to accept/take the COVID-19 vaccine. Among the accepted group, only 35.14% showed the willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine immediately, while 64.86% would delay the vaccination until they are confirmed about the vaccine's efficacy and safety or COVID-19 becomes deadlier in Bangladesh. The regression results showed age, gender, location (urban/rural), level of education, income, perceived risk of being infected with COVID-19 in the future, perceived severity of infection, having previous vaccination experience after age 18, having higher knowledge about COVID-19 and vaccination were significantly associated with the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. The research reported a high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine refusal and hesitancy in Bangladesh. To diminish the vaccine hesitancy and increase the uptake, the policymakers need to design a well-researched immunization strategy to remove the vaccination barriers. To improve vaccine acceptance among people, false rumors and misconceptions about the COVID-19 vaccines must be dispelled (especially on the internet) and people must be exposed to the actual scientific facts.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/psicologia , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recusa de Vacinação
2.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 233-242, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202547

RESUMO

The study of happiness and well-being is receiving increased attention in different fields. Recent research into well-being has focused on delving deeper into the individual's conception about the experience of well-being. McMahan and Estes (2011a) created a scale that assesses lay conceptions of well-being based on four dimensions: the experience of pleasure, avoidance of negative experience, self-development and contribution to others. The goal of this study was to adapt this scale, the Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), to the Spanish population. The sample consisted of 1,024 participants from the general population ranging in age interval from 17 to 87 years old. The confirmatory factorial analysis results in a structure of four dimensions, similar to the original scale, although in the adaptation of the scale the items decrease from 16 to 12. The results of the reliability analysis reveal indexes similar to those of the original scale. These results confirm the validity of Beliefs about Well-Being Scale with general population in a cultural context different from the original study. This will allow cross-cultural studies to analyze the influence of culture in the perception of well-being


El estudio de la felicidad y el bienestar está recibiendo cada vez más atención en diferentes campos. Las investigaciones recientes sobre el bienestar se han centrado en profundizar en la concepción del individuo sobre la experiencia del bienestar. McMahan y Estes (2011a) crearon una escala que evalúa las concepciones legas del bienestar en base a cuatro dimensiones: la experiencia de placer, la evitación de la experiencia negativa, el autodesarrollo y la contribución a los demás. El objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar esta escala, Beliefs about Well-Being Scale (BWBS), a la población española. La muestra estuvo formada por 1.024 participantes de la población general con un intervalo de edad entre 17 y 87 años. El análisis factorial confirmatorio da como resultado una estructura de cuatro dimensiones, similar a la escala original, aunque en la adaptación de la escala los ítems disminuyen de 16 a 12. Los resultados del análisis de fiabilidad revelan índices similares a los de la escala original. Estos resultados confirman la validez de la Escala de Creencias sobre el Bienestar con población general en un contexto cultural diferente al del estudio original. Esto permitirá realizar estudios transculturales para analizar la influencia de la cultura en la percepción del bienestar


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Satisfação Pessoal , Cultura , Adaptação Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Felicidade , Comparação Transcultural , Filosofia , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Fatorial , Prazer , Espanha
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371969

