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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(2): 133-144, maio-ago. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252377

RESUMO

Introdução: Um dos desafios da atual formação dos profissionais da área da saúde é estarem atualizados e preparados para o mercado de trabalho. E, para isso tem-se a necessidade de mudanças curriculares, e o uso das metodologias ativas nesse processo de ensino é uma realidade e necessidade. Objetivo: investigar quais os tipos de metodologias ativas estão sendo mais utilizadas na formação de profissionais da saúde. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura com a utilização da técnica em cinco etapas. As palavras "metodologia ativa" AND saúde AND "ensino superior"; "metodologia ativa" AND "ensino superior", foram inseridas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), integrada pelas bases de dados Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Literatura Internacional em Ciências da Saúde (MEDLINE), bem como pela biblioteca Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Após a inserção dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram selecionados 10 artigos para compor a amostra, que foram apresentados sob a forma de um quadro sintético. Resultados e discussão: De acordo com análise obteve-se a construção de três categorias: Aplicação da Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas-ABP; metodologias ativas participativas; utilizando a simulação na educação em saúde, revelando a aplicabilidade da metodologia na teoria e prática de curso de graduação e pós-graduação na área da saúde. Conclusão: Neste estudo foi possível observar os principais tipos de metodologias ativas utilizadas na área da saúde, tais como a baseada na problematização; metodologias ativas participativas (o arco de Charles Maguerez, gincana virtual) e utilizando a simulação na educação em saúde, servindo como modelos impulsionadores para mudanças no processo de ensino aprendizagem.(AU)


Introduction: One of the challenges of the current training of health professionals is to make them be updated and prepared for the labor market. In order to reach those objectives, curricular changes are necessary, as well as the use of active methodologies in the teaching process. Purpose: to investigate which types of active methodologies are the most widely used in the training of health professionals. Methodology: This is an integrative literature review using the five-stage technique. The words "active methodology" AND "health" AND "higher education"; "Active methodology" AND "higher education" were included in the Virtual Health Library (VHL), which integrates the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), International Health Sciences Literature (MEDLINE) databases, as well as the Scientific Electronic Library Online library (SciELO). After inserting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 10 articles were selected to compose the sample, which were presented as a summary table. Results and discussion: According to the analysis, three categories were created: Application of Problem-Based Learning - PBL; active participatory methodologies; using simulation in health education, revealing the applicability of the methodology in the theory and practice in undergraduate and graduate courses in the health area. Conclusion: In this study, the main types of active methodologies used in the health area could be observed, such as the ones based on problematization; active participatory methodologies (the Charles Maguerez arc, virtual gymkhana), and using simulation in health education, serving as models for triggering changes in the teaching-learning process.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Currículo/tendências , Educação Superior , Capacitação de Recursos Humanos em Saúde , Mercado de Trabalho , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 338, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molding competent clinicians capable of applying ethics principles in their practice is a challenging task, compounded by wide variations in the teaching and assessment of ethics in the postgraduate setting. Despite these differences, ethics training programs should recognise that the transition from medical students to healthcare professionals entails a longitudinal process where ethics knowledge, skills and identity continue to build and deepen over time with clinical exposure. A systematic scoping review is proposed to analyse current postgraduate medical ethics training and assessment programs in peer-reviewed literature to guide the development of a local physician training curriculum. METHODS: With a constructivist perspective and relativist lens, this systematic scoping review on postgraduate medical ethics training and assessment will adopt the Systematic Evidence Based Approach (SEBA) to create a transparent and reproducible review. RESULTS: The first search involving the teaching of ethics yielded 7669 abstracts with 573 full text articles evaluated and 66 articles included. The second search involving the assessment of ethics identified 9919 abstracts with 333 full text articles reviewed and 29 articles included. The themes identified from the two searches were the goals and objectives, content, pedagogy, enabling and limiting factors of teaching ethics and assessment modalities used. Despite inherent disparities in ethics training programs, they provide a platform for learners to apply knowledge, translating it to skill and eventually becoming part of the identity of the learner. Illustrating the longitudinal nature of ethics training, the spiral curriculum seamlessly integrates and fortifies prevailing ethical knowledge acquired in medical school with the layering of new specialty, clinical and research specific content in professional practice. Various assessment methods are employed with special mention of portfolios as a longitudinal assessment modality that showcase the impact of ethics training on the development of professional identity formation (PIF). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic scoping review has elicited key learning points in the teaching and assessment of ethics in the postgraduate setting. However, more research needs to be done on establishing Entrustable Professional Activities (EPA)s in ethics, with further exploration of the use of portfolios and key factors influencing its design, implementation and assessment of PIF and micro-credentialling in ethics practice.


