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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17090, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517831

RESUMO

The decision as to whether patients should be admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU), in the absence of information concerning survival rates or prognostic factors in survival, is often challenging. We analyzed survival trends in relation to hospital discharge and examined patient and hospital characteristics associated with survival following ICU care, using a sample of nationwide claims data in Korea from 2002 through 2013. The Korean government implements a compulsory social insurance program that covers the country's entire population, and the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) data from 2002 based on this program were used for this study. The NHIS-NSC is a stratified random sample of 1,025,340 subjects selected from around 46 million Koreans. We evaluated annual survival trends using the Kaplan-Meier test. Analyses of the relationship between survival and patient and hospital characteristics were performed using Cox regression analyses. Employing a multivariate model, variables were selected using the forward selection method to consider the multicollinearity of variables. A total of 32,553 patients admitted to an ICU between 2002 and 2013 were identified among the eligible beneficiaries. The number of patients who had histories of ICU admission steadily increased throughout the study period, and patients older than 80 years constituted a progressively increasing proportion of ICU admissions, from 7.3% in 2002 to 16.9% in 2007 to 23.1% in 2013. The mean number of mechanical equipment items applied consistently increased, while no difference was observed in the trend for overall 1-year survival in patients following ICU treatment across the study period: the 1-year survival rate ranged from 66.7% (year 2003) to 64.2% (year 2010). Advanced age, cancer, renal failure, pneumonia, and influenza were all associated with heightened risk of mortality within 1 year. Our results should prove useful to older patients and their clinicians in their decisions regarding whether to seek ICU care, with the goals of improving the end-of life care and optimizing resource utilization.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 995-1001, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362556

RESUMO

AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of the early fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cost analysis was conducted within a randomized controlled trial comparing conservative management (n = 92) versus early plate fixation (n = 86) of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to express the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The Six-Dimension Short-Form Health Survey (SF-6D) score was used as the preference-based health index to calculate the cost per QALY at 12 months after the injury. RESULTS: The mean 12-month SF-6D was 0.9522 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9355 to 0.9689) following conservative management and 0.9607 (95% CI 0.9447 to 0.9767) following fixation, giving an advantage for fixation of 0.0085, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.46). The mean cost per patient was £1322.69 for conservative management and £5405.32 for early fixation. This gave an ICER of £480 309.41 per QALY. For a threshold of £20 000 per QALY, the benefit of fixation would need to be present for 24 years to be cost-effective compared with conservative treatment. Linear regression analysis identified nonunion as the only factor to adversely influence the SF-6D at 12 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Routine plate fixation of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures is not cost-effective. Nonunion following conservative management has an increased morbidity with comparable expense to early fixation. This may suggest that a targeted approach of fixation in patients who are at higher risk of nonunion would be more cost-effective than the routine fixation of all displaced fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:995-1001.


Assuntos
Clavícula/lesões , Tratamento Conservador/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/economia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Placas Ósseas , Clavícula/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16808, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415394

RESUMO

Evidence-based studies have revealed outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease that differed depending on the design of care delivery. This study compared the effects of 3 types of nephrology care: multidisciplinary care (MDC), nephrology care, and non-nephrology care. We studied their effects on the risks of requiring dialysis and the differences between these methods had on long-term medical resource utilization and costs.We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of (eGFR) ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m from 2005 to 2007. Patients were divided into MDC, non-MDC, and non-nephrology referral groups. Between-group differences with regard to the risk of requiring dialysis and annual medical utilization and costs were evaluated using a 5-year follow-up period.In total, 661 patients were included. After other covariates and the competing risk of death were taken into account, we observed a significant (56%) reduction in the incidence of dialysis in both the MDC and non-MDC groups relative to the non-nephrology referral group. Costs were markedly lower in the MDC group relative to the other groups (average savings: US$ 830 per year; 95% confidence interval: 367-1295; P < .001).For patients without nephrology referrals, MDC can substantially reduce their risk of developing end-stage renal disease and lower their medical costs. We therefore strongly advocate that all patients with an eGFR of ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m should be referred to a nephrologist and receive MDC.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefrologia/economia , Diálise Renal/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Idoso , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrologia/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 984-994, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362557

