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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047054, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore predictors of district nursing care utilisation for community-living (older) people in the Netherlands using claims data. To cope with growing demands in district nursing care, knowledge about the current utilisation of district nursing care is important. SETTING: District nursing care as a part of primary care. PARTICIPANTS: In this nationwide study, claims data were used from the Dutch risk adjustment system and national information system of health insurers. Samples were drawn of 5500 pairs of community-living people using district nursing care (cases) and people not using district nursing care (controls) for two groups: all ages and aged 75+ years (total N=22 000). OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome was district nursing care utilisation and the 114 potential predictors included predisposing factors (eg, age), enabling factors (eg, socioeconomic status) and need factors (various healthcare costs). The random forest algorithm was used to predict district nursing care utilisation. The performance of the models and importance of predictors were calculated. RESULTS: For the population of people aged 75+ years, most important predictors were older age, and high costs for general practitioner consultations, aid devices, pharmaceutical care, ambulance transportation and occupational therapy. For the total population, older age, and high costs for pharmaceutical care and aid devices were the most important predictors. CONCLUSIONS: People in need of district nursing care are older, visit the general practitioner more often, and use more and/or expensive medications and aid devices. Therefore, close collaboration between the district nurse, general practitioner and the community pharmacist is important. Additional analyses including data regarding health status are recommended. Further research is needed to provide an evidence base for district nursing care to optimise the care for those with high care needs, and guide practice and policymakers' decision-making.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Países Baixos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 653-660, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475602

RESUMO

Poor control of cardiovascular disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the disease burden in developing countries, but often essential anticoagulant medicines for preventing strokes and embolisms are not widely available. In 2019, direct oral anticoagulants were added to the World Health Organization's WHO Model list of essential medicines. The aims of this paper are to summarize the benefits of direct oral anticoagulants for patients with cardiovascular disease and to discuss ways of increasing their usage internationally. Although the cost of direct oral anticoagulants has provoked debate, the affordability of introducing these drugs into clinical practice could be increased by: price negotiation; pooled procurement; competitive tendering; the use of patent pools; and expanded use of generics. In 2017, only 14 of 137 countries that had adopted national essential medicines lists included a direct oral anticoagulant on their lists. This number could increase rapidly if problems with availability and affordability can be tackled. Once the types of patient likely to benefit from direct oral anticoagulants have been clearly defined in clinical practice guidelines, coverage can be more accurately determined and associated costs can be better managed. Government action is required to ensure that direct oral anticoagulants are covered by national budgets because the absence of reimbursement remains an impediment to achieving universal coverage. Tackling cardiovascular disease with the aid of direct oral anticoagulants is an essential component of efforts to achieve the World Health Organization's target of reducing premature deaths due to noncommunicable disease by 25% by 2025.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos Genéricos/provisão & distribuição , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17787, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493774

