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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(1): 128-137, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. The total direct costs of IBD have not been assessed on a population-wide level in the era of biologic therapy. DESIGN: We identified all persons with IBD in Manitoba between 2005 and 2015, with each matched to 10 controls on age, sex, and area of residence. We enumerated all hospitalizations, outpatient visits and prescription medications including biologics, and their associated direct costs. Total and per capita annual IBD-attributable costs and health care utilization (HCU) were determined by taking the difference between the costs/HCU accrued by an IBD case and their controls. Generalized linear modeling was used to evaluate trends in direct costs and Poisson regression for trends in HCU. RESULTS: The number of people with IBD in Manitoba increased from 6,323 to 7,603 between 2005 and 2015. The total per capita annual costs attributable to IBD rose from $3,354 in 2005 to $7,801 in 2015, primarily driven by an increase in per capita annual anti-tumor necrosis factor costs, which rose from $181 in 2005 to $5,270 in 2015. There was a significant decline in inpatient costs for CD ($99 ± 25/yr. P < 0.0001), but not for ulcerative colitis ($8 increase ±$18/yr, P = 0.63). DISCUSSION: The direct health care costs attributable to IBD have more than doubled over the 10 years between 2005 and 2015, driven mostly by increasing expenditures on biological medications. IBD-attributable hospitalization costs have declined modestly over time for persons with CD, although no change was seen for patients with ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/economia , Colite Ulcerativa/economia , Doença de Crohn/economia , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Diretos de Serviços/tendências , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
3.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 267-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is known to constitute a huge economic burden to its sufferers and their carers. There is a dearth of studies documenting this burden among asthmatics in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the relationship between economic cost and psychiatric morbidity among stable Nigerian patients with asthma. METHODS: 85 patients with asthma completed a socio-demographic and illness-related questionnaire, the modified Economic Cost Questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ 12). Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, illness related variables, psychiatric morbidity and the direct, indirect and total costs in relation to asthma were assessed. RESULTS: The average annual total, direct and indirect cost were $309, $190.65 and $118.34 respectively per patient for subjects with asthma. Direct cost constituted 62.7% while the indirect cost was 38.3% of the total cost for asthma. Drugs and hospitalisation were leading contributors to direct costs for asthma. Psychiatric morbidity was found to be present in 35% of subjects with asthma, those with psychiatric morbidity had a higher economic burden. CONCLUSION: The economic cost of asthma is high, psychiatric morbidity increases this cost. The cost is largely due to drugs and hospitalisations for exacerbation. There is an urgent need to optimize means of helping to minimize this cost and increase measures for detecting and treating psychiatric morbidity.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/economia , Asma/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos e Análise de Custo , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Morbidade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(8): 480-486, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184141

RESUMO

Introducción: La diabetes mellitus tipo 1 es la segunda enfermedad crónica y el trastorno endocrino-metabólico más frecuente en la infancia. El objetivo de este estudio es realizar una estimación del coste directo de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 en Andalucía, en pacientes pediátricos. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, observacional multicéntrico realizado durante 6 meses consecutivos de 2017-2018, partiendo de una muestra de 220 pacientes, procedentes de 6 centros hospitalarios de Andalucía. Se recogieron variables demográficas, variables relacionadas con el control metabólico, uso de sistemas de monitorización continua de glucosa, hemoglobina glucosilada media, episodios de hipoglucemias graves o cetoacidosis, comorbilidades y complicaciones existentes, así como los costes directos sanitarios; englobando los costes de medicación, materiales, determinaciones analíticas, pruebas complementarias y los relacionados con la asistencia sanitaria tanto hospitalaria como extrahospitalaria. Resultados: Se obtuvo una muestra de 178 pacientes. La edad media al diagnóstico fue de 6 años y los años de evolución de la enfermedad de 4,69 (0,29 DE) años. La hemoglobina glucosilada media fue de 7,06%, encontrándose el 25% por encima de 7,5%. El coste medio anual estimado por paciente fue de 4.720,4 €. El derivado de las insulinas (2.212,9 €) y el material para la administración de la misma y monitorización de la glucemia (1.518 €) supusieron el mayor porcentaje del gasto (79,1%). No se detecta asociación entre el control metabólico, comorbilidades y el coste de la enfermedad. Conclusión: Este estudio demuestra un coste directo asociado a la DM en edad pediátrica en Andalucía de aproximadamente 4.700 € por paciente


Introduction: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is the second leading chronic disease and the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in childhood. The study objective was to estimate the direct cost of T1DM in pediatric patients in Andalusia. Methodology: A descriptive, observational, multicenter study was conducted during six consecutive months of 2017-2018 on a sample of 220 patients from 6 hospitals in Andalusia. Variables collected included demographic characteristics, metabolic control parameters, glucose levels, use of continuous monitoring systems, mean HbA1c levels, episodes of severe hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis, comorbidities and complications, as well as direct healthcare costs, including costs of drugs, materials, laboratory tests, and supplemental tests, as well as those derived from both inpatient and outpatient care. Results: The study sample consisted of 178 patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 6 years, and mean disease duration was 4.69 (0.29 SD) years. Mean HbA1c level was 7.06%, and 25% of patients had values higher than 7.5%. The estimated annual cost per patient was € 4,720.4. Cost derived from use of insulins (€ 2,212.9) and materials for insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring (€ 1,518) accounted for greatest proportion of cost (79.1%). No association was found between metabolic control, comorbidities, or complications and cost of disease. Conclusion: This study has shown a direct cost associated to T1DM in Andalusian children of approximately € 4,700 per patient