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the Scaphoid Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Trauma (SMaRT) trial was to evaluate the clinical and cost implications of using immediate MRI in the acute management of patients with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid with negative radiographs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid and negative radiographs were randomized to a control group, who did not undergo further imaging in the ED, or an intervention group, who had an MRI of the wrist as an additional test during the initial ED attendance. Most participants were male (52% control, 61% intervention), with a mean age of 36.2 years (18 to 73) in the control group and 38.2 years (20 to 71) in the intervention group. The primary outcome was total cost impact at three months post-recruitment. Secondary outcomes included total costs at six months, the assessment of clinical findings, diagnostic accuracy, and the participants' self-reported level of satisfaction. Differences in cost were estimated using generalized linear models with gamma errors. RESULTS: The mean cost up to three months post-recruitment per participant was £542.40 (sd £855.20, n = 65) for the control group and £368.40 (sd £338.60, n = 67) for the intervention group, leading to an estimated cost difference of £174 (95% confidence interval (CI) -£30 to £378; p = 0.094). The cost difference per participant increased to £266 (95% CI £3.30 to £528; p = 0.047) at six months. Overall, 6.2% of participants (4/65, control group) and 10.4% of participants (7/67, intervention group) had sustained a fracture of the scaphoid (p = 0.37). In addition, 7.7% of participants (5/65, control group) and 22.4% of participants (15/67, intervention group) had other fractures diagnosed (p = 0.019). The use of MRI was associated with higher diagnostic accuracy both in the diagnosis of a fracture of the scaphoid (100.0% vs 93.8%) and of any other fracture (98.5% vs 84.6%). CONCLUSION: The use of immediate MRI in the management of participants with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid and negative radiographs led to cost savings while improving the pathway's diagnostic accuracy and patient satisfaction. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:984-994.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Osso Escafoide/lesões , Traumatismos do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Reino Unido , Traumatismos do Punho/economia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(5): 517-528, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401898

RESUMO

Background: Health-care systems in Asian countries are diverse. The economic evaluation provides information on how to make efficient use of the resources available to obtain the maximum benefits. In Asia, diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus (DM), tuberculosis (TB) and epilepsy generate a heavy economic burden. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the economic burden of health to patients in Asian countries. Areas covered: All data were collected from already published research article and review papers. The databases searched were Science Direct, PubMed, MEDLINE and Google scholar. We found a total of 4456 articles on health economics. After reviewing the title, only 876 relevant articles were considered. Only 92 (n = 92) articles were considered on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Expert opinion: Available data give evidence that diseases are linked to the low socio-economic status of the Asian population. The cost per capita is high in Asian countries due to insufficient health-care facilities. The cost per capita in Asian countries ranges from $23 (Pakistan) to $1775 (Taiwan). The per capita cost of Malaysia, China, Singapore, and Thailand is $27 $83, $75, and $27, respectively.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia Médica , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For various psychiatric and somatic disorders, there is evidence of an association between patients' socioeconomic status (SES), healthcare utilisation, and the resulting costs. In the field of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, studies on this topic are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To exploratively analyse the association of healthcare expenditures for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (including oppositional-defiant disorder) - one of the most prevalent child and adolescent psychiatric disorders - and SES. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis is based on routine data from the German statutory health insurance company AOK Nordost for the calendar year 2011, covering 6461 children and adolescents (age 5-18 years) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of conduct disorder. The insureds' SES was estimated indirectly, based on the social structure of the postcode area, using the German Index of Multiple Deprivation (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg), and the Berliner Sozialindex I (Berlin), respectively. From the two indices, quintiles were derived. Based on these quintiles, average costs per case for the following cost types were analysed: inpatient healthcare, outpatient healthcare (general practitioners, paediatricians, child and adolescent psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychotherapists), and prescribed medication. RESULTS: There was no significant functional association between SES and healthcare costs for any of the analysed cost types. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to findings in adults, this study on children and adolescents with conduct disorders did not reveal an association between SES and healthcare costs. Within this group of patients, social inequality does not seem to have a significant influence on healthcare utilisation in Germany.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/economia , Transtorno da Conduta/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Alemanha , Humanos
7.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(1): 65-70, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441029

