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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 204: 111806, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044619

RESUMO

The cotton fabrics are a cosmopolitan in usage due to their extraordinary features. The clothes are a very good medium for the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The nanoparticles have diverse benefits in the biomedical field like drug carrier and as antimicrobials. The current investigation was aimed to synthesize the metallic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the aqueous extract of Curcuma longa leaf and evaluating their antimicrobial and wound healing potential of AgNPs coated cotton fabric. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by HR-TEM and FT-IR examinations. The formulated AgNPs were coated with cotton fabrics to test their efficiency against the pathogenic microorganisms. The existence of AgNPs in the cotton fabrics was confirmed via the SEM along with EDX analysis. The antimicrobial potential of fabricated AgNPs and its coated cotton fabrics was inspected against the human pathogenic strains. The wound healing efficacy was examined in the L929 cells. The HR-TEM analysis proved the existence of spherical shaped AgNPs. In the antimicrobial activity, the CL-AgNPs loaded cotton fabric was exhibited an appreciable decrease in the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The crude extract, as well as formulated AgNPs, also exhibited the noticeable antimicrobial potency against the S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, S.pyogenes, and C.albicans. The AgNPs loaded cotton fabrics was displayed the potent wound healing activity in the fibroblast (L929) cells. Consequently, it was concluded that the formulated AgNPs from C.longa coated cotton fabrics may be utilized for the variety of applications in hospital patients and even medical workers to prevent the microbial infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Curcuma/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1541-1546, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citrus sinensis, Allium sativum, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Curcuma longa, Carica papaya, Andrographis paniculata, Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon citratus and Acorus calamus were compared in the form of extracts of chloroform, hexane and aqueous media for their effectiveness in repelling Tribolium castaneum. Filter paper of 9 cm in diameter was cut into halves. Using a micro-pipette, each extract was applied to one half of the filter paper. The volume applied was kept constant at 0.6 mL per 30 cm2 . The filter paper was dried and reattached leaving a 0.5 cm gap between, in a Petri-plate. Ten adults of T. castaneum were introduced and the repellency was observed after 30, 60 and 180 min. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of C. papaya exhibited the highest repellency (82-97%) followed by that of garlic bulbs (aqueous extract) with 86.67% repellency. Further, gunny bags were sprayed separately using bottle sprayers with the two most effective extracts at a constant volume of 42 mL per 575 cm2 . These treated gunny bags were compared with malathion-treated gunny bags in the insect management unit. The observations were taken after 2, 8 and 24 h. Papaya leaf extract-treated gunny bags showed relative repellent activity similar to that of malathion-treated gunny bags after 24 h of treatment. Thus, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of aqueous extract of papaya leaves was performed. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that extract of papaya leaves containing 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (8.47% peak area) can be used as a repellent biopesticide. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Andrographis/química , Animais , Azadirachta/química , Carica/química , Curcuma/química , Cymbopogon/química , Alho/química , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Mentha spicata/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tribolium/fisiologia
3.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 132-142, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880332

RESUMO

Curcuma longa is a rhizome used for the extraction of curcumin, a yellow colorant that only represents 3 wt% of the dried rhizome. To increase the possibility of using the entire rhizome as a food colorant, in the present investigation, the effect of ultra-fine friction grinding (supermasscolloider) to obtain turmeric suspensions was evaluated. To achieve this goal, two distances between the grinding stones or Gap were evaluated (G of -1 and -1.5), and the obtained suspensions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and through the determination of curcumin content, color, particle size, sedimentation index, serum cloudiness, and microstructure. The results establish that a lower G contributes to an increase in the release of curcumin in the suspension up to 21%, which is related to a greater tendency for yellow coloration, observed in the increase of the * b coordinate of color (from 61.588 to 66.497). Additionally, it was found that a lower G generates smaller particle sizes, which is related to a lower turbidity. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research shows that ultra-fine friction grinding (UFFG) has great potential for the development of turmeric suspensions. The results have applications in the food industry sector, because UFFG could be used to produce different types of vegetable suspensions.