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/economia , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Espanha , Hemoglobina A Glicada/administração & dosagem , Hemoglobina A Glicada/economia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 61(2): 163-171, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301669

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pharmacoeconomics (PE) treats the problems of pharmacotherapy policy, drug marketing and reimbursement and clinical trials. It guides policy makers for effective health resources utilization and determines the profitability of the new drugs on the basis of their price, efficacy and benefits for society. Types of health costs and pharmacoeconomic analyses: In the current review the main types of health costs are discussed. The main PE analyses with their advantages and disadvantages are presented. Pharmacoeconomic of bronchial asthma: The main aspects of PE of bronchial asthma are available in the current review. The costs of health services (direct and indirect), the educational programs and asthma medications in different countries are discussed. Recently published data showed correlation between asthma cost and disease severity, control, social status and therapy adherence. CONCLUSION: PE analyses provide the benefit of making cost consistent decisions in the field of asthma care. This review adds more data on the cost of current asthma treatment worldwide and in Bulgaria.


Assuntos
Asma/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Absenteísmo , Antiasmáticos/economia , Asma/terapia , Bulgária , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Custos de Medicamentos , Farmacoeconomia , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/economia
6.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 28(7): 1334-1340, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with variation in direct costs with shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of all shoulder arthroplasties performed at a single facility between July 1, 2011, and November 30, 2016. We collected patient factors, indications, procedure (including implant details), implant brand (A, B, and other), and complications. We collected direct costs over a 90-day period using a validated internal tool. We identified patient and procedure characteristics associated with costs using multivariable generalized linear models. RESULTS: A total of 361 patients were included, 19% with revision arthroplasty procedures, 32% with anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties, and 66% with reverse total shoulder arthroplasties (RTSAs). Of total costs, 13% were operative facility utilization costs and 58% were operative supply costs. Factors associated with increased total cost included younger age (P = .002) and an indication for surgery of other, that is, not osteoarthritis, a failed arthroplasty, or the sequelae of a rotator cuff tear (P = .030). Factors associated with increased operative costs included younger age (P = .002), use of an RTSA (P < .001), use of a bone graft (P < .001), implant brand B (P = .098), implant brands other than A and B (P = .04), the sequelae of a rotator cuff tear as an indication for surgery (P = .041), or an indication for surgery of other (P = .007). CONCLUSION: Most short-term (90-day) costs with shoulder arthroplasty are operative costs. Nonmodified factors associated with increased cost included younger age and less common indications for surgery, whereas potentially modifiable factors included the intraoperative use of a bone graft, implant brand, and RTSA use.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro/economia , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Reoperação/economia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Artroplastia do Ombro/métodos , Transplante Ósseo/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salas Cirúrgicas/economia , Osteoartrite/economia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/economia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Prótese de Ombro/economia
7.
Radiologia ; 61(2): 153-160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Using a hydrogel plug decreases the number of cases of pneumothorax and reduces the need for pleural drainage tubes in CT-guided lung biopsies. We aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of using hydrogel plugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed 171 lung biopsies divided into three groups: Group 1 (n=22): fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) without hydrogel plugs; Group 2 (n=89): FNAC with hydrogel plugs; and Group 3 (n=60): FNAC plus core-needle biopsy (CNB) with hydrogel plugs. We calculated the total costs (direct and indirect) in the three groups. We analyzed the percentage of correct diagnoses, the average and incremental rations, and the most cost-effective option. RESULTS: Total costs: Group 1 = 1,261.28 + 52.65 = € 1,313.93; Group 2 = 1,201.36 + 67.25 = € 1,268.61; Group 3 = 1,220.22 + 47.20 = € 1,267.42. Percentage of correct diagnoses: Group 1 = 77.3%, Group 2 = 85.4%, and Group 3 = 95% (p = 0.04). Average cost-effectiveness ratio: Group 1 = 16.99; Group 2 = 14.85; and Group 3 = 13.34. CONCLUSIONS: Group 3 was the best option, with the lowest average cost-effectiveness ratio; therefore, the most cost-effective approach is to do FNAC and CNB using a dehydrated hydrogel plug at the end of the procedure.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis/economia , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/economia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumotórax/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/efeitos adversos , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/economia , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/efeitos adversos , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/economia , Tubos Torácicos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/economia
8.
Health Care Manag (Frederick) ; 38(1): 37-43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640238

RESUMO

Cash-based physical therapy, a model in which the clinicians do not accept insurance payments and accept only direct payment, is quickly becoming an enticing option for clinicians who own their own practice. The purpose of this study was to describe service utilization for a single cash-based physical therapy clinic. Forty-eight charts of patients who had been discharged between 2013 and 2016 were randomly selected. The data were deidentified prior to the researchers gaining access. Chronic diagnoses were predominately prevalent (n = 28). The lumbo/pelvic region of diagnoses (39.6%) and knee/leg region of diagnoses (29.2%) encompassed the majority of the diagnoses. The mean physical therapy utilization for the cohort per episode of care was 8.0 ± 8.1 visits per episode of care, total cost of $780.19 ± 530.30 per episode of care, and $97.52 per visit. This study is the first to present data regarding costs, utilization, and patient demographics for a cash-based physical therapy clinic.


