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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(26): e26523, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190187

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Valid estimates of cancer treatment costs are import for priority setting, but few studies have examined costs of multiple cancers in the same setting.We performed a retrospective population-based registry study to evaluate phase-specific (initial, continuing, and terminal phase) direct medical costs and lifetime costs for 13 cancers and all cancers combined in Norway. Mean monthly cancer attributable costs were estimated using nationwide activity data from all Norwegian hospitals. Mean lifetime costs were estimated by combining phase-specific monthly costs and survival times from the national cancer registry. Scenarios for future costs were developed from the lifetime costs and the expected number of new cancer cases toward 2034 estimated by NORDCAN.For all cancers combined, mean discounted per patient direct medical costs were Euros (EUR) 21,808 in the initial 12 months, EUR 4347 in the subsequent continuing phase, and EUR 12,085 in the terminal phase (last 12 months). Lifetime costs were higher for cancers with a 5-year relative survival between 50% and 70% (myeloma: EUR 89,686, mouth/pharynx: EUR 66,619, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: EUR 65,528). The scenario analyses indicate that future cancer costs are highly dependent on future cancer incidence, changes in death risk, and cancer-specific unit costs.Gender- and cancer-specific estimates of treatment costs are important for assessing equity of care and to better understand resource consumption associated with different cancers.Cancers with an intermediate prognosis (50%-70% 5-year relative survival) are associated with higher direct medical costs than those with relatively good or poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias , Idade de Início , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Med Clin North Am ; 105(4): 723-735, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059247

RESUMO

Cellulitis is a common skin infection resulting in increasing hospitalizations and health care costs. There is no gold standard diagnostic test, making cellulitis a potentially challenging condition to distinguish from other mimickers. Physical examination typically demonstrates poorly demarcated unilateral erythema with warmth and tenderness. Thorough history and clinical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis of cellulitis and minimize unnecessary hospitalization. Antibiotic selection is determined by patient history and risk factors, severity of clinical presentation, and the most likely microbial culprit.


Assuntos
Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Celulite (Flegmão)/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/patologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Celulite (Flegmão)/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Eritema/patologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Exame Físico/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/microbiologia
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995804

RESUMO

One-third of the global burden of disease is attributed to surgical conditions yet, 5 billion people globally, lack access to surgery. The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery, Obstetrics, and Anesthesia (LCOGS) published guidelines for improving access by reducing catastrophic health expenditures (CHEs) by 2030. This is especially important in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where 90% of the extreme poor reside. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of four studies on CHEs for surgical care in SSA published since 2015. We discuss healthcare financing in the countries and summarize the authors' key findings of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) and CHEs. Briefly, the studies enrolled 130 to 300 patients and collected direct OOPs via chart review of health costs or patient interviews. Indirect costs were calculated from lost wages and transportation costs. CHEs were defined as health costs exceeding 10% of the GDP per capita or the household income. Despite healthcare being reported as free in all studies, 60%-90% of surgical patients had CHEs with all costs considered. OOPs persists for medicines and anesthesia that should be covered under any health insurance scheme. In some cases, indirect costs associated with transportation and wages were major drivers of CHEs for surgery. Without addressing these gaps in coverage, more people will risk impoverishment in seeking surgical care in SSA.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , África ao Sul do Saara , Anestesia/economia , Doença Catastrófica/economia , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
4.
Value Health ; 24(5): 632-640, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the overall quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained by averting 1 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection over the duration of the pandemic. METHODS: A cohort-based probabilistic simulation model, informed by the latest epidemiological estimates on COVID-19 in the United States provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and literature review. Heterogeneity of parameter values across age group was accounted for. The main outcome studied was QALYs for the infected patient, patient's family members, and the contagion effect of the infected patient over the duration of the pandemic. RESULTS: Averting a COVID-19 infection in a representative US resident will generate an additional 0.061 (0.016-0.129) QALYs (for the patient: 0.055, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.014-0.115; for the patient's family members: 0.006, 95% CI 0.002-0.015). Accounting for the contagion effect of this infection, and assuming that an effective vaccine will be available in 3 months, the total QALYs gains from averting 1 single infection is 1.51 (95% CI 0.28-4.37) accrued to patients and their family members affected by the index infection and its sequelae. These results were robust to most parameter values and were most influenced by effective reproduction number, probability of death outside the hospital, the time-varying hazard rates of hospitalization, and death in critical care. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the health benefits of averting 1 COVID-19 infection in the United States are substantial. Efforts to curb infections must weigh the costs against these benefits.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Preventiva/normas , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Preventiva/economia , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Estados Unidos
5.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(7): 801-804, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961294