Assuntos
Curcuma/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/química
4.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(3): e1456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diversion colitis is still very common in our country, since the stoma creation is a common practice especially in situations of trauma. needing treatment for this condition. AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of rectal infusion of Curcuma longa (turmeric) in the excluded intestinal segment of rats. METHOD: Eighteen Wistar rats were used and submitted to colostomy: control group (n=8) under rectal saline infusion and group CL, receiving intra-rectal infusion of Curcuma longa extract (n=10). After 21 days of treatment they were submitted to euthanasia; the intestinal segment excluded from intestinal transit was resected and sent to histopathological evaluation, classifying the degree of inflammation and of vascular congestion. RESULTS: The average of inflammation was 2.7 in the control group vs. 2.6 in the CL group (p=0.3125), while the mean vascular congestion was 2.3 and 2.1, respectively, in the control and CL groups (p=0.1642). CONCLUSION: Intra-rectal infusion of Curcuma longa extract was not able to minimize the inflammatory process or vascular congestion in the diversion colitis of rats subjected to colostomy.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Curcuma/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Retal , Animais , Colite/patologia , Colite/cirurgia , Colostomia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 293, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous health benefits have been demonstrated for curcumin which is extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa L). However, due to its poor absorption in the free form in the gastrointestinal tract and rapid biotransformation, various formulations have been developed to enhance its bioavailability. Previous studies indicate that the free form of curcumin is more bioactive than its conjugated counterparts in target tissues. Most curcumin pharmacokinetics studies in humans designed to assess its absorption and bioavailability have measured and reported total (free plus conjugated) curcumin, but not free, bioactive curcumin in the plasma because enzymatic hydrolysis was employed prior to its extraction and analysis. Therefore, the bioavailability of free curcumin cannot be determined. METHODS: Eight human subjects (4 male, 4 female) consumed a single dose of 400 mg curcumin in an enhanced absorption formulation, and blood samples were collected over 6 h. Plasma was treated either with or without glucuronidase/sulfatase prior to extraction. Curcumin and its major metabolites were analyzed using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the literature was searched for pharmacokinetic studies involving curcumin using PubMed and Google Scholar, and the reported bioavailability data were compared based on whether hydrolysis of plasma samples was used prior to sample analysis. RESULTS: Hydrolysis of blood plasma samples prior to extraction and reporting the results as "curcumin" obscures the amount of free, bioactive curcumin and total curcuminoids as compared to non-hydrolyzed samples. As a consequence, the data and biological effects reported by most pharmacokinetic studies are not a clear indication of enhanced plasma levels of free bioactive curcumin due to product formulations, leading to a misrepresentation of the results of the studies and the products when enzymatic hydrolysis is employed. CONCLUSIONS: When enzymatic hydrolysis is employed as is the case with most studies involving curcumin products, the amount of free bioactive curcumin is unknown and cannot be determined. Therefore, extreme caution is warranted in interpreting published analytical results from biological samples involving ingestion of curcumin-containing products. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov, trial identifying number NCT04103788 , September 24, 2019. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Curcumina/análise , Glucuronidase/química , Plasma/química , Sulfatases/química , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrólise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 252, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Turmeric is commonly used as a dietary treatment for inflammation, but few studies have evaluated the direct effect of turmeric on cartilage. The purpose of this study was to characterize cartilage explants' inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in the presence of a simulated biological extract of turmeric. METHODS: Turmeric was incubated in simulated gastric and intestinal fluid, followed by inclusion of liver microsomes and NADPH. The resulting extract (TURsim) was used to condition cartilage explants in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide. Explants were cultured for 96 h (h); the first 24 h in basal tissue culture media and the remaining 72 h in basal tissue culture media containing TURsim (0, 3, 9 or 15 µg/mL). Lipopolysaccharide (0 or 5 µg/mL) was added for the final 48 H. media samples were collected immediately prior to lipopolysaccharide exposure (0 h) and then at 24 and 48 h after, and analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and nitric oxide (NO). Explants were stained with calcein-AM for an estimate of live cells. Data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated measures (GAG, PGE2, NO) or 1-way ANOVA without repeated measures (viability). Significance accepted at p < 0.05. RESULTS: TURsim significantly reduced PGE2, NO and GAG, and calcein fluorescence was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: These data contribute to the growing body of evidence for the utility of turmeric as an intervention for cartilage inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cartilagem/imunologia , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Glicosaminoglicanos/imunologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Ratos , Suínos
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 923-930, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413248