RESUMO

The prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases is on the rise in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, including Lebanon. This study aimed to provide data on fatty acid profiles and ratios of Lebanese composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market foods. Methods: Thirty types of traditional dishes, collected from five different Lebanese governorates, thirty-seven types of Arabic sweets and forty-six market food products were considered for analysis. Food samples were chemically analyzed for total, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The range of total fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 1.2-11.7 g/100 g, 5.3-25.8 g/100 g, and 0.5-100 g/100 g, respectively. Additionally, the range of saturated fatty acids in composite dishes, Arabic sweets, and market food products was between 0.5-4.9 g/100 g, 2.5-23.6 g/100 g and 0.1-56.4 g/100 g, respectively. Furthermore, about 75% of these foods were poor in unsaturated fatty acids. Regarding saturated fatty acid, the polyunsaturated to monounsaturated (P.M.S) ratio was lower than the recommended ratio of 1:1:1 in 96% of samples. To conclude, there is a need to prioritize fat content in foods and consider processing modifications in the food production system with the aim of achieving a higher P:M:S ratio intake among the population.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Cultura , Dieta Saudável , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Jordânia , Kuweit , Líbano , Oriente Médio , Arábia Saudita , Urbanização
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256496, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While vaccines ensure individual protection against COVID-19 infection, delay in receipt or refusal of vaccines will have both individual and community impacts. The behavioral factors of vaccine hesitancy or refusal are a crucial dimension that need to be understood in order to design appropriate interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the behavioral determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and to provide recommendations to increase the acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in Bangladesh. METHODS: We employed a Barrier Analysis (BA) approach to examine twelve potential behavioral determinants (drawn from the Health Belief Model [HBM] and Theory of Reasoned Action [TRA]) of intended vaccine acceptance. We conducted 45 interviews with those who intended to take the vaccine (Acceptors) and another 45 interviews with those who did not have that intention (Non-acceptors). We performed data analysis to find statistically significant differences and to identify which beliefs were most highly associated with acceptance and non-acceptance with COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: The behavioral determinants associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Dhaka included perceived social norms, perceived safety of COVID-19 vaccines and trust in them, perceived risk/susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, perceived positive and negative consequences, perceived action efficacy, perceived severity of COVID-19, access, and perceived divine will. In line with the HBM, beliefs about the disease itself were highly predictive of vaccine acceptance, and some of the strongest statistically-significant (p<0.001) predictors of vaccine acceptance in this population are beliefs around both injunctive and descriptive social norms. Specifically, Acceptors were 3.2 times more likely to say they would be very likely to get a COVID-19 vaccine if a doctor or nurse recommended it, twice as likely to say that most people they know will get a vaccine, and 1.3 times more likely to say that most close family and friends will get a vaccine. The perceived safety of vaccines was found to be important since Non-acceptors were 1.8 times more likely to say that COVID-19 vaccines are "not safe at all". Beliefs about one's risk of getting COVID-19 disease and the severity of it were predictive of being a vaccine acceptor: Acceptors were 1.4 times more likely to say that it was very likely that someone in their household would get COVID-19, 1.3 times more likely to say that they were very concerned about getting COVID-19, and 1.3 times more likely to say that it would be very serious if someone in their household contracted COVID-19. Other responses of Acceptors on what makes immunization easier may be helpful in programming to boost acceptance, such as providing vaccination through government health facilities, schools, and kiosks, and having vaccinators maintain proper COVID-19 health and safety protocols. CONCLUSION: An effective behavior change strategy for COVID-19 vaccines uptake will need to address multiple beliefs and behavioral determinants, reducing barriers and leveraging enablers identified in this study. National plans for promoting COVID-19 vaccination should address the barriers, enablers, and behavioral determinants found in this study in order to maximize the impact on COVID-19 vaccination acceptance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205144

RESUMO

The excessive consumption of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), two vital nutrients for living organisms, is associated with negative environmental and health impacts. While food production contributes to a large amount of N and P loss to the environment, very little N and P is consumed as food. Food habits are affected by multiple regulations, including the dietary restrictions and dictates of various religions. In this study, religion-sensitive N-Calculator and P-Calculator approaches were used to determine the impact of religious dietary culture on the food N and P footprints of India in the major religious communities. Using 2013 data, the food N footprint of Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and Buddhists was 10.70, 11.45, 11.47, and 7.39 kg-N capita-1 year-1 (10.82 kg-N capita-1 year-1 was the national average), and the food P footprint was 1.46, 1.58, 1.04. and 1.58 kg-P capita-1 year-1 (1.48 kg-P capita-1 year-1 was the national average). The findings highlight the impact of individual choice on the N and P food footprints, and the importance of encouraging the followers of religion to follow a diet consistent with the food culture of that religion. The results of this study are a clear indication of the requirement for religion-sensitive analyses in the collecting of data pertinent to a particular country for use in making government policies designed to improve the recycling of food waste and the treatment of wastewater.