Assuntos
Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fisioterapeutas/economia , Prática Privada/economia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 42(3): 141-149, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612850

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The socioeconomic burden of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) has never been formally assessed in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This 12-month (6-month retrospective and prospective periods) observational, multicentre study assessed the burden of moderate-to-severe IBS-C in Spain. Patients were included if they had been diagnosed with IBS-C (Rome III criteria) within the last 5 years and had moderate-to-severe IBS-C (IBS Symptom Severity Scale score [IBS-SSS] ≥175) at inclusion. The primary objective was to assess the direct cost to the Spanish healthcare system (HS). RESULTS: A total of 112 patients were included, 64 (57%) of which had severe IBS-C at inclusion. At baseline, 89 (80%) patients reported abdominal pain and distention. Patient quality of life (QoL), measured by the IBS-C QoL and EQ-5D instruments, was found to be impaired with a mean score of 59 and 57 (0-100, worst-best), respectively. Over the 6-month prospective period the mean IBS-C severity, measured using the IBS-SSS showed some improvement (315-234 [0-500, best-worst]). During the year, 89 (80%) patients used prescription drugs for IBS-C, with laxatives being the most frequently prescribed (n=70; 63%). The direct cost to the HS was €1067, and to the patient was €568 per year. The total direct cost for moderate-to-severe IBS-C was €1635. DISCUSSION: The majority of patients reported continuous IBS-C symptoms despite that 80% were taking medication to treat their IBS-C. Overall healthcare resource use and direct costs were asymmetric, with a small group of patients consuming the majority of resources.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/economia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Feminino , Dilatação Gástrica/etiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/economia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
10.
World J Surg ; 43(1): 52-59, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is vital to enquire into cost of health care to ensure that maximum value for money is obtained with available resources; however, there is a dearth of information on cost of health care in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). Our aim was to develop a reproducible costing method for three routes of hysterectomy in benign uterine conditions: total abdominal (TAH), non-descent vaginal (NDVH) and total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). METHODS: A societal perspective with a micro-costing approach was applied to find out direct and indirect costs. A total of 147 patients were recruited from a district general hospital (Mannar) and a tertiary care hospital (Ragama). Costs incurred from preoperative period to convalescence included direct costs of labour, equipment, investigations, medications and utilities, and indirect costs of out-of-pocket expenses, productivity losses, carer costs and travelling. Time-driven activity-based costing was used for labour, and top-down micro-costing was used for utilities. RESULTS: The total cost [(interquartile range), number] of TAH was USD 339 [(308-397), n = 24] versus USD 338 [(312-422), n = 25], NDVH was USD 315 [(316-541), n = 23] versus USD 357 [(282-739), n = 26] and TLH was USD 393 [(338-446), n = 24] versus USD 429 [(390-504), n = 25] at Mannar and Ragama, respectively. The direct cost of TAH, NDVH and TLH was similar between the two centres, whilst indirect cost was related to the setting rather than the route of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The costing method used in this study overcomes logistical difficulties in a LMIC and can serve as a guide for clinicians and policy makers in similar settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the Sri Lanka clinical trials registry (SLCTR/2016/020) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (U1111-1194-8422) on 26 July 2016.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Histerectomia/economia , Histerectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/economia , Convalescença/economia , Equipamentos e Provisões Hospitalares/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia Vaginal/economia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/economia , Sri Lanka
11.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 33(3): 504-510, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30408246