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is widely used as herbal medicine. Preventive effect of GBE against dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, has been reported. The bioactive compounds in GBE that impart these beneficial effects, flavonoids and terpene lactones, have poor bioavailability. Our previous study found distribution of bioactive compounds of sesame extract in mice brain after mixing it with turmeric oil. Here, we evaluate the distribution of bioactive compounds of GBE by combining it with the mixture of sesame extract and turmeric oil (MST). The content of terpene lactones in mice serum was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner after administration of GBE. However, the contents of terpene lactones in mice brain were not significantly changed. Concentration of ginkgolide A in mice brain increased significantly when GBE was co-administrated with MST than when GBE was administered alone. These results suggest that MST may be effective in enhancing the bioavailability of ginkgolide A in GBE.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ginkgolídeos/farmacocinética , Lactonas/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Curcuma/química , Ginkgo biloba/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/sangue , Piper/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Sesamum/química
8.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412624

RESUMO

Turmeric is a curry spice that originated from India, which has attracted great interest in recent decades because it contains bioactive curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin). Curcumin (1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione), a lipophilic polyphenol may work as an anticancer, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging agent as suggested by several in vitro, in vivo studies and clinical trials. However, poor aqueous solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetic profiles limit curcumin's therapeutic usage. To address these issues, several curcumin formulations have been developed. However, suboptimal sample preparation and analysis methodologies often hamper the accurate evaluation of bioactivities and their clinical efficacy. This review summarizes recent research on biological, pharmaceutical, and analytical aspects of the curcumin. Various formulation techniques and corresponding clinical trials and in vivo outcomes are discussed. A detailed comparison of different sample preparation (ultrasonic, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave, reflux) and analytical (FT-IR, FT-NIR, FT-Raman, UV, NMR, HPTLC, HPLC, and LC-MS/MS) methodologies used for the extraction and quantification of curcuminoids in different matrices, is presented. Application of optimal sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and detection methodologies will significantly improve the assessment of different formulations and biological activities of curcuminoids.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Animais , Curcuma/química , Curcuma/metabolismo , Curcumina/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Composição de Medicamentos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374848

RESUMO

Curcumin from Curcuma longa is a nutraceutical compound reported to possess strong antioxidant activity that makes it a candidate for use in counteracting oxidative stress-induced damage. The effect of pre-treatment with curcumin nanoparticles (nC) compared to conventional curcumin (Cs) on blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and biological changes on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats had been investigated. The Cs doses of 150 and 200 mg/kg bw and all nC doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg bw) significantly reduced heart rate before ISO administration and prevented QRS complex enlargement after MI induction (p < 0.026). All doses of Cs and nC prevented prolongation of the QT and QT corrected (QTc) intervals, with better results for higher doses (p < 0.048). The nC solution had more significant results than Cs in all metabolic parameters assessed (lactate dehydrogenase, glycaemia, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase, p < 0.009). nC was more efficient than Cs in limiting myocardial oxidative stress and enhancing antioxidative capacity (p < 0.004). Compared to Cs, nC better prevented myocardial damage extension, reduced interstitial oedema, and inflammation. Curcumin nanoparticles as compared to conventional curcumin exert better antioxidative effects. Moreover, nC better prevent cardiomyocytes damage, and electrocardiogram alterations, in the case of ISO-induced MI in rats.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/química , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
10.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 2798-2820, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429161

RESUMO

Sepsis is a complex disease that begins with an infectious disorder and causes excessive immune responses. Curcumin is considered as an active component of turmeric that can improve the condition in sepsis due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched. Searching was not limited to a specific publication period. Only English-language original articles, which had examined the effect of curcumin on sepsis, were included. At first, 1,098 articles were totally found, and 209 articles were selected after excluding duplicated data; 46 articles were remained due to the curcumin effects on sepsis. These included 23 in vitro studies and 23 animal studies. Our results showed that curcumin and various analogs of curcumin can have an inhibitory effect on sepsis-induced complications. Curcumin has the ability to inhibit the inflammatory, oxidative coagulation factors, and regulation of immune responses in sepsis. Despite the promising evidence of the therapeutic effects of curcumin on the sepsis complication, further studies seem necessary to investigate its effect and possible mechanisms of action in human studies.