Assuntos
Currículo , Estudantes de Medicina , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Faculdades de Medicina
3.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(6): 1535-1539, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111067

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the efficacy of blended learning with contemporary face-to-face teaching among medical students. METHODS: The quasi-experimental, cross-over study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from March to August 2014, and comprised third year medical students posted in the surgical units who were divided into two groups. In the first month, group A was taught by blended learning (BL), while group B was taught by face-to-face (f2f) teaching. Both groups were assessed using objective structured clinical examination. In the second month, the teaching method was flipped for the groups with new learning contents. Assessment tool remained the same. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. RESULTS: Thirty-one students completed OSCE in group A (BL) and 28 in group B (f2f). The mean score in group B was 78.01±13.29 compared to 85.12±13.77 in group A (p=0.49). CONCLUSIONS: Blended surgical learning was found to be more effective compared to face-to-face teaching.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Cross-Over , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Ensino
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 341, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feedback received from medical students at University College London Medical School (UCLMS) suggested a lack of clarity regarding the contents and subsequent assessment of the undergraduate curriculum. In order to address these issues, a specialist team was established with the aim of designing and implementing a Curriculum Map (CM), which have been recognised in their ability to provide a centralised, visual representation of the curriculum. While multiple perspectives from educators to stakeholders can be considered here, the need for the CM to remain student centred was identified as key at UCLMS. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the requirements of the CM prior to production from the perspective of the medical students. METHODS: A mixed-methods sequential study was conducted. The first stage involved gathering quantitative data using a primary online survey. This used 15 questions, rated by Likert scales and focussed around three domains: depiction of content, functionality and students' likely engagement with a CM. There was a free-text question for additional comments. The second stage consisted of multiple student focus groups representing different years of the programme, conducted by trained facilitators following a predetermined scheme. Reflective Thematic Analysis (RTA) was used to synthesise the qualitative data, which was read independently by two researchers. All students at UCLMS were invited to participate in the study. RESULTS: There were 409 survey responses. 92% of students said they were 'likely' or 'very likely' to use a CM, with their key intended use being to monitor their learning progress and ensure preparedness for assessments. Five key themes emerged from the focus groups, namely that students wanted a CM to be: comprehensive; simple and intuitive; able to link content throughout the course; aligned with assessment; and useful to monitor students' progress. CONCLUSIONS: Through this study, valuable insight was gained on students' ideal preferences for the CM. Understanding this was important in order to ensure that its co-design remained student-centred prior to its design and launch. This study also highlighted the need to set realistic expectations for students on the role of a CM in preparing them for assessments, and ultimately professional practice.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Londres , Motivação , Faculdades de Medicina
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 327, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early career general practitioners are known to be at high risk of burnout. There is a need for widely applicable, cost-effective evidence-based interventions to develop trainees' protective skills and strategies. RESULTS: Of 120 eligible trainees, 23 (19.2%) expressed interest in participating, 17 subsequently started the course, and 15 completed at least 5 out of its 6 sessions. All psychological measures were stable for the six-week period prior to commencing the course. Following the course, there were statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvements in wellbeing, resilience, mindfulness, emotional exhaustion, disengagement, and stress scores. Participants described numerous benefits, and most stated that they would recommend it to colleagues. CONCLUSION: Including mindful practice within general practice vocational training is feasible, and in this study it benefited the psychological wellbeing of participants. Further research is needed to explore ways of increasing uptake and course completion, the sustainability of its effects, and the wider applicability of this approach.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Clínicos Gerais , Atenção Plena , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos