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma accounts for the vast majority of skin cancer deaths. Primary prevention is used to increase knowledge about skin cancer and set incentives for a change in behaviour, which leads to a decrease in cases. Primary prevention may be cost-effective or even cost saving. Cost-of-illness (COI) studies provide information on such potential savings. The purpose of this study is to give an overview on COI studies in European countries and to compare the COI in total and by cost categories. The results can be used to model potential cost savings from prevention. We conducted a systematic literature research in PubMed using the PRISMA checklist. All costs were converted into Euro and adjusted for the reference year 2012. For the ranking of countries according to their COI, all costs were adjusted for the purchasing power parity. All studies focusing on stage III-IV melanoma include information on hospital, hospice, and outpatient treatment. Costs for the treatment of advanced melanoma range between € 2972 in Italy and € 17 408 in Sweden after adjusting for purchasing power parity. Most studies on stage I-IV melanoma include costs of hospitalization, outpatient treatment and general practitioner consultation. Direct costs range from € 923 in Sweden to € 9829 in Denmark. Three articles also include information on indirect costs. Mortality costs vary between € 3511 in Sweden and € 20 408 in England, morbidity costs between € 103 in Sweden and € 4550 in England. We showed that costs for the treatment of skin cancer are moderately high in the included countries. Since after publication of the articles new costly drugs were approved in Europe, treatment costs of melanoma in Europe may be expected to have risen in the last few years, which means that there is a high expectable potential for prevention programmes to become cost-effective or even cost saving.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Melanoma/economia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/economia , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Europa (Continente) , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos
12.
J Intensive Care Med ; 34(2): 115-125, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28118769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: There is increasing evidence that the physical environment of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), including single-family rooms (SFRs) versus open-bay rooms (OPBYs), has tangible effects on vulnerable patients. The objective of this study was to illustrate the financial implications of SFR versus OPBY units by synthesizing and evaluating the evidence regarding the benefits and costs of each unit from a hospital perspective. METHODS:: We assumed a hypothetical NICU with 40 beds in OPBY rooms, to be replaced with a new NICU with 32 SFRs and 8 OPBYs. We synthesized evidence regarding the comparative benefit of each option on 3 outcomes-nosocomial infections, length of stay, and direct costs. We calculated incremental benefit-cost ratio separately considering each outcome over an analysis period of 5 years. A ratio of more than 1 indicates that the investment is worthwhile. Input parameters were assigned probability distributions representing the degree of uncertainty around their true values. Monte Carlo simulation with 5000 iterations was used to quantify the distribution of benefits and costs. RESULTS:: The mean value of the incremental benefit-cost ratio was 0.730 (95% credible interval: 0.724-0.735) when nosocomial infections were considered, 1.298 (1.282-1.315) when reduced length of stay was considered, and 1.794 (1.783-1.804) when direct costs of care were compared. The probability of a benefit-cost ratio of lower than 1 was about 91%, 31%, and 2% in each case, respectively. CONCLUSION:: Cost savings associated with SFR units would justify additional construction and operation costs compared to OPBY units only when evidence on inclusive outcomes such as length of stay or direct costs of care is considered. A specific outcome such as infection rate potentially fails to capture all benefits of SFRs. As more evidence becomes available on full benefits and hazards of SFRs versus OPBYs, future studies should investigate the broader return-on-investment outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Tempo de Internação/economia , Quartos de Pacientes/economia , Quartos de Pacientes/organização & administração , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo
13.
Surg Endosc ; 33(2): 494-498, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine perioperative professional fee payments to providers from different specialties for the care of patients undergoing inpatient open ventral hernia repair (VHR). METHODS: Perioperative data of patients undergoing VHR at a single center over 3 years were selected from our NSQIP database. 180-day follow-up data were obtained via retrospective review of records and phone calls to patients. Professional fee payments (PFPs) to all providers were obtained from our physician billing system for the VHR hospitalization, the 180 days prior to operation (180Prior) and the 180 days post-discharge (180Post). RESULTS: PFPs for 283 cases were analyzed. Average total 360-day PFPs per patient were $3409 ± SD 3294, with 14.5% ($493 ± 1546) for services in the 180Preop period, 72.5% ($2473 ± 1881) for the VHR hospitalization, and 13.0% ($443 ± 1097) in the 180Postop period. The surgical service received 62% of PFPs followed by anesthesia (18%), medical specialties (9%), radiology (6%), and all other provider services (5%). Medical specialties received increased PFPs for care of patients with COPD and HCT < 38% ($90 and $521, respectively) and for the pulmonary complications ($2471) and sepsis ($2714) that correlated with those patient comorbidities; surgeons did not. Operative duration, mesh size, and separation of components were associated with increased surgeon PFPs (p < .05). At 6 months, wound complications were associated with increased surgeon and radiology payments (p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Management of acute comorbid conditions and the associated higher postoperative morbidity is not reimbursed to the surgeon under the 90-day global fee. These represent opportunity costs of care that pressure busy surgeons to select against these patients or to delegate more management to their medical specialty colleagues, thereby increasing total system costs. A comorbid risk adjustment of procedural reimbursement is warranted. In negotiating bundled payments, surgeon groups should keep in mind that surgeon reimbursement, unlike medical specialty and hospital reimbursement, have been bundled since the 1990s.


Assuntos
Honorários Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Cirurgiões/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Herniorrafia/métodos , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Kentucky , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Niterói; s.n; 2019. 155 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-994555

RESUMO

Objetivo geral: Analisar a razão custo-efetividade entre o Plasma Rico em Plaquetas autólogo e a Gaze com Petrolatum® no tratamento de úlceras venosas. Método: Análise de custo-efetividade realizada em hospital universitário federal, cujos dados relativos à efetividade foram extraídos de Ensaio Clínico Controlado Randomizado e analisados por meio dos seguintes indicadores: I1 cicatrização completa (redução de 100% da área inicial); I2 redução da área da úlcera maior ou igual a 75%; I3 redução da área da úlcera maior ou igual a 50%. O custos diretos foram categorizados em Recursos Materiais e Humanos, estimados no contexto ambulatorial e domiciliar. Adotou-se a perspectiva econômica do sistema público de saúde. Foram realizadas análise estatística descritiva, inferencial, com modelo de análise de decisão para análise de custo-efetividade e análise de sensibilidade. Resultados: Os grupos foram homogêneos quanto às variáveis socioeconômicas e clínicas, com predomínio de idosos, sexo masculino, ensino fundamental incompleto e renda entre 1 e 2 salários mínimos. Todos possuíam Insuficiência Venosa Crônica, a maioria Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica. O custo de uma sessão de PRP por participante foi de R$20,22 (US$5.45 ou €4,84). O custo de seis sessões para 18 participantes com o Plasma Rico em Plaquetas foi de R$2.183,94 (US$588.66 ou €522,47). A categoria recursos humanos foi a que mais impactou o custo (85,8%). O custo de um curativo ambulatorial no grupo intervenção foi de R$33,02 (US$8,90 ou €7,90), superior ao do controle, R$25,46 (US$6.86 ou €6,09). O custo de 12 curativos ambulatoriais para 18 participantes no grupo intervenção foi de R$7.164,27 (US$1,931.07 ou €1.713,95), superior em 23,24% em relação ao controle, que custou R$5.498,68 (US$1,482.12 ou €1,315,47). O custo de um dia de curativo no domicílio foi de R$4,47 (US$1.20 ou €1,07) para o grupo intervenção e de R$5,09 (US$1.37 ou €1.22) para controle. O custo de 66 dias de curativos para 18 participantes no domicílio foi significativamente menor no grupo intervenção, R$5.313,74 (US$1,432.27 ou €1.271,23) do que no grupo controle, R$6.051,51 (US$1,631.13 ou €1.447,73) (p-valor = 0,003). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no custo da bandagem elástica monocamada (p-valor = 0,501). O custo dos 18 participantes, considerando o custo do tratamento ambulatorial, domiciliar e da bandagem elástica nas 12 semanas foi maior no grupo intervenção R$12.888,99 (US$3,474.12 ou €3.083,49) do que no grupo controle, R$11.971,99 (US$3,226.95 ou €2.864,11), sem diferença estatística significativa (p-valor = 0,791). Quanto à efetividade, ambos os tratamentos apresentaram a mesma efetividade, para os indicadores I1 e I3 e o tratamento do grupo intervenção se mostrou mais efetivo e com a melhor razão custoefetividade incremental para o indicador 2, ou seja o menor custo por unidade de efetividade, que foi de R$16.375,00 (US$4,413.75 ou €3.917,46). Na análise de sensibilidade, quando considerado o menor preço da plataforma painel de preços, o tratamento intervenção apresentou menor razão custo-efetividade para todos os indicadores de efetividade e quando considerado o maior preço e o preço médio, apresentou a menor razão custo-efetividade para o indicador I2. Conclusão: O tratamento com PRP foi mais custo-efetivo para úlceras que tiveram cicatrização ≥75%