RESUMO

Despite COVID-19's significant morbidity and mortality, considering cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic treatment strategies for hospitalized patients remains critical to support healthcare resource decisions within budgetary constraints. As such, we calculated the cost-effectiveness of using remdesivir and dexamethasone for moderate to severe COVID-19 respiratory infections using the United States health care system as a representative model. A decision analytic model modelled a base case scenario of a 60-year-old patient admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Patients requiring oxygen were considered moderate severity, and patients with severe COVID-19 required intubation with intensive care. Strategies modelled included giving remdesivir to all patients, remdesivir in only moderate and only severe infections, dexamethasone to all patients, dexamethasone in severe infections, remdesivir in moderate/dexamethasone in severe infections, and best supportive care. Data for the model came from the published literature. The time horizon was 1 year; no discounting was performed due to the short duration. The perspective was of the payer in the United States health care system. Supportive care for moderate/severe COVID-19 cost $11,112.98 with 0.7155 quality adjusted life-year (QALY) obtained. Using dexamethasone for all patients was the most-cost effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $980.84/QALY; all remdesivir strategies were more costly and less effective. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed dexamethasone for all patients was most cost-effective in 98.3% of scenarios. Dexamethasone for moderate-severe COVID-19 infections was the most cost-effective strategy and would have minimal budget impact. Based on current data, remdesivir is unlikely to be a cost-effective treatment for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/economia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/economia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dexametasona/economia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Respiração Artificial/economia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1646, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term growth and sustained high prevalence of obesity in the US is likely to increase the burden of Type 2 diabetes. Hispanic individuals are particularly burdened by a larger share of diabetes than non-Hispanic White individuals. Given the existing health disparities facing this population, we aimed to examine the effectiveness and potential cost savings of the Diabetes Education Program (DEP) offered as part of Healthy South Texas, a state-legislated initiative to reduce health disparities in 27 counties in South Texas with a high proportion of Hispanic adults. METHODS: DEP is an 8-h interactive workshop taught in English and Spanish. After the workshop, participants receive quarterly biometric screenings and continuing education with a health educator for one year. Data were analyzed from 3859 DEP participants with Type 2 diabetes living in South Texas at five time points (baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 9-months, 12-months). The primary outcome variable of interest for study analyses was A1c. A series of independent sample t-tests and linear mixed-model regression analyses were used to identify changes over time. Two methods were then applied to estimate healthcare costs savings associated with A1c reductions among participants. RESULTS: The majority of participants were ages 45-64 years (58%), female (60%), Hispanic (66%), and had a high school education or less (75%). At baseline, the average hemoglobin A1c was 8.57%. The most substantial reductions in hemoglobin A1c were identified from baseline to 3-month follow-up (P < 0.001); however, the reduction in A1c remained significant from baseline to 12-month follow-up (P < 0.001). The healthcare cost savings associated with improved A1c for the program was estimated to be between $5.3 to $5.6 million over a two to three year period. CONCLUSION: Findings support the effectiveness of DEP with ongoing follow-up for sustained diabetes risk management. While such interventions foster clinical-community collaboration and can improve patient adherence to recommended lifestyle behaviors, opportunities exist to complement DEP with other resources and services to enhance program benefits. Policy makers and other key stakeholders can assess the lessons learned in this effort to tailor and expand similar initiatives to potentially at-risk populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This community-based intervention is not considered a trial by ICMJE definitions, and has not be registered as such.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Texas/epidemiologia
5.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3344-3353, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477815

RESUMO

Since the introduction of imatinib, the management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has changed considerably. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the mainstay of CML treatment; however, the high financial burden of TKIs can be problematic for both the patients and health care systems. After the emergence of generics, reimbursement policies of many countries have changed, and generics offered an alternative treatment option for CML patients. There are many papers published on the use of generics in CML patients with conflicting results regarding both efficacy and safety. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the current literature on generic imatinib use in CML, and 36 papers were evaluated. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of generic imatinib showed comparable results with branded imatinib in terms of bioequivalence and bioavailability. In most studies, generics were comparable with the original molecule in terms of efficacy and safety, both in newly diagnosed patients and after switching from Gleevec. Some generic studies showed contradictory findings regarding efficacy and toxicity, and these differences can be attributed to some factors including the use of different generics in different countries. Both in hypothetical models and in real life, introduction of generic imatinib caused significant reduction in health care costs. In conclusion, generics are not inferior to original imatinib in terms of efficacy with an acceptable toxicity profile. Notwithstanding the generally favorable efficacy and safety of generics worldwide to date, we most probably still need more time to draw firmer conclusions on the longer-term outcomes of generics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 477, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown that elderly with a natural dentition have better general health than edentulous elderly, but this has not been confirmed in studies with longitudinal design. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study with a follow-up of 8 years aimed to assess differences in general health, healthcare costs and dental care use between elderly with a natural dentition and edentulous elderly wearing implant-retained or conventional dentures. Based on data of all national insurance claims for dental and medical care from Dutch elderly (aged ≥75 years) general health outcomes (chronic conditions, medication use), healthcare costs and dental care use could be assessed of three groups of elderly, viz. elderly with a natural dentition, elderly with conventional dentures and elderly with implant-retained overdentures. RESULTS: At baseline (2009), a total of 168,122 elderly could be included (143,199 natural dentition, 18,420 conventional dentures, 6503 implant-retained overdentures). Here we showed that after 8 years follow-up elderly with a natural dentition had more favorable general health outcomes (fewer chronic conditions, less medication use), lower healthcare costs and lower dental costs - but higher dental care use - than edentulous elderly. At baseline the general health of elderly with an implant-retained overdentures resembled the profile of elderly with a natural dentition, but over time their general health problems became comparable to elderly with conventional dentures. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that elderly with a natural dentition had significant better health and lower healthcare costs compared to edentulous elderly (with or without dental implants).