6.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 739-742, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the challenges of pharmacy schools worldwide is the need to link theoretical training with the mastery of practical skills. A virtual pharmacy simulation, MyDispense, developed by the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at Monash University, enables students to practice the skills of a professional pharmacist, from novice to highly advanced, in a safe virtual environment that is web-based and highly accessible. The free online simulation allows students to undertake scenarios where patients can present with prescription or self-care requirements, and are also challenged with validation tasks requiring them to check the work of virtual colleagues for accuracy, legality, and medicine safety. COMMENTARY: This commentary describes the use of a virtual simulation, MyDispense, in enhancing didactic instruction, complementing experiential education, and the challenges of the virtual simulation to pharmacy educators. MyDispense is now deployed to 186 schools of pharmacy across 34 countries to over 25,000 students worldwide who have completed over 963,000 exercises globally. IMPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (aka COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to pharmacy education requiring many educators to switch to remote online learning. Simulation programs, such as MyDispense, help to replicate aspects of pharmacy practice and can be used creatively to meet course needs. The use of MyDispense is an excellent example of pharmacy educators collaborating globally and learning from each other to improve student learning.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Humanos
7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 819-825, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of online learning and subsequent online testing has expanded rapidly in pharmacy programs across the United States. Numerous published studies have compared online learning with traditional methods in pharmacy. However, no such studies have been published in pharmacy. This study's objective is to compare first-professional year student preferences for computer-based vs. traditional paper-and-pencil testing for a required social and administrative pharmacy class. METHODS: All students enrolled in the class were invited to complete one brief survey at the end of the semester to determine their testing preference. RESULTS: Of the 138 first-professional year students completing the survey, 79% (109 of 138) preferred computer-based testing, 9% had no preference, 6% (8 of 138) preferred paper-and-pencil testing, and the remainder (8 of 138) stated it depended on what was being tested. Ninety-one percent of students did not perceive the testing method to impact their grades. Students preferred computer-based testing over traditional paper-and-pencil as a convenient testing method (mean 4.73 vs. 3.4, P < .001), providing immediate feedback (mean 4.87 vs. 1.91, P < .001), and as a more effective testing method (mean 4.57 vs. 3.96, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: First-professional year students preferred computer-based over traditional paper-and-pencil testing for a social and administrative science class, with the method of testing not perceived to impact grade. This finding is timely, given the recent required transitioning of all pharmacy classes and subsequent testing to an online format due to the coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador/métodos , Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 862-867, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 restricted student involvement in direct patient care. Virtual learning is an effective education strategy in pharmacy curriculums. This study aimed to evaluate student perceptions of virtual learning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) utilizing an electronic 12-question survey. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Virtual learning was developed and implemented, and students were surveyed at the end of the APPE. The survey was comprised of one open-ended and 11 Likert scale questions. It assessed implementation and use of virtual learning in place of a standard on-site APPE. FINDINGS: Responses were attained from 19 students. Questions regarding resources provided and virtual learning enabling autonomous, independent learning had the highest percent of strong agreement. No responses indicated strong disagreement. Three questions solicited >10% response rate of somewhat disagree, 16% associated with virtual learning helping the student become a better member of the healthcare team after graduation. Open-ended responses acknowledged appreciation of the virtual APPE and presented material. One in six students commented on the ability to apply the learned information to direct patient care. Feedback was delivered on consideration for increased utility of patient care-orientated applications to facilitate simulation of real-life patient cases. SUMMARY: Students who completed the virtual APPE were satisfied overall. Virtual teaching modalities may be incorporated into APPEs, particularly when direct patient care access is limited, but should not be used to completely replace the experience gained during direct patient care.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos
9.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(2): 125-131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062644