Objective: Analyze the cost-effectiveness ratio between autologous Platelet Rich Plasma and Gaze with Petrolatum® in the treatment of venous ulcers. Method: Cost-effectiveness analysis performed at a federal university hospital, whose effectiveness data were extracted from a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial and analyzed through the following indicators - I1 complete healing (reduction of 100% of the initial area); I2 reduction of the ulcer area greater than or equal to 75%; I3 reduction of ulcer area greater than or equal to 50%. Direct costs of the treatments were categorized in Material and Human Resources, estimated in the outpatient and home context. The economic perspective of the public health system was adopted. A descriptive, inferential statistical analysis was performed with cost and effectiveness estimates, with a decision analysis model for cost-effectiveness analysis and sensitivity analysis. Results: The groups were homogeneous regarding socioeconomic and clinical variables, with a predominance of elderly, male, incomplete primary education and income between 1 and 2 minimum wages. All had Chronic Venous Insufficiency, most of them Systemic Arterial Hypertension. The cost of a PRP session was R$ 20.22 (US$5.45 or €4,84). The cost of six sessions for 18 participants with the Plasma Rich Plasma was R$2,183.94 (US$ 588.66 or € 522.47), with the human resources category most impacting the cost (85.8%). The cost of an outpatient dressing in the intervention group was R$ 33.02 (US$ 8.90 or €7.90), higher than the control group, which was R$ 25.46 (US$ 6.86 or €6.09). The cost of 12 outpatient dressings for 18 participants in the intervention group was R$ 7,164.27 (US$ 1,931.07 or €1,713.95), 23.24% higher than the control, R$ 5,498.68 (US$1,482.12 or €1,315,47). The cost of one day of dressing at home was R$ 4.47 (US$ 1.20 or €1.07) for the intervention group was R$ 5.09 (US$1.37 or €1.22) for the control group. The cost of 66 days of home dressings was significantly lower in the intervention group, R$5,313.74 (US$1,432.27 or €1,271.23) than in the control group, R$6,051.51 (US$1,631.13 or €1,447.73) (p-value = 0.003). There was not significant difference in the cost of the monolayer elastic bandage for the 18 participants (p-value = 0.501). The cost of the 18 participants, considering the cost of outpatient, home and elastic bandage treatment at 12 weeks, was higher in the intervention group of R$12,888.99 (US$3,474.12 or €3,083.49) than in the control group, R$11,971.99 (US$3,226.95 or €2,864.11), with no significant statistical difference (p-value = 0.791). Regarding effectiveness, both treatments had the same effectiveness for the indicators I1 and I3 and the treatment of the intervention group was more effective and presented the best incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the indicator 2, that is, the lowest cost per unit of effectiveness, which was R$16,375.00 (US$4,413.75 or €3,917.46). In the sensitivity analysis, when considered the lowest price, intervention treatment presented lower cost-effectiveness ratio for all effectiveness indicators and when considered the highest and the average price, presented the lowest cost-effectiveness ratio for the indicator I2. Conclusion: Treatment with PRP was more cost-effective for ulcers that had healing ≥75%