Assuntos
Dentição , Revestimento de Dentadura , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Lakartidningen ; 1182021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498246

RESUMO

5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is still a cornerstone in drug treatment for cancer. Some patients starting standard dosed 5-FU will experience severe adverse events (SAEs). One mechanism behind SAEs is impaired dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity, resulting in an accumulation of cytotoxic metabolites. Pre-emptive testing of DPD enzyme activity or genetic variation in its gene, DPYD,  is recommended since 2020 in Sweden. We report experience from DPYD testing in 368 patients planned for 5-FU treatment. DPYD variants associated with reduced DPD activity were observed in 28 patients (8%), which is close to the expected frequency. These patients tolerated 5-FU treatment when doses were reduced according to guidelines. However, 4 out of 5 variant allele carriers starting 5-FU at standard dose due to late arrival of test results experienced SAEs. Pre-emptive testing was calculated to be cost saving and thus beneficial from a healthcare economy perspective.


Assuntos
Fluoruracila , Neoplasias , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Redução de Custos , Atenção à Saúde , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Suécia
8.
Trials ; 22(1): 636, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Financial toxicity, the material and psychological burden of the cost of treatment, affects 30-50% of people with cancer, even those with health insurance. The burden of treatment cost can affect treatment adherence and, ultimately, mortality. Financial toxicity is a health equity issue, disproportionately affecting patients who are racial/ethnic minorities, have lower incomes, and are < 65 years old. Patient education about treatment cost and patient-oncologist cost discussions are recommended as ways to address financial toxicity; however, research shows cost discussions occur infrequently (Altice et al. J Natl Cancer Inst 109:djw205, 2017; Schnipper et al. J Clin Oncol 34:2925-34, 2016; Zafar et al. Oncologist 18:381-90, 2013; American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network 2010). Our overall goal is to address the burden of financial toxicity and work toward health equity through a tailorable education and communication intervention, the DISCO App. The aim of this longitudinal randomized controlled trial is to test the effectiveness of the DISCO App on the outcomes in a population of economically and racially/ethnically diverse cancer patients from all age groups. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal, or prostate cancer at a NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center in Detroit, MI, will be randomized to one of three study arms: one usual care arm (arm 1) and two intervention arms (arms 2 and 3). All intervention patients (arms 2 and 3) will receive the DISCO App before the second interaction with their oncologist, and patients in arm 3 will receive an intervention booster. The DISCO App, presented on an iPad, includes an educational video about treatment costs, ways to manage them, and the importance of discussing them with oncologists. Patients enter socio-demographic information (e.g., employment, insurance status) and indicate their financial concerns. They then receive a tailored list of questions to consider asking their oncologist. All patients will have up to two interactions with their oncologist video recorded and complete measures at baseline, after the recorded interactions and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the second interaction. Outcome measures will assess discussions of cost, communication quality, knowledge of treatment costs, self-efficacy for treatment cost management, referrals for support, short- and longer-term financial toxicity, and treatment adherence. DISCUSSION: If effective, this intervention will improve awareness of and discussions of treatment cost and alleviate the burden of financial toxicity. It may be especially helpful to groups disproportionately affected by financial toxicity, helping to achieve health equity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04766190. Registered on February 23, 2021.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Oncologistas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Comunicação , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estados Unidos
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046603, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is a debilitating chronic inflammatory condition highly burdensome to the healthcare system. The present trial will establish the efficacy of (1) yoga and (2) cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), above (3) education, on quality of life, biopsychosocial outcomes and cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a parallel randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomly allocated to yoga, CBT or education. Participants will be English-speaking adults, have a diagnosis of endometriosis by a qualified physician, with pain for at least 6 months, and access to internet. Participants will attend 8 weekly group CBT sessions of 120 min; or 8 weekly group yoga sessions of 60 min; or receive weekly educational handouts on endometriosis. The primary outcome measure is quality of life. The analysis will include mixed-effects analysis of variance and linear models, cost-utility analysis from a societal and health system perspective and qualitative thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Enrolment in the study is voluntary and participants can withdraw at any time. Participants will be given the option to discuss the study with their next of kin/treating physician. Findings will be disseminated via publications, conferences and briefs to professional organisations. The University's media team will also be used to further disseminate via lay person articles and media releases. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000756921p; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Endometriose , Ioga , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Endometriose/terapia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045729, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the costs directly or indirectly related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The secondary objective was to stratify the costs based on gestational age and/or birth weight. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. SETTING: PubMed and Scopus were searched on 3 February 2020. Studies were selected based on eligibility criteria by two independent reviewers. Included studies were further searched to identify eligible references and citations.Two independent reviewers extracted data with a prespecified data extraction sheet, including items from a published checklist for quality assessment. The costs in the included studies are reported descriptively. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Costs of BPD. RESULTS: The 13 included studies reported the total costs or marginal costs of BPD. Most studies reported costs during birth hospitalisation (cost range: Int$21 392-Int$1 094 509 per child, equivalent to €19 103-€977 397, in 2019) and/or during the first year of life. One study reported costs during the first 2 years; two other studies reported costs later, during the preschool period and one study included a long-term follow-up. The highest mean costs were associated with infants born at extremely low gestational ages. The quality assessment indicated a low risk of bias in the reported findings of included studies. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first systematic review of costs associated with BPD. We confirmed previous reports of high costs and described the long-term follow-up necessary for preterm infants with BPD, particularly infants of very low gestational age. Moreover, we identified a need for studies that estimate costs outside hospitals and after the first year of life. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020173234.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Idade Gestacional , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 778, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The estimated prevalence of comorbid major depressive disorder (. MDD) is 11% in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 15-20% in those with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Comorbid MDD continues to be a significant source of economic burden to the healthcare system. METHODS: We assessed the incremental healthcare burden of comorbid MDD in patients with T2D or CVD. This real-world, retrospective, administrative claims study analyzed commercially insured adults with T2D or CVD diagnosed on at least 2 separate claims within 12 months of each other (between January 1, 2011, and September 30, 2018). CVD included congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. The study compared patients with and without MDD with either T2D or CVD. Study assessments included all-cause healthcare resource utilization (proportion of patients with hospitalization, emergency department [ED] visits, and outpatient visits) and cost. RESULTS: Patients were matched by propensity score for demographics and baseline characteristics, resulting in similar baseline characteristics for the respective subcohorts. After matching, 22,892 patients with T2D (11,446 each with and without MDD) and 28,298 patients with CVD (14,149 each with and without MDD) were included. At follow-up, patients with T2D and MDD had significantly higher rates of hospitalization (26.1% vs 17.4%, P < 0.0001) and ED visits (55.3% vs 43.0%, P < 0.0001) than those observed in patients without MDD. The total cost for patients with T2D and MDD at follow-up was significantly higher than for those without MDD ($16,511 vs $11,550, P < 0.0001). Similarly, at follow-up, patients with CVD and MDD had significantly higher rates of hospitalization (45.4% vs 34.1%, P < 0.0001) and ED visits (66.5% vs 55.4%, P < 0.0001) than those observed in patients without MDD. Total cost at follow-up for patients with CVD and MDD was significantly higher than for those without MDD ($25,546 vs $18,041, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with either T2D or CVD and comorbid MDD have higher total all-cause healthcare utilization and cost than similar patients without MDD. Study findings reinforce the need for appropriate management of MDD in patients with these comorbid diseases, which in turn may result in cost reductions for payers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 101(9): adv00538, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458924

RESUMO

To estimate the cost of illness in adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) a cohort study was conducted identifying Danish citizens (≥ 18 years) diagnosed with AD between 1997 and 2018 in the Danish National Patient Register. Moderate-to-severe AD was defined as ≥3 hospital contacts regarding AD the first year after diagnosis. Each patient with AD was matched to 3 reference individuals through the Central Person Registry. Societal costs included the direct costs for primary-sector visits, inpatient hospitalizations, outpatient contacts, prescription medicine and indirect costs of lost productivity 3 years before and 5 years after the index date (the study period). A total of 5,245 patients with moderate-to-severe AD were identified. The mean attributable healthcare costs for patients with moderate-to-severe AD were EUR 10,835 (p < 0.0001) during the study period. Moderate-to-severe AD among adults inferred substantial economic burden compared with a group of matched reference individuals.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos
13.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(8): E639-647, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459732