Assuntos
Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Curcuma/química , Curcuma/fisiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(10): 1561-1569, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434176

RESUMO

Curcumin, the major bioactive constituent of turmeric, has been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological benefits; however, the low solubility in water has restricted its systemic bioavailability and therapeutic potential. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the effect of turmeric fermentation on its curcumin content and anti-inflammatory activity by using several lactic acid bacteria. Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum significantly increased the curcumin content by 9.76% while showing no cytotoxicity in RAW 246.7 cells, as compared to the unfermented turmeric, regardless of the concentration of L. fermentum-fermented turmeric. The L. fermentum-fermented turmeric also promoted cells survival; a significantly higher number of viable cells in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells were observed as compared to those treated with unfermented turmeric. It also displayed promising DPPH scavenging activity (7.88 ± 3.36%) and anti-inflammatory activity by significantly reducing the nitrite level and suppressing the expression of the pro-apoptotic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Western blot analysis further revealed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the fermented turmeric was exerted through suppression of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal pathway, but not in unfermented turmeric. Taken together, the results suggested that fermentation with lactic acid bacteria increases the curcumin content of turmeric without increasing its cytotoxicity, while strengthening the specific pharmacological activity, thus, highlighting its potential application as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Curcuma/química , Curcuma/microbiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Curcuma/metabolismo , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Fermentação , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Nitritos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394768

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of a hot water extract of C. longa L. (WEC) containing anti-inflammatory agents, bisacurone, and turmeronol on chronic inflammation, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in middle-aged and elderly subjects aged 50-69 years with overweight or prehypertension/mild hypertension. The subjects consumed 900 mg WEC tablets, containing 400 µg bisacurone, 80 µg turmeronol A and 20 µg turmeronol B (WEC group: n = 45), or placebo tablets without WEC (placebo group: n = 45) daily for 12 weeks. Serum inflammatory and metabolic markers were measured. The subjects also completed the MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and the Profile of Mood States scale (POMS). In the WEC group, the serum levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 decreased significantly. Compared with the placebo group, the WEC group had significantly lower serum levels of glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglycerides, as well as higher serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The WEC group also showed significant improvement of SF-36 scores (for general health, vitality, mental health, and mental summary component) and POMS scores for positive mood states (vigor-activity and friendliness). In conclusion, WEC may ameliorate chronic low-grade inflammation, thus contributing to the improvement of associated metabolic disorders and general health.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Curcuma/química , Hipertensão/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Idoso , Cicloexanóis/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Pré-Hipertensão/sangue , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Água
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 1082-1088, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466190

RESUMO

The turmeric industry produces a huge amount of residues annually. After undergoing different extraction process, turmeric residue biomass may be transformed from waste to resource. Turmeric residues exhibit different characteristics suitable for various environmental applications. In this work, the adsorption of Cu(II) onto turmeric residues from microbial (TR-A) and chemical (TR-B) extraction was investigated. The characteristics of the residues were examined via Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Then, applications to Cu(II) immobilization were identified. Results suggested that although TR-B had better thermal stability, larger surface area, and more pores than TR-A, the adsorption capacity of Cu(II) onto TR-A was higher (13.12 mg/g) than that onto TR-B (7.37 mg/g) because TR-A had more microbial cell debris, metabolites, and S element than TR-B. In practice, TR-A-added soil achieved 40% more Cu immobilization than TR-B-added soil under continuous leaching of simulated acid rain. Consequently, the residues extracted using the microbial method prevented pollution after the traditional extraction process and transformed waste into a material for environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Curcuma/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Adsorção , Fracionamento Químico , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5779-5788, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454011

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation depends on inflammatory mediators produced by activated macrophages and is the common pathological basis for various diseases. Turmeronol is a sesquiterpenoid found in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity. To elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of turmeronol, we investigated the influence of turmeronol A and turmeronol B in mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with either turmeronol A or B significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide, as well as expression of mRNAs for the corresponding synthetic enzymes. In addition, the turmeronols significantly inhibited LPS-induced upregulation of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α at the mRNA and protein levels. Both turmeronols also inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), with a similar time course to the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, but not curcumin (another NF-κB inhibitor). Thus, both turmeronols prevented activation of macrophages and inflammatory mediator production, possibly by suppressing activation of NF-κB, and therefore have potential for use in preventing chronic inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Curcuma/química , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Óxido Nítrico/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
15.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(9): 705-733, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361978