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, many governments have implemented national or regional lockdowns to slow the spread of infection. The widely anticipated negative impact these interventions would have on families, including on their mental health, were not included in decision models. The purpose of this editorial is, therefore, to stimulate debate by considering some of the barriers that have stopped governments setting the benefits of lockdown against, in particular, mental health costs during this process and so to make possible a more balanced approach going forward. First, evidence that lockdown causes mental health problems needs to be stronger. Natural experimental studies will play an essential role in providing such evidence. Second, innovative health economic approaches that allow the costs and benefits of lockdown to be compared directly are required. Third, we need to develop public health information strategies that allow more nuanced and complex messages that balance lockdown's costs and benefits to be communicated. These steps should be accompanied by a major public consultation/engagement campaign aimed at strengthening the publics' understanding of science and exploring beliefs about how to strike the appropriate balance between costs and benefits in public health intervention decisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/economia , Quarentena/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Orthopedics ; 44(3): e407-e413, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039205

RESUMO

Same-day bilateral total knee arthroplasties (SBTKAs) are associated with shorter rehabilitation and lower cost. However, controversy surrounding the safety of SBTKAs exists. Recent studies are lacking to determine whether patient selection has brought SBTKA in line with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (UTKA). Therefore, the authors evaluated and compared patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and inpatient course between UTKA and SBTKA from 2009 to 2016. The National Inpatient Sample was queried from 2009 to 2016 for UTKA and SBTKA patients. Of the 5,329,466 patients identified, 5,084,328 (95.4%) patients received UTKAs and 245,138 (4.6%) patients underwent SBTKAs. Incidence, rate, patient and hospital characteristics, health status, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, hospital charges, hospital costs, and complications were analyzed and statistically compared. The incidence (-1.4%) and rate (15.8%) of SBTKAs decreased (both P<.001). The SBTKA cohort had more patients who were younger, male, White, obese, healthier, and using private insurance (P<.001 for all). The SBTKA cohort had longer LOS, a higher proportion of discharges to skilled nursing facilities, higher cost and charges, and more complications, including deep venous thromboses/pulmonary emboli (DVT/PE) and transfusions (P<.001 for all). Conversely, SBTKA was associated with fewer myocardial infarctions (P<.001). Although improved from previous literature, SBTKA is still associated with longer LOS, higher cost and charges, and more complications, including DVT/PE and transfusions, although with a lower rate of myocardial infarction. However, studies are needed to determine whether the risk of 1 SBTKA outweighs the cumulative risk of staged UTKAs. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(3):e407-e413.].