RESUMO

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) provides a formal assessment of trade-offs involving benefits, harms, and costs inherent in alternative options. CEA has been increasingly used to inform public and private organizations' reimbursement decisions, benefit designs, and price negotiations worldwide. Despite the lack of centralized efforts to promote CEA in the United States, the demand for CEA is growing. This article briefly reviews the history of CEA in the United States, highlights advances in practice guidelines, and discusses CEA's ethical challenges. It also offers a way forward to inform health care decisions.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 894, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461888

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer diagnosis is known to affect the family; however, administrative claims data are not commonly used to evaluate the broader impact of cancer diagnosis. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using claims data to explore the impact of cancer diagnosis on the caregiver. METHODS: IBM Marketscan data were used to identify eligible cancer patients, who were required to have a second adult over the age of 18 (defined as "caregiver" for this study) covered by the same the healthcare policy. Eligible control pairs included any two adults in the same policy with no evidence of cancer; for each pair one adult was randomly assigned to be the "patient control" while their partner was assigned as "caregiver control". Probabilistic stratified sampling was used select control pairs for analysis by matching the relative frequencies within sex and age group strata to those of patient/caregiver pairs. Eligible control pairs were probabilistically sampled without replacement until the stratum with at least 0.5 % relative frequency had been completely sampled. Caregiver and caregiver control healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), new diagnoses, and healthcare costs were compared during the 12-month post-diagnosis period. Subgroup analyses were conducted by cancer subtypes (breast, colorectal, lung, gastric, sarcoma) and by sex of the patient and caregiver. RESULTS: A total of 62,893 patient/caregiver pairs and 449,177 control pairs were included. Overall, caregivers used slightly fewer healthcare resources and expended less costs during the 12-month period after the cancer diagnosis than controls (physician visits; 85.8 % vs. 95.7 %; hospitalizations 5.4 % vs. 7.0 %; emergency room visits 15.7 % versus 16.2 %, all p ≤ 0.001). This finding was consistent in all subgroup analyses. New diagnoses were lower in the caregiver cohort, except for mental disorders, which were higher than controls (14.3 % vs. 9.9 %, p < 0.0001). Psychotherapeutic/antidepressant utilization occurred among 21.0 % of caregivers versus 17.2 % of caregiver controls during this period. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to use administrative claims data to evaluate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on the caregiver to evaluate outcomes such as HCRU, diagnoses and costs. These findings raise hypotheses about deferment of health care and increased mental distress during the caregiving period.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Neoplasias , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1560, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa (SA), stroke is the second highest cause of mortality and disability. Apart from being the main killer and cause of disability, stroke is an expensive disease to live with. Stroke costs include death and medical costs. Little is known about the stroke burden, particularly the stroke direct costs in SA. Identification of stroke costs predictors using appropriate statistical methods can help formulate appropriate health programs and policies aimed at reducing the stroke burden. Analysis of stroke costs have in the main, concentrated on mean regression, yet modelling with quantile regression (QR) is more appropriate than using mean regression. This is because the QR provides flexibility to analyse the stroke costs predictors corresponding to quantiles of interest. This study aims to estimate stroke direct costs, identify and quantify its predictors through QR analysis. METHODS: Hospital-based data from 35,730 stroke cases were retrieved from selected private and public hospitals between January 2014 and December 2018. The model used, QR provides richer information about the predictors on costs. The prevalence-based approach was used to estimate the total stroke costs. Thus, stroke direct costs were estimated by taking into account the costs of all stroke patients admitted during the study period. QR analysis was used to assess the effect of each predictor on stroke costs distribution. Quantiles of stroke direct costs, with a focus on predictors, were modelled and the impact of predictors determined. QR plots of slopes were developed to visually examine the impact of the predictors across selected quantiles. RESULTS: Of the 35,730 stroke cases, 22,183 were diabetic. The estimated total direct costs over five years were R7.3 trillion, with R2.6 billion from inpatient care. The economic stroke burden was found to increase in people with hypertension, heart problems, and diabetes. The age group 55-75 years had a bigger effect on costs distribution at the lower than upper quantiles. CONCLUSIONS: The identified predictors can be used to raise awareness on modifiable predictors and promote campaigns for healthy dietary choices. Modelling costs predictors using multivariate QR models could be beneficial for addressing the stroke burden in SA.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
16.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 651, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic fractures impose significant costs on society. The objective of this study was to estimate the direct costs of the hip, vertebral, and forearm fractures in the first year after fracture incidence in Iran. METHODS: We surveyed a sample of 300 patients aged over 50 years with osteoporotic fractures (hip, vertebral, and forearm) admitted to four hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, during 2017 and were alive six months after the fracture. Inpatient cost data were obtained from the hospital patient records. Using a questionnaire, the data regarding outpatient costs were collected through a phone interview with patients at least six months after the fracture incidence. Direct medical and non-medical costs were estimated from a societal perspective. All costs were converted to the US dollar using the average exchange rate in 2017 (1USD = IRR 34,214) RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of the patient was 69.83 ± 11.25 years, and 68% were female. One hundred and seventeen (39%) patients had hip fractures, 56 (18.67%) patients had vertebral fractures, and 127 (42.33%) ones had forearm fractures. The mean direct cost (medical and non-medical) during the year after hip, vertebral and forearm fractures were estimated at USD5,381, USD2,981, and USD1,209, respectively. CONCLUSION: The direct cost of osteoporotic fracture in Iran is high. Our findings might be useful for the economic evaluation of preventive and treatment interventions for osteoporotic fractures as well as estimating the economic burden of osteoporotic fractures in Iran.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Antebraço , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/terapia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360428