Assuntos
Cultura , Dieta/etnologia , Meio Ambiente , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Religião , Budismo , Cristianismo , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hinduísmo , Humanos , Índia , Islamismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255781

RESUMO

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Cultura , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Quarentena/psicologia , Espanha
7.
Nature ; 595(7866): 205-213, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194045

RESUMO

Social and cultural forces shape almost every aspect of infectious disease transmission in human populations, as well as our ability to measure, understand, and respond to epidemics. For directly transmitted infections, pathogen transmission relies on human-to-human contact, with kinship, household, and societal structures shaping contact patterns that in turn determine epidemic dynamics. Social, economic, and cultural forces also shape patterns of exposure, health-seeking behaviour, infection outcomes, the likelihood of diagnosis and reporting of cases, and the uptake of interventions. Although these social aspects of epidemiology are hard to quantify and have limited the generalizability of modelling frameworks in a policy context, new sources of data on relevant aspects of human behaviour are increasingly available. Researchers have begun to embrace data from mobile devices and other technologies as useful proxies for behavioural drivers of disease transmission, but there is much work to be done to measure and validate these approaches, particularly for policy-making. Here we discuss how integrating local knowledge in the design of model frameworks and the interpretation of new data streams offers the possibility of policy-relevant models for public health decision-making as well as the development of robust, generalizable theories about human behaviour in relation to infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Modelos Biológicos , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Clima , Cultura , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Epidemias , Feminino , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205416

RESUMO

Understanding the role in pediatric obesity of early life feeding practices and dietary intake at school age is essential for early prevention. The study aimed to examine associations of early life feeding practices, environmental and health-related exposures, and dietary intake at school age as determinants of obesity in children aged 10-12 years. In an earlier study of 233 healthy infants in two Arab towns in northern Israel, neonatal history, feeding practices, and health information were obtained up to age 18 months. This follow-up study assessed dietary intake and anthropometric measurements at age 10-12 years using the 24 h recall method. Overall, 174 children participated in this study. Almost all (98%) the children were breastfed. The prevalence of obesity at school age was 42%. A multivariable model adjusted for energy intake and socioeconomic status showed positive associations of total fat intake and of weight-for-height z score, but not feeding practices in infancy, with obesity. Higher gestational age at birth was associated with lower odds of obesity at age 10-12 years. In conclusion, in a population with near universal breastfeeding, gestational age at birth, weight indicators but not feeding practices in infancy, and total fat intake at school age were associated with increased likelihood of obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Árabes , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Cultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Métodos de Alimentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204641

RESUMO

AIM: This study examined how psychosocial characteristics might relate to adherence to democratic values among young and older people within two different cultural contexts in Afghanistan. METHOD: Self-report questionnaires were employed to measure empathy, theory of mind, gender role equality, openness to experiences, suggestibility, authoritarianism and support for democracy. A sample of 669 people from younger (18-25 years) and older (45 years and above) age groups from different cultural backgrounds in Afghanistan participated in the study. A series of MANOVAs were conducted to examine the cultural (Dari, Pashto), generational and gender differences on the study variables. Dari and Pashto speakers showed equal degrees of support for authoritarianism regardless of age difference. RESULTS: The findings reveal that Dari speakers scored more highly on empathy, theory of mind, openness, gender role equality, democratic values and lower on suggestibility than Pashto speakers. Older Pashtun participants had lower scores on theory of mind than their younger counterparts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis yields that gender role equality, openness and suggestibility predict support for democracy with gender role equality being the strongest predictor. CONCLUSION: The knowledge gained here would potentially be incorporated into the development of practical guidelines to be used by policy makers, education systems and the media to facilitate the process of democratization.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Cultura , Afeganistão , Idoso , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
11.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 719-728, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231901

RESUMO

This paper intends to analyse the current political and social situation in Brazil and show how this context has influenced the management of the public health crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, the authors conducted an investigation into Brazil's historical roots, which have not only engendered deep class differences but, also, social psychopathologies such as dissociation and perversion. Finally, this paper presents a symbolic analysis of social exclusion and how the mythical figure of Sophia can inspire a renewed movement of inclusion and tolerance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cultura , Política , Preconceito , Teoria Psicanalítica , Brasil/etnologia , Colonialismo , Escravização , Humanos , Inclusão Social , Isolamento Social
12.
Lima; Perú. Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros; 1 ed; 20210700. 105 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1284194

RESUMO

El documento contiene cuatro capítulos: el primero trata de la ética e integridad en el ejercicio de la función pública, el segundo de corrupción y prácticas que afectan la integridad pública, el tercero hacia una cultura de integridad en la Administración Pública, y el último y cuatro capítulo la defensa de la integridad pública.