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The threat of terrorism is intensifying with a recent rise in the number of death and injuries. Nevertheless, few articles deal with the short and long-term medical costs of treating and assisting the civilian victims of terror. The objective of this article is to review the literature and describe the medical costs of supporting victims of terrorism. METHOD: The authors reviewed the literature on the medical costs following terror attacks in the PubMed/Medline and Google Web sites. Relevant scientific articles, textbooks, and global reports were included in the research. RESULTS: There was a scarcity of data related to the medical costs of terror. The authors review the few articles that describe the hospital and outpatient expenses. The terror attacks lead to increasing length of stay and the use of supplementary medical support. The authors detail the relevant global reports and working papers on terrorism that included the cost of injury and the over-all economic impact assessment. CONCLUSION: The medical costs result from hospital and outpatient treatment support. There is a clear need to track the long-term fate of the victims of terror. The authors recommend that future research should include all sectors of the healthcare system, including the whole rehabilitation process and have a precise tracking system for all victims.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Vítimas de Crime/economia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Terrorismo/economia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais , Humanos , Israel , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Terrorismo/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are 1.7 million people living with dementia (PwD) in Germany. This number is expected to double within the next decades. Estimates of the total societal economic burden of dementia are currently missing. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to estimate the current and future total cost and excess cost of dementia from a public payer and societal perspective. METHODS: Studies demonstrating the healthcare resource utilization of PwD in Germany were identified. Utilization data were aggregated using the sample size of different studies as a weight. Annual per capita costs of PwD and excess cost of dementia were calculated using standardized unit costs. Current and future costs were calculated based on published prevalence and population forecasts. RESULTS: PwD living at home had lower costs from a payer perspective compared to those who are institutionalized, but higher total societal cost due to the higher informal care time. The total cost for PwD from a payer perspective was 34 billion € in 2016. These costs could reach 90 billion € by 2060. The excess cost of dementia was 18 billion € in 2016 and is estimated to become 49 billion € by 2060 from a payer perspective, representing 54% of the total cost of PwD and up to 15% of the total costs associated with the elderly population. The total societal cost was 73 billion € in 2016 and is estimated to become 194 billion € by 2060. The excess cost of dementia was 54 billion € in 2016 and is estimated to become 145 billion € by 2060, representing 74% of the total societal cost of PwD and 36% of the total societal cost of the elderly. CONCLUSION: Dementia diseases represent a tremendous social and economic burden. Without a cure, supporting caregivers and implementing interventions that delay the functional and cognitive decline will be crucial to relieving the increasing costs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/economia , Demência/psicologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alocação de Recursos
9.
Lancet ; 394(10200): 746-756, 2019 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late-stage isolated medial knee osteoarthritis can be treated with total knee replacement (TKR) or partial knee replacement (PKR). There is high variation in treatment choice and little robust evidence to guide selection. The Total or Partial Knee Arthroplasty Trial (TOPKAT) therefore aims to assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TKR versus PKR in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee, and this represents an analysis of the main endpoints at 5 years. METHODS: Our multicentre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial was done at 27 UK sites. We used a combined expertise-based and equipoise-based approach, in which patients with isolated osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee and who satisfied general requirements for a medial PKR were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive PKR or TKR by surgeons who were either expert in and willing to perform both surgeries or by a surgeon with particular expertise in the allocated procedure. The primary endpoint was the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) 5 years after randomisation in all patients assigned to groups. Health-care costs (in UK 2017 prices) and cost-effectiveness were also assessed. This trial is registered with ISRCTN (ISRCTN03013488) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01352247). FINDINGS: Between Jan 18, 2010, and Sept 30, 2013, we assessed 962 patients for their eligibility, of whom 431 (45%) patients were excluded (121 [13%] patients did not meet the inclusion criteria and 310 [32%] patients declined to participate) and 528 (55%) patients were randomly assigned to groups. 94% of participants responded to the follow-up survey 5 years after their operation. At the 5-year follow-up, we found no difference in OKS between groups (mean difference 1·04, 95% CI -0·42 to 2·50; p=0·159). In our within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis, we found that PKR was more effective (0·240 additional quality-adjusted life-years, 95% CI 0·046 to 0·434) and less expensive (-£910, 95% CI -1503 to -317) than TKR during the 5 years of follow-up. This finding was a result of slightly better outcomes, lower costs of surgery, and lower follow-up health-care costs with PKR than TKR. INTERPRETATION: Both TKR and PKR are effective, offer similar clinical outcomes, and result in a similar incidence of re-operations and complications. Based on our clinical findings, and results regarding the lower costs and better cost-effectiveness with PKR during the 5-year study period, we suggest that PKR should be considered the first choice for patients with late-stage isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(7): 872-881, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive surveillance strategies are currently recommended for patients after curative treatment of colon cancer, with the aim of secondary prevention of recurrence. Yet, intensive surveillance has not yielded improvements in overall patient survival compared with minimal follow-up, and more intensive surveillance may be costlier. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the quality-adjusted life-years, economic costs, and cost-effectiveness of various surveillance strategies after curative treatment of colon cancer. DESIGN: A Markov model was calibrated to reflect the natural history of colon cancer recurrence and used to estimate surveillance costs and outcomes. SETTINGS: This was a decision-analytic model. PATIENTS: Individuals entered the model at age 60 years after curative treatment for stage I, II, or III colon cancer. Other initial age groups were assessed in secondary analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We estimated the gains in quality-adjusted life-years achieved by early detection and treatment of recurrence, as well as the economic costs of surveillance under various strategies. RESULTS: Cost-effective strategies for patients with stage I colon cancer improved quality-adjusted life-expectancy by 0.02 to 0.06 quality-adjusted life-years at an incremental cost of $1702 to $13,019. For stage II, they improved quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.03 to 0.09 quality-adjusted life-years at a cost of $2300 to $14,363. For stage III, they improved quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.03 to 0.17 quality-adjusted life-years for a cost of $1416 to $17,631. At a commonly cited willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year, the most cost-effective strategy for patients with a history of stage I or II colon cancer was liver ultrasound and chest x-ray annually. For those with a history of stage III colon cancer, the optimal strategy was liver ultrasound and chest x-ray every 6 months with CEA measurement every 6 months. LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by model structure assumptions and uncertainty around the values of the model's parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Given currently available data and within the limitations of a model-based decision-analytic approach, the effectiveness of routine intensive surveillance for patients after treatment of colon cancer appears, on average, to be small. Compared with testing using lower cost imaging, currently recommended strategies are associated with cost-effectiveness ratios that indicate low value according to well-accepted willingness-to-pay thresholds in the United States. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A921.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Idoso , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 517, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Option B+ may be more costly than Options B, it may provide additional health benefits that are currently unclear in Yunnan province. We created deterministic models to estimate the cost-effectiveness of Option B+. METHODS: Data were used in two deterministic models simulating a cohort of 2000 HIV+ pregnant women. A decision tree model simulated the number of averted infants infections and QALY acquired for infants in the PMTCT period for Options B and B+. The minimum cost was calculated. A Markov decision model simulated the number of maternal life year gained and serodiscordant partner infections averted in the ten years after PMTCT for Option B or B+. ICER per life year gained was calculated. Deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: If fully implemented, Option B and Option B+ averted 1016.85 infections and acquired 588,01.02 QALYs.The cost of Option B was US$1,229,338.47, the cost of Option B+ was 1,176,128.63. However, when Options B and B+ were compared over ten years, Option B+ not only improved mothers'ten-year survival from 69.7 to 89.2%, saving more than 3890 life-years, but also averted 3068 HIV infections between serodiscordant partners. Option B+ yielded a favourable ICER of $32.99per QALY acquired in infants and $5149per life year gained in mothers. A 1% MTCT rate, a 90% coverage rate and a 20-year horizon could decrease the ICER per QALY acquired in children and LY gained in mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Option B+ is a cost-effective treatment for comprehensive HIV prevention for infants and serodiscordant partners and life-long treatment for mothers in Yunnan province, China. Option B+ could be implemented in Yunnan province, especially as the goals of elimination mother-to-child transmission of HIV and "90-90-90" achieved, Option B+ would be more attractive.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/economia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Planos Governamentais de Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/economia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/economia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Planos Governamentais de Saúde/economia , Planos Governamentais de Saúde/organização & administração , Planos Governamentais de Saúde/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 406, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited research on the economic burden of low back-related leg pain, including sciatica. The aim of this study was to describe healthcare resource utilisation and factors associated with cost and health outcomes in primary care patients consulting with symptoms of low back-related leg pain including sciatica. METHODS: This study is a prospective cohort of 609 adults visiting their family doctor with low back-related leg pain, with or without sciatica in a United Kingdom (UK) Setting. Participants completed questionnaires, underwent clinical assessments, received an MRI scan, and were followed-up for 12-months. The economic analysis outcome was the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) calculated from the EQ-5D-3 L data obtained at baseline, 4 and 12-months. Costs were measured based on patient self-reported information on resource use due to back-related leg pain and results are presented from a UK National Health Service (NHS) and Societal perspective. Factors associated with costs and outcomes were obtained using a generalised linear model. RESULTS: Base-case results showed improved health outcomes over 12-months for the whole cohort and slightly higher QALYs for patients in the sciatica group. NHS resource use was highest for physiotherapy and GP visits, and work-related productivity loss highest from a societal perspective. The sciatica group was associated with significantly higher work-related productivity costs. Cost was significantly associated with factors such as self-rated general health and care received as part of the study, while quality of life was significantly predicted by self-rated general health, and pain intensity, depression, and disability scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our results contribute to understanding the economics of low back- related leg pain and sciatica and may provide guidance for future actions on cost reduction and health care improvement strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 13/09/2011 Retrospectively registered; ISRCTN62880786 .