Assuntos
Plasma , Úlcera Varicosa , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Custos e Análise de Custo
15.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 21(3): 131-142, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of tested instruments for measuring mental health services and costs. The Client Sociodemographic Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI) is the most used tool in economic evaluation in mental health in Europe; it was translated into five languages, and it was mainly used to evaluate deinstitutionalisation process in mental health system reform. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To translate and adapt to the Brazilian healthcare system, and to test its inter-rater reliability, validity and its feasibility in a deinstitutionalized sample of psychiatric hospital living in residential facilities. METHOD: The translation and adaptation of CSSRI to Brazilian context was done by a focus group with eight experts on public mental health services, covering all the available Brazilian healthcare services. Decisions on the extent of conceptual overlap between British and Brazilian version were discussed until reaching expert consensus. The inter-rater reliability and applicability of this version, called ``Inventário Sociodemográfico de Uso e Custos de Serviços - ISDUCS'', was tested in a sample of 30 subjects with moderate to severe mental disorders living in residential facilities. Because the lack of medical record or another source, ISDUCS's validity was assessed using Kappa coefficient agreement to compare between resident`s answers and their professional carers`answers. RESULTS: The same structure of the original instrument was kept, with an additional list of items for costing consumable services. The main modifications were on items related to education, occupational status and on detailed descriptions of public health services. The agreement between two mental health raters was good to excellent for the majority of items, with Kappa coefficient ranged from 0.6 to 1.0. Because 43% of the sample was unable to answer questions about regularly taken medications and consultations with health professionals, an exploratory analysis was done to identify potentially related variables. Greater severity of psychiatric symptoms and lower independent living skills were related to the inability to answer these questions. Agreement between residents and carers was good to excellent for socio and demographic variables, living situation and occupational status, income, visits to a psychologist, occupational therapists and social workers. CONCLUSION: ISDUCS is the first tool for economic evaluation including mental health services translated and adapted to Brazilian context. Despite the widespread use of CRSSI among people with schizophrenia in Europe, this study found that greater severity of symptoms led to high rate of missing responses. Inter-rater reliability was excellent as a whole. Small sample size didn't allow generalisation of results of this preliminary testing. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH PROVISION AND USE: ISDUCS may be suitable for people with mental illness but requires additional sources of information such as carers and medical records. ISDUCS could be used for monitoring health service use in general practice. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Despite some limitations, this instrument was used to measure mental health service costs in three Brazilian studies, generating data for supporting local mental health policies, for boosting empirical research in the country and for supporting modelling studies. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: It should be tested further in other health settings and samples.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Desinstitucionalização/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Instituições Residenciais/economia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 920, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) is provided for free in Tanzania in all public health facilities. Yet surveys suggested that long distances to the facilities limit women from accessing these services. Mobile health clinics (MHC) were introduced to address this problem; however, little is known about the client cost and time associated with utilizing ANC at MHC and whether these costs deter women from using the provided services. METHODS: Client-exit interviews were conducted by interviewing 293 pregnant women who visited the MHC in rural Tanzania. Two subgroups were created, one with women who travelled more than 1.5 h to the MHC, and the other with women who travelled within 1.5 h. For each subgroup we estimated the direct cost in US$ and time in hours for utilizing services and they hinder service utilization. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum test was performed to compare the differences between the estimated mean values in the two groups. RESULT: Total direct cost per visit was: US$2.27 (SD = 0.90) for overall, US$2.29 (SD = 1.03) for those women who travelled less than 1.5 h and US$2.53 (SD = 0.63) for those who travelled more than 1.5 h (p = 0.08). Laboratory and medicine cost accounted for 70 and 16% of the total direct cost and were similar across the groups. Total time cost per visit (in hours) was: 3.75 (SD = 1.83), 2.88 (SD = 1.27) for those women who travelled less than 1.5 h and 5.02 (SD = 1.81) for those who travelled more than 1.5 h (p < 0.01). The major contributor of time cost was waiting time; 1.89 (SD = 1.29) for overall, 1.68 (SD = 1.02) for those women who travelled less than 1.5 h and 2.17 (SD = 1.57) for those who travelled more than 1.5 h (p = 0.07). Participants reported having missed their scheduled visit due to lack of money (15%) and time (9%). CONCLUSION: Women receiving nominally free ANC incur considerable time and direct cost, which may result in an unsteady use of maternal care. Improving availability of essential medicine and supplies at health facilities, as well as focusing on efficient utilization of community health workers may reduce these costs.


Assuntos
Custos Diretos de Serviços , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/economia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/economia , Gravidez , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tanzânia , Fatores de Tempo , Viagem
17.
Med. paliat ; 25(4): 260-267, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180507