RESUMO

Promoting adequate levels of physical activity in the population is important for diabetes prevention. However, the scale needed to achieve tangible population benefits is unclear. We aimed to estimate the public health impact of increases in walking as a means of diabetes prevention and health care cost savings attributable to diabetes. We applied the validated Diabetes Population Risk Tool (DPoRT) to the 2015/16 Canadian Community Health Survey for adults aged 18-64, living in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton area, Ontario, Canada. DPoRT was used to generate three population-level scenarios involving increases in walking among individuals with low physical activity levels, low daily step counts and high dependency on non-active forms of travel, compared to a baseline scenario (no change in walking rates). We estimated number of diabetes cases prevented and health care costs saved in each scenario compared with the baseline. Each of the three scenarios predicted a considerable reduction in diabetes and related health care cost savings. In order of impact, the largest population benefits were predicted from targeting populations with low physical activity levels, low daily step counts, and non active transport use. Population increases of walking by 25 min each week was predicted to prevent up to 10.4 thousand diabetes cases and generate CAD 74.4 million in health care cost savings in 10 years. Diabetes reductions and cost savings were projected to be higher if increases of 150 min of walking per week could be achieved at the population-level (up to 54.3 thousand diabetes cases prevented and CAD 386.9 million in health care cost savings). Policy, programming, and community designs that achieve modest increases in population walking could translate to meaningful reductions in the diabetes burden and cost savings to the health care system.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Caminhada , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 270-273, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280932

RESUMO

En pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 la intubación endotraqueal es un procedimiento con riesgo elevado de contagio. La videolaringoscopia complementa la protección del profesional, pero los videolaringoscopios comerciales son caros y no siempre están disponibles en las terapias intensivas pediátricas argentinas. El objetivo fue describir la práctica de intubación en un modelo de cabeza de simulación de lactante con un videolaringoscopio artesanal de bajo costo.Quince pediatras sin experiencia previa con el dispositivo participaron de una práctica de intubación en una cabeza de simulación con un videolaringoscopio artesanal. El tiempo promedio del primer intento fue de 116,4 segundos (intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 84,8-148,0) y, el del siguiente fue de 44,2 segundos (IC95 %: 27,7­60,6). El tiempo disminuyó de forma significativa en el segundo intento (p : 0,0001). El dispositivo permitió la intubación exitosa en todos los intentos acortando la duración del procedimiento en la segunda práctica