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Perna (Membro)/patologia , Dor Lombar/economia , Dor/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Ciática/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/complicações , Dor Lombar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ciática/etiologia , Ciática/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
14.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(5): 565-572, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038991

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to compare patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) and conventional surgical instrumentation (CSI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in terms of early implant migration, alignment, surgical resources, patient outcomes, and costs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial of 50 patients undergoing TKA. There were 25 patients in each of the PSI and CSI groups. There were 12 male patients in the PSI group and seven male patients in the CSI group. The patients had a mean age of 69.0 years (sd 8.4) in the PSI group and 69.4 years (sd 8.4) in the CSI group. All patients received the same TKA implant. Intraoperative surgical resources and any surgical waste generated were recorded. Patients underwent radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies to measure femoral and tibial component migration over two years. Outcome measures were recorded pre- and postoperatively. Overall costs were calculated for each group. RESULTS: There were no differences (p > 0.05) in any measurement of migration at two years for either the tibial or femoral components. Movement between one and two years was < 0.2 mm, indicating stable fixation. There were no differences in coronal or sagittal alignment between the two groups. The PSI group took a mean 6.1 minutes longer (p = 0.04) and used a mean 3.4 less trays (p < 0.0001). Total waste generated was similar (10 kg) between the two groups. The PSI group cost a mean CAD$1787 more per case (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: RSA criteria suggest that both groups will have revision rates of approximately 3% at five years. The advantages of PSI were minimal or absent for surgical resources used and waste eliminated, and for meeting target alignment, yet had significantly greater costs. Therefore, we conclude that PSI may not offer any advantage over CSI for routine primary TKA cases. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:565-572.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Canadá , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Postgrad Med ; 131(5): 335-341, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081414