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Comparar de manera directa los costes sanitarios que supone la atención en los 2últimos meses de vida de los pacientes con enfermedad oncológica avanzada a partir de los certificados de defunción en una zona metropolitana de Madrid, según reciban o no seguimiento en su domicilio por un Equipo de Soporte de Atención Paliativa Domiciliaria (ESAPD). METODOLOGÍA: DISEÑO: análisis de costes directos con base poblacional comparando 2opciones de atención de pacientes oncológicos en los 2últimos meses de vida: seguimiento habitual, seguimiento por ESAPD. Ámbito: el ESAPD está formado por 2médicos y 2enfermeras, y atienden una población de 350.000 habitantes de un área metropolitana de Madrid. Tamaño muestral y muestreo: 226 pacientes. A partir de los certificados de defunción se incluyó a todos los pacientes mayores de 18 años, fallecidos por cáncer durante el año 2005, en el área metropolitana de Madrid que atiende dicho ESAPD. Variables a partir de los certificados de defunción sociodemográficas y clínicas: edad, sexo, estado civil, localización del tumor y fecha del fallecimiento. A partir de los registros de los hospitales públicos: número de ingresos hospitalarios, duración y visitas a urgencias y a partir de la base datos ESAPD: seguimiento o no por el ESAPD. Análisis de costes: para el cálculo de los costes empleados de ingresos por urgencias o estancia hospitalaria se tomaron los precios públicos oficiales de la base de datos Oblikue actualizados con el IPC de medicinas a 2015. Análisis estadístico: se han descrito las variables cualitativas con frecuencias y porcentajes, y las variables cuantitativas con media, mediana y desviación típica. Para la comparación entre 2 variables se usó el test t de Student, el test de la chi al cuadrado y la Tau-c de Kendall. RESULTADOS: N: 226, edad media fue de 68,0 (14,0) años, con un rango de 23 a 94 años, un 65,9% fueron varones, solteros 16 (7,1%), casado 148 (65,5%), viudo 55 (25,3%) y separado 7 (3,1%). Tipo de tumor: hematológico 21, respiratorio 61, mama 14, genitourinario 19 y digestivo 69. Pacientes fallecidos en el hospital 5 (13,5%) vs.133 (70,4%), en domicilio 25 (67,5%) vs.22 (11,6%), en unidades de cuidados paliativos 5 (13,5%) vs.21 (11,1%) según hayan recibido o no seguimiento por ESAPD, respectivamente, p < 0,005. Número de ingresos hospitalarios: ningún ingreso 22 (59%) vs.54 (28,6%), un ingreso 12 (32,4) vs.98 (51,9%) y 2o más ingresos 3 (8,1%) vs.37 (19,6%) según hayan recibido o no seguimiento por ESAPD, respectivamente, p < 0,001. La media en el número de días de ingresos fue de 7,5 vs.16,5 según hubieran recibido o no seguimiento por ESAPD, respectivamente, p < 0,001. El coste medio en euros por paciente fue de 3.158, IC 1.626.7-4689,2, rango máximo de 15.186 vs.6.941, IC 5.919-7.963,1) y rango máximo de 26.153, p = 0,002, según hubieran recibido o no seguimiento por ESAPD, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Se observa una disminución muy significativa del gasto por paciente en aquellos que son seguidos por un equipo domiciliario de cuidados paliativos. Esta disminución está asociada principalmente al menor número de ingresos y estancias hospitalarias en el grupo de pacientes que fueron seguidos por un equipo de cuidados paliativos


PURPOSE: direct comparison of the health costs of care in the last 2 months of life, of patients with advanced oncological illness, from death certificates, in a metropolitan area in Madrid, depending on whether or not they had been home monitored by a Palliative Home Care Team (PHCT). Methods: Design population-based direct costs analysis, comparing 2care options for oncological patients in the last 2months of life: standard monitoring vs. PHCT monitoring. Setting: The PHCT is formed by 2physicians and 2nurses, attending 350 000 inhabitants of a metropolitan area of Madrid. Sample size and sampling: 226 patients. From death certificates, all patients older than 18, who died of cancer during 2005, in the Madrid metropolitan area attended by the abovementioned PHCT, were included. Variables sociodemographic and clinical variables from death certificates: age, sex, marital status, tumour location, date of death. From the public hospitals' registries: number of hospital admissions, visits to emergency room and their length. And from the PHCT database: PHCT monitoring. Costs analysis: the official public prices of the Oblikue database were used to calculate the costs of emergency admissions and/or hospital stays, updated with the 2015 medicines IPC. Statistical analysis: The qualitative variables were described with frequency and percentage, and the quantitative variables with mean, median and standard deviation. For the comparison between 2variables the T-Student test, the Chi-square test and the Kendall c-Tau were used. Results: N: 226. Mean age was 68.0 (14.0) with a range from 23 to 94 years old, 65.9% were male, 16 single (7.1%), 148 married (65.5%), 55 widowed (25.3%) and 7 separated (3.1%). Tumour type: 21 haematological, 61 respiratory, 14 breast, 19 genitourinary, 69 digestive. Patients who died in hospital 5 (13.5%) vs. 133 (70.4%), at home 25 (67.5%) vs. 22 (11.6%), in palliative care units 5 (13.5%) vs. 21 (11.1%) according to whether or not they had been monitored by PHCT respectively, P<.005. Number of hospital admissions: no admission 22 (59%) vs. 54(28.6%), one admission 12(32.4) vs. 98(51.9%) and 2or more admissions 3(8.1%) vs. 37(19.6%), according to whether or not they had been monitored by PHCT respectively, P<.001. The mean number of admission days was 7.5 vs. 16.5, according to whether or not they had been monitored by PHCT respectively, P<.001. The mean cost in euros per patient was 3158, CI (1626.7-4689.2), maximum range 15186 vs. 6941, CI (5919-7963.1) and maximum range 26153, P=.002, according to whether or not they had been monitored by PHCT respectively. Conclusions: A significant reduction in the expense per patient, in those monitored by a PCHT is observed. This reduction is mainly associated with a lower number of admissions and hospital stays in the group of patients that were monitored by a palliative areteam


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Atestado de Óbito , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia
18.
Rev. esp. cir. ortop. traumatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 62(6): 408-414, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177664