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to analyze pre-clerkship medical students' learning strategies and perceptions in online classes during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: To develop the survey items, 20 pre-clerkship students were interviewed about their learning experiences in the first semester of 2020. A total of 425 pre-clerkship students have participated in the survey, which comprised four parts (general experience, learning strategies, important features, and overall satisfaction). RESULTS: Before classes began, students generally had "neutral expectations" about online classes (2.90 out of 5). At the end of the semester, overall satisfaction with the curriculum was moderate (3.04 out of 5). Premedical students reported lower scores in "daily study hours" and "regular lifestyle" and higher scores in "experience of playing recorded lectures solely for an attendance check" (p<0.001). In addition, first-year premedical students not only showed significantly lower utilization of learning strategies compared to other grades (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Although pre-clerkship students mostly shared similar perceptions and behaviors in their learning regardless of grade level, some characteristics were either more prominent in premedical students on the whole or limited to first-year premedical students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Aprendizagem , Pandemias , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Estágio Clínico , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(2): 139-145, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062645

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Seoul National University College of Medicine operates a faculty development program for clinical teachers at multiple affiliated teaching hospitals. In 2020, the program was moved online due to coronavirus disease 2019. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is feasible and effective to provide faculty development programs online in terms of clinical teachers' participation and satisfaction in comparison with offline programs. METHODS: Clinical teachers participated in the clinical teaching methods programs offline in 2019 and online in 2020. We analyzed participation rate and satisfaction level. All surveys items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale. We also interviewed instructors about the advantages and drawbacks of the online program. RESULTS: The participation rate of the online program (89.5%) was significantly higher than that of the offline program (67.8%). The overall satisfaction level for the online program (4.37) was similar to that for the offline program (4.50). CONCLUSION: Faculty development programs online are feasible and effective in medical education. We need to design training content that fits online programs, consider various online training methods to reinforce the strengths of online programs, and support participants to make good use of these programs.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Docentes de Medicina/educação , Faculdades de Medicina , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/métodos , Ensino/educação , Universidades , COVID-19 , Currículo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , República da Coreia
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 331, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that resident physicians are the most meaningful teachers during the clinical clerkships of third-year medical students (MS3s). Unfortunately, residents often feel unprepared for this crucial role. The pediatrics clerkship at our institution identified a paucity in the frequency of resident-led teaching with MS3s. Lack of confidence, suboptimal teaching space, and insufficient time were cited as the most significant barriers. To enhance resident-led teaching of MS3s, we created teaching scripts of general pediatrics topics accessible via a smartphone application (app). METHODS: Prior to the implementation of the app, MS3s and pediatric residents were surveyed on clerkship teaching practices. From May 2017 through July 2018, pediatric residents working with MS3s were introduced to the app, with both groups queried on resident teaching habits afterward. We compared pre-intervention and post-intervention data of time spent teaching, teaching frequency, and a ranking of pediatric resident teaching performance compared to residents of other MS3 core clerkships. RESULTS: 44 out of 90 residents (49%) responded to a pre-intervention survey on baseline teaching habits. 49 out of 61 residents (80%) completed our post-intervention survey. Pre-intervention, 75% (33/44) of residents reported spending less than 5 min per teaching session on average. Post-intervention, 67% (33/49) reported spending more than 5 min (p < 0.01). 25% (11/44) of residents reported teaching at least once per day pre-intervention, versus 55% (27/49, p = 0.12) post-intervention. Post-intervention data demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between app use and increased frequency of teaching (p < 0.01). The MS3 average ranking of pediatric resident teaching increased from 2.4 to 3.4 out of 6 (p < 0.05) after this intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Residency programs looking to reform resident-led teaching, particularly of residents early in their training, should consider our novel approach. In addition to addressing barriers to teaching and creating a platform for near-peer teaching, it is adaptable to any specialty or learner level. Future direction includes developing objective measures for teaching performance and content proficiency to better assess our intervention as an educational curriculum, as well as further investigation of the intervention as a controlled trial.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico , Internato e Residência , Estudantes de Medicina , Criança , Currículo , Humanos , Smartphone , Ensino