RESUMO

Non-medical switching of medication, whereby a patient's treatment regimen is changed for reasons other than efficacy, side effects, or adherence, is often related to drug formulary changes aimed at reducing drug costs. In the era of health care reform, while cost-cutting measures are important, there is considerable evidence that non-medical switching, particularly when applied to medication used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes, may impact patient outcomes, medication-taking behavior, and use of health care services. Ultimately, overall costs may be increased, as savings by insurers are cancelled out by higher costs to the health care system as a whole, such as extra administration, treatment failure from new medicines, and increased adverse events. The emergence of biosimilar and follow-on biologic treatments raises further questions among patients receiving biologic treatments, with patient advocacy groups calling for clear legislation to ensure that patients with complex or chronic conditions continue to receive effective, evidence-based medications for their disease. This article will discuss non-medical switching in the US, taking into account the different parties involved, such as patients, health care providers, pharmacists, payers, and pharmacy benefit managers, with the aim of providing a detailed overview of this complex and evolving topic.


Assuntos
Substituição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Humanos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(5): 573-577, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismanaged polypharmacy among older adults costs the health care system approximately $2 billion each year. Medication therapy management (MTM), a service designed to optimize medication use, improve health outcomes, and reduce associated costs, is available to eligible Medicare beneficiaries. Yet, it remains unclear which beneficiaries benefit most from this service. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between patient characteristics, chronic disease, polypharmacy, and medication-related problems (MRPs) in a sample population of Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 1 Medicare Part D plan provider for the year 2015. Medicare beneficiaries were included if they were eligible to receive MTM services and excluded if they were aged under 65 years or the dataset had no count of MRPs for the beneficiary. A negative binomial regression assessed the relationship between age, sex, and chronic health conditions with MRPs. Second and third negative binomial regressions assessed the relationship between age, sex, and polypharmacy with MRPs. RESULTS: A sample of 27,765 Medicare beneficiaries had a mean (SD) age of 76 (±7) years, were predominantly female (59%), and used a mean (SD) of 11 (±4) chronic medications. Beneficiaries with certain conditions were more likely to incur an MRP than those without, including depression (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.51-1.64), congestive heart failure (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.20-1.31), diabetes (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.18-1.29), end-stage renal disease (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.25-1.52), respiratory conditions (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.19-1.31), and hypertension (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01-1.18). Medicare beneficiaries with polypharmacy (11 or more medications) were 1.86 (95% CI = 1.80-1.93) times more likely to experience an MRP than those taking fewer medications. For every additional medication, the odds of incurring an MRP increased by 10% (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.10-1.1.11). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of depression presented with the strongest association with MRPs. Diabetes, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, respiratory conditions, and hypertension also presented with significant associations with MRPs. Beneficiaries with polypharmacy (11 or more medications) were almost 2 times more likely to experience an MRP than those taking fewer medications. Addition of a chronic medication resulted in a 10% increase in the odds of incurring an MRP. MTM programs may find a greater number of MRPs among those diagnosed with depression in their MTM-eligible patient populations. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this research. Silva Almodóvar reports fees from SinfoniaRx, outside the submitted work. Nahata has nothing to disclose.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/economia , Medicare Part D/economia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Polimedicação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/economia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare Part D/estatística & dados numéricos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/economia , Prevalência , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(5): 566-572, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a painful chronic inflammatory disease caused by endometrial tissue implanting and growing outside the uterus, resulting in pelvic pain symptoms and subfertility. Treatment imposes a substantial economic burden on the patient and health care system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate direct health care utilization and costs among women newly diagnosed with endometriosis compared with age-matched controls in a U.S. Medicaid population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used deidentified health care claims from the 2007-2015 MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid Database. Women (aged 18-49 years) newly diagnosed with endometriosis (ICD-9-CM 617.xx) during January 2008 through September 2014 were identified (date of first diagnosis = index date). Age-matched women without endometriosis (controls) were selected from the database and assigned index dates matching the distribution for endometriosis patients. Direct health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs (medical and pharmacy) over the 12-month post-index period (2015 U.S. dollars) were computed by service category (hospitalization, emergency room visits, outpatient services, and prescriptions) and compared between study cohorts using the chi-square test for proportions and t-test for continuous variables. RESULTS: The final sample included 15,615 endometriosis patients and 86,829 matched controls. HCRU during the 12-month post-index follow-up period was significantly higher for endometriosis cases compared with controls in all measured categories. Hospital admissions occurred among 33.1% of cases and 7.2% of controls, and 65.8% of endometriosis patients were admitted for endometriosis-related surgery. Emergency room visits occurred in 71.5% of cases, and 42.2% of controls. Mean (SD) office visits were 10.4 (8.5) for endometriosis patients and 5.1 (6.9) for controls. Endometriosis patients had significantly more prescription claims than controls, 45.9 (42.0) versus 25.1 (39.1). Mean total direct health care costs were $13,670 ($29,843) for cases versus $5,779 ($23,614) for controls. All differences between cases and controls were significant at P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Health care costs and resource utilization in all measured categories were higher among endometriosis cases than controls. The economic burden of endometriosis among patients with Medicaid insurance is substantial, underscoring the unmet medical need for earlier diagnosis and cost-effective treatments. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by AbbVie and conducted by Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company. AbbVie participated in developing the study design, data analysis and interpretation, manuscript writing and revisions, and approval for publication. Soliman and Vora are employees of AbbVie and may own AbbVie stock/stock options. Surrey has served in a consulting role on research to AbbVie and is on the speaker bureau for Ferring Laboratories. Bonafede and Nelson are employees of Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company, which received compensation from AbbVie for the overall conduct of the study and preparation of the manuscript. Agarwal has served in a consulting role on research to AbbVie. Preliminary results of this study were previously presented in a podium session at the 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine Scientific Congress and Expo; October 28-November 1, 2017; San Antonio, TX.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Endometriose/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endometriose/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(5): 544-554, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins are effective in helping prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, studies suggest that only 20%-64% of patients taking statins achieve reasonable low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) thresholds. On-treatment levels of LDL-C remain a key predictor of residual CVD event risk. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine how many patients on statins achieved the therapeutic threshold of LDL-C < 100 mg per dL (general cohort) and < 70 mg per dL (secondary prevention cohort, or subcohort, with preexisting CVD); (b) estimate the number of potentially avoidable CVD events if the threshold were reached; and (c) forecast potential cost savings. METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study using electronic health record data from the Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) was conducted. The INPC provides comprehensive information about patients in Indiana across health care organizations and care settings. Patients were aged > 45 years and seen between January 1, 2012, and October 31, 2016 (ensuring study of contemporary practice), were statin-naive for 12 months before the index date of initiating statin therapy, and had an LDL-C value recorded 6-18 months after the index date. Subsequent to descriptive cohort analysis, the theoretical CVD risk reduction achievable by reaching the threshold was calculated using Framingham Risk Score and Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration formulas. Estimated potential cost savings used published first-year costs of CVD events, adjusted for inflation and discounted to the present day. RESULTS: Of the 89,267 patients initiating statins, 30,083 (33.7%) did not achieve the LDL-C threshold (subcohort: 58.1%). In both groups, not achieving the threshold was associated with patients who were female, black, and those who had reduced medication adherence. Higher levels of preventive aspirin use and antihypertensive treatment were associated with threshold achievement. In both cohorts, approximately 64% of patients above the threshold were within 30 mg per dL of the respective threshold. Adherence to statin therapy regimen, judged by a medication possession ratio of ≥ 80%, was 57.4% in the general cohort and 56.7% in the subcohort. Of the patients who adhered to therapy, 23.7% of the general cohort and 50.5% of the subcohort had LDL-C levels that did not meet the threshold. 10-year CVD event risk in the at-or-above threshold group was 22.78% (SD = 17.24%) in the general cohort and 29.56% (SD = 18.19%) in the subcohort. By reducing LDL-C to the threshold, a potential relative risk reduction of 14.8% in the general cohort could avoid 1,173 CVD events over 10 years (subcohort: 15.7% and 454 events). Given first-year inpatient and follow-up costs of $37,300 per CVD event, this risk reduction could save about $1,455 per patient treated to reach the threshold (subcohort: $1,902; 2017 U.S. dollars) over a 10-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Across multiple health care systems in Indiana, between 34% (general cohort) and 58% (secondary prevention cohort) of patients treated with statins did not achieve therapeutic LDL-C thresholds. Based on current CVD event risk and cost projections, such patients seem to be at increased risk and may represent an important and potentially preventable burden on health care costs. DISCLOSURES: Funding support for this study was provided by Merck (Kenilworth, NJ). Chase and Boggs are employed by Merck. Simpson is a consultant to Merck and Pfizer. The other authors have nothing to disclose.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/economia , Indiana , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(5): 555-565, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotropic polypharmacy is not uncommon among cancer patients and may contribute to the increased direct health care cost burden in this population. OBJECTIVE: To estimate average direct health care costs in the year following cancer diagnosis among cancer patients receiving psychotropic polypharmacy compared with those without psychotropic polypharmacy, using a multivariable analysis framework. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among patients aged 18 years and older diagnosed with the most commonly occurring cancers (breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal) in the United States during 2011-2012 using the deidentified Optum Clinformatics Data Mart commercial claims database. Psychotropic polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 2 or more psychotropic medications for at least 90 days. Direct health care costs in the year following cancer diagnosis were estimated as total medical payments made by the health plans and were derived from claims files. A generalized linear regression model with log-link function and gamma distribution was used to model average direct health care costs, controlling for baseline patient demographic and clinical covariates. RESULTS: Average annual direct health care costs for cancer patients with psychotropic polypharmacy ($53,497; SD $72,590) were higher than those without psychotropic polypharmacy ($38,255; SD $59,844), with an unadjusted average cost difference of $15,242 (P < 0.0001). In the adjusted regression model, the average difference in costs shrunk to $5,888 but remained notable. When examined by type of cancer, average direct health care costs for all cancer patients with psychotropic polypharmacy were significantly higher than those for patients without psychotropic polypharmacy, except for colorectal cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Overall health care costs were higher among cancer patients with psychotropic polypharmacy compared with those without psychotropic polypharmacy. Our findings support the need for future research to better understand the benefits and risks of psychotropic polypharmacy, given its potential to cause adverse health outcomes and avoidable health care utilization and costs for this vulnerable patient population. DISCLOSURES: This study was funded by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) New Investigator Award mechanism, which was received by Vyas. Aroke was partially supported by the AACP grant for conducting data analysis of the study. Kogut is partially supported by Institutional Development Award Number U54GM115677 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, which funds Advance Clinical and Translational Research (Advance-CTR). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health and the AACP. The authors report no conflicts of interest. An abstract of this study was presented as a poster at the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting on July 22, 2018, in Boston, MA.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Psicotrópicos/economia , Transtornos de Adaptação/economia , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Polimedicação , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 702-711, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078861