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Honorários e Preços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preços Hospitalares , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 404, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine whether the length of stay, hospital charges and in-hospital mortality attributable to healthcare- and community-associated infections due to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria were higher compared with those due to susceptible bacteria in the Lebanese healthcare settings using different methodology of analysis from the payer perspective . METHODS: We performed a multi-centre prospective cohort study in ten hospitals across Lebanon. The sample size consisted of 1289 patients with documented healthcare-associated infection (HAI) or community-associated infection (CAI). We conducted three separate analysis to adjust for confounders and time-dependent bias: (1) Post-HAIs in which we included the excess LOS and hospital charges incurred after infection and (2) Matched cohort, in which we matched the patients based on propensity score estimates (3) The conventional method, in which we considered the entire hospital stay and allocated charges attributable to CAI. The linear regression models accounted for multiple confounders. RESULTS: HAIs and CAIs with resistant versus susceptible bacteria were associated with a significant excess length of hospital stay (2.69 days [95% CI,1.5-3.9]; p < 0.001) and (2.2 days [95% CI,1.2-3.3]; p < 0.001) and resulted in additional hospital charges ($1807 [95% CI, 1046-2569]; p < 0.001) and ($889 [95% CI, 378-1400]; p = 0.001) respectively. Compared with the post-HAIs analysis, the matched cohort method showed a reduction by 26 and 13% in hospital charges and LOS estimates respectively. Infections with resistant bacteria did not decrease the time to in-hospital mortality, for both healthcare- or community-associated infections. Resistant cases in the post-HAIs analysis showed a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.517 [95% CI, 0.327-0.820]; p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide study that quantifies the healthcare costs of antimicrobial resistance in Lebanon. For cases with HAIs, matched cohort analysis showed more conservative estimates compared with post-HAIs method. The differences in estimates highlight the need for a unified methodology to estimate the burden of antimicrobial resistance in order to accurately advise health policy makers and prioritize resources expenditure.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/economia , Infecção Hospitalar/economia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/economia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Líbano , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 142, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major and growing medical and economic problem, with high prevalence and incidence rates worldwide. Cardiac Biomarker is emerging as a novel tool for improving management of patients with HF with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: This is a before and after interventional study, that assesses the impact of a personalized follow-up procedure for HF on patient's outcomes and care associated cost, based on a clinical model of risk stratification and personalized management according to that risk. A total of 192 patients were enrolled and studied before the intervention and again after the intervention. The primary objective was the rate of readmissions, due to a HF. Secondary outcome compared the rate of ED visits and quality of life improvement assessed by the number of patients who had reduced NYHA score. A cost-analysis was also performed on these data. RESULTS: Admission rates significantly decreased by 19.8% after the intervention (from 30.2 to 10.4), the total hospital admissions were reduced by 32 (from 78 to 46) and the total length of stay was reduced by 7 days (from 15 to 9 days). The rate of ED visits was reduced by 44% (from 64 to 20). Thirty-one percent of patients had an improved functional class score after the intervention, whereas only 7.8% got worse. The overall cost saving associated with the intervention was € 72,769 per patient (from € 201,189 to € 128,420) and €139,717.65 for the whole group over 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: A personalized follow-up of HF patients led to important outcome benefits and resulted in cost savings, mainly due to the reduction of patient hospitalization readmissions and a significant reduction of care-associated costs, suggesting that greater attention should be given to this high-risk cohort to minimize the risk of hospitalization readmissions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/economia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Doença Crônica/economia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Espanha
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 315, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore and measure the social and economic consequences of the costs of obstetric and neonatal care in Lubumbashi, the Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We conducted a mixed qualitative and quantitative study in the maternity departments of health facilities in Lubumbashi. The qualitative results were based on a case study conducted in 2018 that included 14 respondents (8 mothers of newborns, 2 accompanying family members and 4 health care providers). A quantitative cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 2019 with 411 women who gave birth at 10 referral hospitals. Data were collected for one month at each hospital, and selected mothers of newborns were included in the study only if they paid out-of-pocket and at the point of care for costs related to obstetric and neonatal care. RESULTS: Costs for obstetric and neonatal care averaged US $77, US $207 and US $338 for simple, complicated vaginal and caesarean deliveries, respectively. These health expenditures were greater than or equal to 40% of the ability to pay for 58.4% of households. At the time of delivery, 14.1% of women giving birth did not have enough money to pay for care. Of those who did, 76.5% spent their savings. When households did not pay for care, mothers and their babies were held for a long time at the place of care. This resulted in the prolonged absence of the mother from the household, reduced household income, family conflicts, and the abandonment of the home by the spouse. At the health facility level, the increase in length of stay did not generate any additional financial benefits. Mothers no longer had confidence in nurses; they were sometimes separated from their babies, and they could not access certain prescribed medications or treatments. CONCLUSION: The government of the DRC should implement a mechanism for subsidizing care and associate it with a cost-sharing system. This would place the country on the path to achieving universal health coverage in improving the physical, mental and social health of mothers, their babies and their households.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Assistência Perinatal/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Características da Família , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Mental , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 333, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare costs have substantially increased in recent years, threatening the population health. Obstetric care is a significant contributor to this scenario since it represents 20% of healthcare. The rate of cesarean sections (C-sections) has escalated worldwide. Evidence shows that cesarean delivery is not only more expensive, but it is also linked to poorer maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study assesses which type of delivery is associated with a higher healthcare value in low-risk pregnancies. RESULTS: A total of 9345 deliveries were analyzed. The C-section group had significantly worse rates of breastfeeding in the first hour after delivery (92.57% vs 88.43%, p < 0.001), a higher rate of intensive unit care (ICU) admission both for the mother and the newborn (0.8% vs 0.3%, p = 0.001; 6.7% vs 4.5%, p = 0.0078 respectively), and a higher average cost of hospitalization (BRL14,342.04 vs BRL12,230.03 considering mothers and babies). CONCLUSION: Cesarean deliveries in low-risk pregnancies were associated with a lower value delivery because in addition to being more expensive, they had worse perinatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Parto Obstétrico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/economia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/economia , Cesárea/métodos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
11.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 24: 240-246, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vaccines are recognized as the most effective strategy for long-term prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because they can reduce morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate willingness to pay (WTP) for a future COVID-19 vaccination among young adults in Southern Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytic study was undertaken with data collected from a community-based survey in southern Vietnam for 2 weeks in May 2020. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate WTP for COVID-19 vaccine. The average amount that respondents were willing to pay for the vaccine was US$ 85.9 2 ± 69.01. RESULTS: We also found the differences in WTP according to sex, living area, monthly income, and the level of self-rated risk of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our findings possibly contribute to the implementation of a pricing policy when the COVID-19 vaccine is introduced in Vietnam.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , Gastos em Saúde/normas , Imunização/economia , Pacientes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunização/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 84, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889250