12.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(1): 119-127, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Training of health care students at universities is a great challenge for Medical Education Offices. Our office made clear and explained the teaching-learning process from the perspective of teachers, programs, and students. AIM: To report a ten years' analysis of a Medical Education Office (MEO) work, describing the different processes and systematized decisions aimed to improve the quality of the programs and learning results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 10 years retrospective analysis of the Medical Education Office processes directed to Medicine, Nursing, Physical Therapy, and Nutrition careers of a Faculty of Medicine. Flunks between 2013 and 2017 were compared. RESULTS: A progressive reduction in flunks was observed in the four careers. Specifically, the proportion of flunks in Nutrition decreased from 30 to 9%. When comparing flunks using a Chi-square test of homogeneity in the four careers, a significant decrease in four of six courses was observed. This led to a sustained increase in number of students who completed their career and obtained their title. Specifically, in Medicine there was a 7.5-fold increase in these figures. The Diploma course trained 90% of the teachers in charge of courses of the four careers. The master's degree generated research that allowed to increase the productivity in health sciences education. CONCLUSIONS: The Office of Medical Education created knowledge and management models for the education of health sciences students, enhancing the quality of training and learning processes.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica , Docentes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 312, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is accepted that providing medical students with opportunities to engage in research activity is beneficial, little data has been collated on how medical degree curricula may address this issue. This review aims to address this knowledge gap by conducting a scoping review examining curriculum initiatives that seek to enhance research experience for medical students. METHODS: This review looks to specifically look at 'doing research' as defined by the MEDINE 2 consensus rather than 'using research' for the bachelor component of the Bologna Cycle. The framework developed by Arksey & O'Malley was utilised and a consultation with stakeholders was incorporated to clarify and enhance the framework. RESULTS: A total of 120 articles were included in this scoping review; 26 related to intercalated degree options and 94 to non-intercalated degree options. Research initiatives from the United States were most common (53/120 articles). For non-intercalated research options, mandatory and elective research projects predominated. The included studies were heterogeneous in their methodology. The main outcomes reported were student research output, description of curriculum initiative(s) and self-reported research skills acquisition. For intercalated degree options, the three main findings were descriptions of more 'novel' intercalated degree options than the traditional BSc, student perspectives on intercalating and the effect of intercalating on medical student performance and careers. CONCLUSIONS: There are several options available to faculty involved in planning medical degree programmes but further research is needed to determine whether research activity should be optional or mandatory. For now, flexibility is probably appropriate depending on a medical school's resources, curriculum, educational culture and population needs.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 176-182, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085967

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to introduce participants to our journey of integrating Universal Design as a central part of a new Technological University in addressing the challenge of a consistent quality experience for all learners. Adopting and combining both the principles of universal design and universal design for learning is not to make it easier but to offer a framework of principles and guidelines to make education appropriate and challenging for everyone. Ken Robinson wrote "A vibrant school can nourish an entire community by becoming a source of hope and creative energy…Poor schools can drain the optimism from all the students and families who depend on it by diminishing their opportunities for growth and development" (1).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Design Universal , Currículo , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 318, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cultural and linguistic diversity in patients and their relatives represents a challenge for clinical practice in palliative care around the world. Cross-cultural training for palliative care professionals is still scarce, and research can help determine and support the implementation of appropriate training. In Switzerland, health policies address diversity and equity issues, and there is a need for educational research on cross-cultural training in palliative care. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical challenges faced by Swiss palliative care professionals when working with migrant patients and their relatives. We also documented professionals' interests in cross-cultural training. METHODS: A web survey of professionals working in specialized palliative care in the French- and Italian-speaking areas of Switzerland investigated clinical challenges with migrant populations and interests in various training opportunities. RESULTS: A total of 204 individuals responded to the survey, 48.5 % of whom were nurses. The major difficulties they reported were communication impediments associated with patients' linguistic and/or cultural backgrounds. In relation to educational needs, they expressed a particular interest in communication techniques that would allow them to deal with these issues autonomously. The professionals expressed less interest in training on collaborating with other professionals and examining one's own stereotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care professionals' post-graduate and continuing education must address communication techniques for sensitive palliative and end-of-life topics in cross-cultural contexts. Beginning with their pre-graduate studies, health professionals should assimilate the importance of collaborating with other professionals in complex cross-cultural situations and learn to reflect on their stereotypes and pre-conceptions in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Cuidados Paliativos , Currículo , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1458-1466, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify nursing instructors' clinical education competencies. METHODS: The integrative review comprised research articles published between 2008 and 2018 on Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Education Information Resource Centre databases searched through relevant key words. All the short listed papers were reviewed and quality assessment was done. Data was analysed using content analysis method. Nursing instructors' clinical education competencies were extracted from the original texts in the form of initial codes which were categorised into subcategories and categories based on comparisons of their similarities and differences. Finally, themes were extracted as expression of content hidden in the data to generate new insights. RESULTS: Of the 17 studies selected, 6(35.3%) were quantitative, 4(23.5%) qualitative, 3(17.6%) review studies and 4(23.5%) were mixed-methods studies. Three overarching themes identified were clinical teaching process competencies, students' supervision competencies in clinical settings and nursing instructors' professional ethics. CONCLUSIONS: The review provides insightful information on nursing instructors' clinical education competencies. Nursing educational institutions need to be encouraged to incorporate these concepts into educational curricula to empower nursing instructors and to enhance the quality of clinical education.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 309, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic and palliative care are rapidly gaining importance within the physician's range of duties. In this context, it is important to address the four dimensions of care: physical, psychological, social, and spiritual. Medical students, however, feel inadequately equipped to discuss these dimensions with the patient. To bridge this gap, a new assignment was developed and implemented, in which students talked to a chronic or palliative patient about the four dimensions of care during an internship. This study, reports the evaluation of this assignment by students and teachers using a design-based approach. METHODS: Mixed methods were used, including a) student questionnaires, b) student focus groups, c) teacher interviews, and d) student's written reflections. Two researchers performed analyses of the qualitative data from the focus groups, interviews, and written reflections using qualitative research software (ALTLAS.TI). Descriptive statistics were computed for the quantitative data using SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Students and teachers valued talking to an actual patient about the four dimensions of care. Reading and providing peer feedback on each other's reports was considered valuable, especially when it came to the diversity of illnesses, the way that patients cope and communication techniques. The students considered reflection useful, especially in the group and provided it was not too frequent. All the dimensions were addressed in the interviews, however the spiritual dimension was found to be the most difficult to discuss. The analysis of the written reflections revealed an overlap between the social and spiritual dimensions. Students pay a lot of attention to the relationship between the illness and the patient's daily life, but the reflections do often not show insight in the potential relationship between the four dimensions and decisions in patient care. CONCLUSIONS: During internships, medical students can practice talking about four dimensions of care with a chronically ill or palliative patient. Due to the format, it can be implemented across existing internships with relatively little extra time and effort. Reflection, peer feedback, and group discussion under the guidance of a teacher are important additions.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem
18.