RESUMO

Introduction: Since ancient times, turmeric has been used in several folklore remedies against various ailments. The principal component of turmeric is curcumin and its efficacy has been advocated in various in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies for different chronic diseases. However, some studies suggest that curcumin bioavailability is a major problem. Areas covered: This article discusses over 200 clinical studies with curcumin that have demonstrated the pronounced protective role of this compound against cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological diseases, skin diseases, liver diseases, various types of cancer, etc. The review also describes the combination of curcumin with many natural and synthetic compounds as well as various formulations of curcumin that have shown efficacy in multiple clinical studies. Expert opinion: The therapeutic potential of curcumin, as demonstrated by clinical trials has overpowered the myth that poor bioavailability of curcumin poses a problem. Low curcumin bioavailability in certain studies has been addressed by using higher concentrations of curcumin within nontoxic limits. Moreover, curcumin, in combination with other compounds or as formulations, has shown enhanced bioavailability. Hence, bioavailability is not a problem in the curcumin-mediated treatment of chronic diseases. Therefore, this golden nutraceutical presents a safe, low-cost and effective treatment modality for different chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Curcuma/química , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Humanos
16.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319572

RESUMO

Saffron is one of the most adulterated food products all over the world because of its high market prize. Therefore, a non-targeted approach based on the combination of headspace flash gas-chromatography with flame ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) and chemometrics was tested and evaluated to check adulteration of this spice with two of the principal plant-derived adulterants: turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Chemometric models were carried out through both linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) from the gas-chromatographic data. These models were also validated by cross validation (CV) and external validation, which were performed by testing both models on pure spices and artificial mixtures capable of simulating adulterations of saffron with the two adulterants examined. These models gave back satisfactory results. Indeed, both models showed functional internal and external prediction ability. The achieved results point out that the method based on a combination of chemometrics with gas-chromatography may provide a rapid and low-cost screening method for the authentication of saffron.


Assuntos
Crocus/química , Curcuma/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Especiarias/análise
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 612-620, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265909

RESUMO

Present study evaluated the effects of curcumin, the principal curcuminoid of turmeric, on Cyprinus carpio growth, skin mucosal immune parameters, immune-related gene expression, and susceptibility to pathogen challenge. Diets containing four various concentrations of curcumin (g Kg-1): 0 g [basal diet], 5 g [T5], 10 g [T10], and 15 g [T15] were fed to the carp (average weight: 16.37 g) for 8 weeks. Growth parameters were analysed at 4 and 8 weeks post-feeding. Skin mucosal immune responses and expression were examined in 8 weeks post-feeding. Growth performance was significantly higher in T10 and T15, with final weight gain of 102.26 ±â€¯2.31 g and specific growth rate of 3.24 ±â€¯0.37, respectively. The lowest feed conversion ratio (2.35 ±â€¯0.16) was recorded in T15 than in the control (P < 0.05). Among the skin mucosal immune parameters examined, lysozyme (36.8 ±â€¯4.03 U mL-1), total immunoglobulin (6.74 ±â€¯0.5 mg mL-1), protein level (18.7 ±â€¯1.62 mg mL-1), alkaline phosphatase (96.37 ±â€¯6.3 IU L-1), and protease activity (9.47 ±â€¯0.82%) were significantly higher in T15, while the peroxidase activity was higher in T10 (10.24 ±â€¯0.9 U mg-1 protein). Further, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in serum and found to be higher in T10 or T15 than in the control (P < 0.05). However, malondialdehyde level decreased significantly in T10 and T15. Furthermore, antioxidant genes (SOD, CAT, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and anti-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-10 were upregulated in the head kidney, intestine, and hepatopancreas of fish in T10 and T15. Conversely, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, tumour necrosis factor-alpha), signalling molecule NF-κBp65 were down-regulated in the tested tissues of T10 and T15. Expression of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) was down regulated in head-kidney and intestine of T15. Fish from T15 exhibited significantly higher relative post-challenge survival (69.70%) against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Results of the present study suggest that dietary supplements of curcumin at 15 g Kg-1can significantly improve the growth performance, skin mucosal and serum antioxidant parameters, and strengthen the immunity of C. carpio. Therefore, curcumin represents a promising food additive for carps in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carpas/imunologia , Curcuma/química , Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/imunologia
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2701-2708, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359680