RESUMO

Introducción: La enfermedad traumática continúa representando un importante problema socio-sanitario. El objetivo del estudio es valorar predictores clínicos del gasto total, así como analizar que componentes del coste se modifican con cada parámetro clínico del politraumatizado. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 131 politraumatizados registrados prospectivamente. Se llevó a cabo un análisis estadístico para valorar la relación entre parámetros clínicos, el coste total y el coste de los principales componentes del tratamiento. Resultados: El coste total del ingreso hospitalario fue de 3.791.879 euros. El gasto medio por paciente fue de 28.945 Euros. La edad y el género no fueron predictores del coste. Las escalas ISS, NISS y PS fueron predictores del coste total y del coste de diferentes facetas del tratamiento. El AIS de cráneo y tórax predijo un mayor coste de ingreso en UCI y de coste total. El AIS de miembros inferiores se asoció exclusivamente a un mayor gasto en las facetas de tratamiento relacionadas con la actividad quirúrgica. Discusión: Existen parámetros clínicos que son predictores del coste de tratamiento del paciente politraumatizado. En el estudio se describe como el tipo de traumatismo que presenta el paciente modifica el tipo de gastos que presentará en su ingreso hospitalario. Conclusiones: Los pacientes politraumatizados que presentan lesión multisistémica grave presentan incremento del gasto en múltiples componentes del coste de tratamiento. Los pacientes donde predomina el TCE o traumatismo torácico presentan un mayor coste por ingreso en la UCI y los que predomina el traumatismo ortopédico asocian un mayor gasto en actividad quirúrgica


Introduction: Traumatic pathology continues to represent an important socio-health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the clinical predictors of total expenditure, as well as to analyze which components of the cost are modified with each clinical parameter of the polytraumatized patient. Material and methods: Retrospective study of 131 polytrauma patients registered prospectively. A statistical analysis was carried out to assess the relationship between clinical parameters, the total cost and the cost of various treatment components. Results: The total cost of hospital admission was 3,791,879 euros. The average cost per patient was Euros 28,945. Age and gender were not predictors of cost. The scales ISS, NISS and PS were predictors of the total cost and of multiple treatment components. The AIS of Skull and Thorax predicted a higher cost of admission to ICU and Total Cost. The AIS of lower limbs was associated with greater spending on facets of treatment related to surgical activity. Discussion: There are clinical parameters that are predictors of the treatment cost of the polytraumatized patient. The study describes how the type of trauma that the patient suffers modifies the type of expenses that will present in their hospital admission. Conclusions: Polytraumatized patients with severe multisystem injury present increased costs in multiple components of the treatment cost. Patients with TBI or chest trauma present a higher cost for admission to ICU and those with orthopaedic trauma are associated with greater expenditure on surgical activity


Assuntos
Humanos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/economia , Traumatismo Múltiplo/economia , Controle de Custos/métodos , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Efeito Idade
19.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 20(80): 397-400, oct.-dic. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180976

RESUMO

Conclusiones de los autores del estudio: el empleo apropiado de la actitud expectante para el manejo de la otitis media aguda podría simultáneamente mejorar los resultados de salud y ahorrar costes a la sociedad. En contraposición, los autores interpretan que esta actitud podría suponer un aumento de las visitas, requiriendo educación adicional de los padres y del personal sanitario. Comentario de los revisores: este análisis de coste-efectividad demuestra que la actitud expectante basada en las pautas de la Academia Americana de Pediatría para el manejo de la otitis media se asocia con menores costes totales y evita la pérdida de años de vida ajustados por discapacidad. Sería necesario realizar estudios de costes en Atención Primaria y adaptados a nuestro medio, donde se puede asegurar un seguimiento más exhaustivo de los pacientes obteniendo incluso costes menores


Author's conclusions: the appropriate use of watchful waiting for the management of acute otitis media could simultaneously improve health outcomes and save costs for society. In contrast, the authors interpret that this attitude could imply an increase in visits, requiring additional education from parents and health personnel. Reviewer's commentary: this cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrates that watchful waiting management for acute otitis media in patients meeting criteria of the AAP guidelines, stratifying by age and severity symptoms, is associated with lower total costs and also avoids the loss of years of life due to disability. It would be necessary to conduct cost studies in Primary Care, adapted to our environment where it can be ensured a more exhaustive monitoring of patients and the costs could be even lower


Assuntos
Humanos , Conduta Expectante/economia , Otite Média/terapia , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Otite Média/epidemiologia , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 815, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irrational drug use is a global health challenge in all healthcare settings, such as hospitals. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention by the pharmaceutical care unit on the use pattern of high-value medications and their direct costs in a referral hospital. METHODS: This interventional, prospective study was carried out in clinical wards of Namazi Hospital (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences) during six months from May 2015 to October 2015. Clinical pharmacists completed the checklists for albumin, intravenous (IV) pantoprazole, and IV immune globulin (IVIG), as three high-cost medications. When ordering these medications, the physicians were asked to complete the checklists. Then, trained pharmacists examined the checklists, based on the clinical and paraclinical conditions. RESULTS: The total number of administered medications and their relative cost decreased by 50.76% through guideline implementation; the difference was significant (P <  0.001). In addition, the direct cost of albumin and IV pantoprazole significantly decreased (55.8% and 83.92%, respectively). In contrast, the direct cost of IVIG increased by 40.9%. After guideline implementation, the monthly direct cost of all three medications decreased by $77,720 (55.88%). The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate did not change significantly due to the intervention. The median length of hospital stay was six and seven days, respectively in the pre- and post-intervention periods. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings, implementation of guidelines by the pharmaceutical care unit caused a significant reduction in albumin and IV pantoprazole consumption and reduced their direct costs in a referral center in Iran.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/economia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Albuminas/economia , Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Lista de Checagem , Custos Diretos de Serviços , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais de Ensino/economia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/economia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Irã (Geográfico) , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/economia , Pantoprazol/uso terapêutico , Assistência Farmacêutica/economia , Farmacêuticos/economia , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/economia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos
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