Acta Med Acad ; 50(1): 136-142, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075769

RESUMO

This review details the development and structure of a four-week rotation in pathology informatics for a resident trainee at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) in New York City so that other programs interested in such a rotation can refer to. The role of pathology informatics is exponentially increasing in research and clinical practice. With an ever-expanding role, training in pathology informatics is paramount as pathology training programs and training accreditation bodies recognize the need for pathology informatics in training future pathologists. However, due to its novelty, many training programs are unfamiliar with implementing pathology informatics training. The rotation incorporates educational resources for pathology informatics, guidance in the development, and general topics relevant to pathology informatics training. Informatics topics include anatomic pathology related aspects such as whole slide imaging, laboratory information systems, image analysis, and molecular pathology associated issues such as the bioinformatics pipeline and data processing. Additionally, we highlight how the rotation pivoted to meet the department's informatics needs while still providing an educational experience during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: As pathology informatics continues to grow and integrate itself into practice, informatics education must also grow to meet the future needs of pathology. As informatics programs develop across institutions, such as the one detailed in this paper, these programs will better equip future pathologists with informatics to approach disease and pathology.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Internato e Residência/métodos , Informática Médica/educação , Patologia Clínica/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Neoplasias/patologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 340, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attaining high-quality education requires continuous evaluation and revision of the curriculum. The view of the graduate students can provide valuable insight into the necessary evaluations and revisions. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the opinions of midwifery graduates about midwifery education in Iran METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and the research data were collected through a census sampling procedure from all (82) midwifery graduates of the Nursing and Midwifery School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between 2018 and 2020. The data collection instrument was a validated researcher-made questionnaire derived from the Graduation Questionnaire (GQ) developed by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The data were then analyzed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: In this study, about 62% of the graduates were satisfied with the quality of the midwifery education they had received during the four-year program. Moreover, 61% of the graduates maintained that theoretical courses were well-integrated with the clinical experience they needed. The quality of the internships in different wards and departments was also evaluated from the viewpoints of the graduates, and the results indicated that they were relatively satisfied with their internship experiences. However, only 40% of the graduates were satisfied with the quality of their clinical evaluation, since they faced the most significant challenges in the clinical and maternity wards (47%) with the midwifery staff and gynecology residents and found the quality of facilities in the clinical program to be lacking. According to the participants, the quality of teaching was not good for some courses such as biochemistry and microbiology. CONCLUSION: It seems that the midwifery curriculum needs to be constantly revised, aiming to improve student satisfaction with their midwifery education. Some effective measures in this regard are employing experienced professors, developing cooperation between midwifery instructors and clinical departments, and trying to improve the educational environment. Attention to the improvement of facilities and equipment and agreement between the content of the theoretical education and practical topics are also recommended to improve the quality of midwifery education.


Assuntos
Tocologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 314, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited competency-based educational curricula for transitions of care education (TOC) for internal medicine (IM) residency programs. The University of Colorado implemented a virtual interdisciplinary conference call, TEAM (Transitions Expectation and Management), between providers on the inpatient Acute Care of the Elder (ACE) unit and the outpatient Seniors Clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital. Residents rotating on the ACE unit participated in weekly conferences discussing Seniors Clinic patients recently discharged, or currently hospitalized, to address clinical concerns pertaining to TOC. Our goals were to understand resident perceptions of the educational value of these conferences, and to determine if these experiences changed attitudes or practice related to care transitions. METHODS: We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved qualitative study of IM housestaff who rotated on the ACE unit during 2018-2019. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand perceptions of the value of TEAM calls for residents' own practice and the impact on patient care. Data was analyzed inductively, guided by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Of the 32 IM residents and interns who rotated on ACE and were invited to participate, 11 agreed to an interview. Three key themes emerged from interviews that highlighted residents' experiences identifying and navigating some of their educational 'blind spots:' 1) Awareness of patient social complexities, 2) Bridging gaps in communication across healthcare settings, 3) Recognizing the value of other disciplines during transitions. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights learner perspectives of the benefit of interdisciplinary conference calls between inpatient and outpatient providers to enhance transitions of care, which provide meaningful feedback and serve as a vehicle for residents to recognize the impact of their care decisions in the broader spectrum of patients' experience during hospital discharge. Educators can maximize the value of these experiences by promoting reflective debriefs with residents and bringing to light previously unrecognized knowledge gaps around hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Currículo , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Medicina Interna/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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