Assuntos
Administração Pública , Cultura , Ética , Corrupção
13.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-07-20. (OPS/EGC/COVID-19/21-0004).
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54528

RESUMO

La Región de las Américas se caracteriza por su riqueza étnica y cultural. En el marco de la salud universal, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) han priorizado acciones para asegurar que todas las personas y todas las comunidades tengan acceso, sin ningún tipo de discriminación, a servicios de salud que sean integrales, adecuados, oportunos y de calidad. Sin embargo, las relaciones de poder asimétricas y de dominación han dado lugar a que los miembros de ciertos grupos étnicos experimenten sistemáticamente distintas formas de discriminación y exclusión que dan lugar a inequidades e injusticia social. El 4 de junio del 2021, la OPS organizó una reunión virtual en respuesta al llamado de las redes gitanas para abordar la situación de salud en la Región en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19. En este informe se presentan la situación y los objetivos del pueblo rom en los países asistentes, así como estrategias, recomendaciones y medidas de seguimiento que deben aplicarse en los países para mejorar la atención de salud que reciben.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Roma (Grupo Étnico) , Grupos Étnicos , Diversidade Cultural , Cultura , Origem Étnica e Saúde
14.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 40(2): 101-107, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180913

RESUMO

. Cultural meta-analysis 2: the after Covid-19. Against the background of the promises-expectations of an ethically and ecologically renewed and resilient world (declared needed to compensate and to avoid the repetition of the pandemic tragedy), the same methodology proposed in the heart of the Covid scenario has been applied: a cultural metanalysis - transversal through and comprehensive of the various points of view which have had ( and seem to have) an important role for a period defined as 'some light at the end of the tunnel'. After the mandatory priority of a focus on the most qualified health literature, the survey provides essential elements of information and analysis on scenarios which more closely coincide with the challenges to be faced if and when the imaginary of a 'different-better' world should be translated into reality, specifically in the model area of health. With the obvious limitation of an exercise of methodology (which cannot pretend to a completeness of coverage), both world famous and 'significant' authors are included, as well as Italian voices. The take-home - not easy - message is clear. The pandemic has not been an 'health-disease' event. Its 'syndemic' nature (i.e. its interaction with structural, permanent, economic, social, cultural pandemics) imposes the acceptance and the long-term pursuit of new civilisation paradigms. Health care is definitely one of the areas where this cultural challenge must be met.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cultura , Previsões , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
16.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 59(6): 7-12, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060956

RESUMO

Substance use is a common issue worldwide, but it disproportionately affects the Indigenous population in America. As culture affects many aspects of health and wellness, including the presentation and effectiveness of treatment interventions, it is vital that health care providers look at substance use within a cultural context. The Campinha-Bacote Model: The Process of Cultural Competemility in the Delivery of Healthcare Services model is a helpful tool to assess a cultural group in the context of health care. The knowledge and use of this model may assist health care professionals in providing culturally competent care for the Indigenous population in America, as well as other people from various cultural backgrounds. This model also promotes the consideration of cultural factors in nursing research and evidence-based interventions, which may assist in reducing the current disparities that exist within the Indigenous population. The current article addresses the Campinha-Bacote Model in reference to substance use disorder in the Indigenous population in America and the relation to nursing practice and research. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 59(6), 7-12.].


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Cultura , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Grupos Populacionais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
20.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(1): 29-40, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077108

RESUMO

Family planning and contraceptive utilization can have significant effects in reducing unplanned pregnancies and improving maternal and child health indicators. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study analyzing survey response data within six sub-locations of Migori County, Kenya in 2018 and 2019. We utilize this survey data to estimate both the prevalence of contraceptive uptake and unwanted pregnancies in the study populations, and to examine the potential role that different factors play in meeting related family planning targets. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to model determinants of contraceptive use and reported unplanned pregnancy. A total of 3,642 female heads of household were included. 63% of respondents reported that they currently use some form of contraception, and the prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 36.7%. Our findings reflect the need for family planning programs to focus interventions on those at highest risk. There is a need for additional research and investigation into community and individual beliefs surrounding family planning in order to ensure that interventions are culturally sensitive and locally responsive.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Gravidez não Planejada , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada , Prevalência , Religião , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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