RESUMO

Suboptimal ambient temperature exposure significantly affects public health. Previous studies have primarily focused on risk assessment, with few examining the health outcomes from an economic perspective. To inform environmental health policies, we estimated the economic costs of health outcomes associated with suboptimal temperature in the Minneapolis/St. Paul Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate attributable fractions/cases for mortality, emergency department visits, and emergency hospitalizations at various suboptimal temperature levels. The analyses were stratified by age group (i.e., youth (0-19 years), adult (20-64 years), and senior (65+ years)). We considered both direct medical costs and loss of productivity during economic cost assessment. Results show that youth have a large number of temperature-related emergency department visits, while seniors have large numbers of temperature-related mortality and emergency hospitalizations. Exposures to extremely low and high temperatures lead to $2.70 billion [95% empirical confidence interval (eCI): $1.91 billion, $3.48 billion] (costs are all based on 2016 USD value) economic costs annually. Moderately and extremely low and high temperature leads to $9.40 billion [eCI: $6.05 billion, $12.57 billion] economic costs. The majority of the economic costs are consistently attributed to cold (>75%), rather than heat exposures and to mortality (>95%), rather than morbidity. Our findings support prioritizing temperature-related health interventions designed to minimize the economic costs by targeting seniors and to reduce attributable cases by targeting youth.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Adulto Jovem
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