In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, endotracheal intubation is a procedure with a high risk for transmission. A videolaryngoscopy is a supplementary level of health care provider protection, but commercial videolaryngoscopes are expensive and not always available in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Our objective was to describe intubation practice using an infant head mannequin with a low-cost, handcrafted videolaryngoscope.Fifteen pediatricians with no prior experience using the device participated in an intubation practice in a head mannequin with a handcrafted videolaryngoscope. The average time for the first attempt was 116.4 seconds (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 84.8-148.0) and, for the second one, 44.2 seconds (95 % CI: 27.7-60.6). Time decreased significantly for the second attempt (p: 0.0001).A successful intubation was achieved with the device in all attempts, and the procedure duration decreased with the second practice


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pediatria/educação , Laringoscópios/economia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Laringoscopia/economia , Pediatria/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Gravação em Vídeo , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Curva de Aprendizado , COVID-19/transmissão , Internato e Residência/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/economia , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/educação , Laringoscopia/instrumentação , Laringoscopia/métodos , Manequins
19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 294, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenosynovial Giant-Cell Tumour (TGCT) is a benign clonal neoplastic proliferation arising from the synovium, causing a variety of symptoms and often requiring repetitive surgery. This study aims to define the economic burden-from a societal perspective-associated with TGCT patients and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in six European countries. METHODS: This article analyses data from a multinational, multicentre, prospective observational registry, the TGCT Observational Platform Project (TOPP), involving hospitals and tertiary sarcoma centres from six European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain). It includes information on TGCT patients' health-related quality of life and healthcare and non-healthcare resources used at baseline (the 12-month period prior to the patients entering the registry) and after 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: 146 TGCT patients enrolled for the study, of which 137 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 44.5 years, and 62% were female. The annual average total costs associated with TGCT were €4866 at baseline and €5160 at the 12-month follow-up visit. The annual average healthcare costs associated with TGCT were €4620 at baseline, of which 67% and 18% corresponded to surgery and medical visits, respectively. At the 12-month follow-up, the mean healthcare costs amounted to €5094, with surgery representing 70% of total costs. Loss of productivity represented, on average, 5% of the total cost at baseline and 1.3% at follow-up. The most-affected HRQOL dimensions, measured with the EQ-5D-5L instrument, were pain or discomfort, mobility, and the performance of usual activities, both at baseline and at the follow-up visit. Regarding HRQOL, patients declared a mean index score of 0.75 at baseline and 0.76 at the 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that TGCT places a heavy burden on its sufferers, which increases after one year of follow-up, mainly due to the healthcare resources required-in particular, surgical procedures. As a result, this condition has a high economic impact on healthcare budgets, while the HRQOL of TGCT patients substantially deteriorates over time.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Áustria , Cuidadores , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , França , Alemanha , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Assistência ao Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281065

RESUMO

Background: The epidemiological situation generated by COVID-19 has cast into sharp relief the delicate balance between public health priorities and the economy, with businesses obliged to toe the line between employee health and continued production. In an effort to detect as many cases as possible, isolate contacts, cut transmission chains, and limit the spread of the virus in the workplace, mass testing strategies have been implemented in both public health and industrial contexts to minimize the risk of disruption in activity. Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of the mass workplace testing strategy as carried out by a large automotive company in Catalonia in terms of health and healthcare resource savings. Methodology: Analysis of health costs and impacts based on the estimation of the mortality and morbidity avoided because of screening, and the resulting savings in healthcare costs. Results: The economic impact of the mass workplace testing strategies (using both PCR and RAT tests) was approximately €10.44 per test performed or €5575.49 per positive detected; 38% of this figure corresponds to savings derived from better use of health resources (hospital beds, ICU beds, and follow-up of infected cases), while the remaining 62% corresponds to improved health rates due to the avoided morbidity and mortality. In scenarios with higher positivity rates and a greater impact of the infection on health and the use of health resources, these results could be up to ten times higher (€130.24 per test performed or €69,565.59 per positive detected). Conclusion: In the context of COVID-19, preventive actions carried out by the private sector to safeguard industrial production also have concomitant public benefits in the form of savings in healthcare costs. Thus, governmental bodies need to recognize the value of implementing such strategies in private settings and facilitate them through, for example, subsidies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Local de Trabalho
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