RESUMO

The chemical constituents and action targets of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix were screened by network pharmacological method,and the mechanism of the combination of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix in the treatment of epilepsy was analyzed. All chemical constituents of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix were retrieved by TCMSP,and their action targets were screened. Component target PPI network was constructed. Epilepsy-related genes were retrieved from PharmGkb database,and PPI networks of disease targets were drawn by Cytoscape software. Cytoscape software was used to merge the network,screen the core network,and further analyze the gene GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment,which was verified by experimental research. One hundred and five chemical constituents of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and 222 chemical constituents of Curcumae Radix were retrieved. Nineteen compounds were selected as candidate compounds according to OB and DL values. Among them,4 chemical constituents of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and 15 chemical constituents of Curcumae Radix were found. A total of 88 target proteins were retrieved by retrieving TCMSP data,and PPI network was constructed. Through PharmGkb database,29 epilepsy-related genes were retrieved and disease target network was established. Cytoscape software and plug-ins were used for network merging and core network screening,and 69 genes were screened out. Through GO function analysis and KEGG pathway analysis,the mechanism of anti-epilepsy is related to prolactin signaling pathway,HTLV-Ⅰ infection signaling pathway,MAPK signaling pathway and herpes simplex infection signaling pathway. Further experimental verification showed that the serum prolactin level in epileptic rats was significantly increased. The neurons in hippocampal CA1 area degenerated,necrotized and lost 24 hours after epileptic seizure,and some neuron interstitial edema occurred. The possible mechanism of compatibility of Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix is related to serum prolactin level,MAPK signaling pathway,HTLV-Ⅰ infection and herpes simplex infection. The analysis may be related to viral encephalitis caused by HTLV-Ⅰ virus and herpes simplex infection,which damages nerve cells and causes seizures.


Assuntos
Acorus/química , Curcuma/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/patologia , Hipocampo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Rizoma/química
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(12): 2511-2518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359718

RESUMO

Both raw and vinegar products of the rhizome of Curcuma phaeocaulis are common drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in traditional Chinese medicine,which could be reflected in the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice. As the traditional processing theory instructs,vinegar tastes sour and bitter,but can activate blood circulation and remove stasis after being infiltrated into the rhizome of C. phaeocaulis as an excipient. In this study,under the help of the ultrafast liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry( UFLC-Q-TOF-MS),the spectrum-effect relationship between the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice and the rhizome of C. phaeocaulis both before and after the vinegar processing,were established to explore the functional changes of blood circulation and stasis after vinegar process. Based on the peak area from the fingerprint of UFLC-Q-TOF-MS of the alcohol extracts from the raw and vinegar-processed rhizome of C. phaeocaulis and their efficacy for inhibiting tail thrombosis,the correlation between the chromatography of UFLC-Q-TOF-MS and the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) method. The results,produced by Simca-P software,showed that effective components consisted of eight peaks 16,24( aromadendrene oxide),3,11,22( dehydro-α-curcumene),19[( R)-(-)-α-curcumene],23 and 10 from the fingerprint,making great contribution to distinguish C. phaeocaulis raw products and the corresponding vinegar processed products. Therefore,from the perspective of inhibiting the formation of tail thrombosis in mice,the marker components could be found through the spectrum-effect relationship to distinguish C.phaeocaulis raw and vinegar products. This study provided new basis to explain the difference between the raw and the processed products of traditional Chinese medicine in the functional change of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.


Assuntos
Curcuma/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Rizoma/química
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9652-9657, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361133

RESUMO

Plants contain many secondary metabolites, which are sometimes used as spices and herbal medicines. However, the three-dimensional distribution of metabolites is usually unknown. In this study, the spatial distribution of curcumin, one of the main components of dried turmeric root, was examined. Because dried turmeric samples are extremely hard and impossible to section with existing cryomicrotomes, we introduced a new sectioning method and analyzed the two-dimensional distribution of curcumin in turmeric sections cut in different directions. The geometrical analysis of the imaging results suggested that curcumin forms tubular components inside turmeric. The wide-target analysis showed that the spatial distribution of curcumin analogues was similar to that of curcumin. Thus, mass spectrometry imaging was successfully implemented for clarifying the distribution of secondary metabolites in dry plant samples. Understanding the distribution of metabolites inside the plant body might contribute to improving their production processes, including the methods for extraction of active ingredients.


Assuntos
Curcuma/química , Curcumina/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Curcuma/metabolismo , Curcumina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Microscopia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
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