RESUMO

Methadone maintenance treatment is reported as cost-effective in treatment of opioid use disorder. Estimated cost of providing methadone varies widely in different regions but there is no data regarding cost of methadone treatment in Kenya. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of methadone maintenance treatment at a methadone maintenance treatment clinic in Nairobi, Kenya from the perspective of the government, implementing partner and the clients. Data was collected for the period of February 2017 to September 2018 for 700 enrolled clients. The cost of providing methadone treatment was estimated as the sum of salaries, laboratory test, methadone and other commodities costs. The outcome was daily cost of methadone per client. The costs are given in Kenya Shillings (Ksh). The cost of treating one client is approximately Ksh. 149 (US$1.49) per day which amounts to Ksh 4500 (US$ 45) per month. This is from the estimated direct costs such as salaries which accounted for 86.4%, methadone 9.6%, tests and other consumables at 4%. The estimated average dose per patient per day is 60mg.This excludes indirect costs such as capital and set up cost, maintenance cost, training, drug import and distribution and other bills. The findings of this study show that the estimate cost of providing methadone at Nairobi, Kenya is comparable to that in other centers. This can help to inform policy makers on continued provision of methadone treatment in the country.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Metadona/economia , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Humanos , Quênia , Metadona/administração & dosagem , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/economia , Salários e Benefícios/economia
13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(3): 327-406, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756057

RESUMO

This article describes the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including incidence and prevalence, mortality and morbidity, use and costs of care, and the overall impact on caregivers and society. The Special Report discusses the challenges of providing equitable health care for people with dementia in the United States. An estimated 6.2 million Americans age 65 and older are living with Alzheimer's dementia today. This number could grow to 13.8 million by 2060 barring the development of medical breakthroughs to prevent, slow or cure AD. Official death certificates recorded 121,499 deaths from AD in 2019, the latest year for which data are available, making Alzheimer's the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States and the fifth-leading cause of death among Americans age 65 and older. Between 2000 and 2019, deaths from stroke, heart disease and HIV decreased, whereas reported deaths from AD increased more than 145%. This trajectory of deaths from AD was likely exacerbated in 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 11 million family members and other unpaid caregivers provided an estimated 15.3 billion hours of care to people with Alzheimer's or other dementias in 2020. These figures reflect a decline in the number of caregivers compared with a decade earlier, as well as an increase in the amount of care provided by each remaining caregiver. Unpaid dementia caregiving was valued at $256.7 billion in 2020. Its costs, however, extend to family caregivers' increased risk for emotional distress and negative mental and physical health outcomes - costs that have been aggravated by COVID-19. Average per-person Medicare payments for services to beneficiaries age 65 and older with AD or other dementias are more than three times as great as payments for beneficiaries without these conditions, and Medicaid payments are more than 23 times as great. Total payments in 2021 for health care, long-term care and hospice services for people age 65 and older with dementia are estimated to be $355 billion. Despite years of efforts to make health care more equitable in the United States, racial and ethnic disparities remain - both in terms of health disparities, which involve differences in the burden of illness, and health care disparities, which involve differences in the ability to use health care services. Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans and Native Americans continue to have a higher burden of illness and lower access to health care compared with Whites. Such disparities, which have become more apparent during COVID-19, extend to dementia care. Surveys commissioned by the Alzheimer's Association recently shed new light on the role of discrimination in dementia care, the varying levels of trust between racial and ethnic groups in medical research, and the differences between groups in their levels of concern about and awareness of Alzheimer's disease. These findings emphasize the need to increase racial and ethnic diversity in both the dementia care workforce and in Alzheimer's clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/economia , Doença de Alzheimer/mortalidade , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
16.
Orv Hetil ; 162(162 Suppl 1): 14-21, 2021 03 28.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774604

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Magyarországon a vastag- és a végbéldaganat mindkét nem esetében a harmadik leggyakoribb daganatos megbetegedés és a második leggyakoribb halálok. Célkituzés: Elemzésünk célja volt a vastag- és végbéldaganat okozta éves epidemiológiai és egészségbiztosítási betegségteher meghatározása Magyarországon. Adatok és módszerek: Az adatok a Nemzeti Egészségbiztosítási Alapkezelo (NEAK) finanszírozási adatbázisából származnak, és a 2018. évet fedik le. A daganat típusait a Betegségek Nemzetközi Osztályozása (BNO, 10. revízió) szerinti C18-as, C19-es, C20-as, C21-es, D010-D014-es és D12-es kóddal azonosítottuk. Meghatároztuk az éves betegszámokat korcsoportos és nemek szerinti bontásban, a prevalenciát 100 000 lakosra, az éves egészségbiztosítási kiadásokat valamennyi ellátási formára és daganattípusra vonatkozóan. Eredmények: A vastag- és végbéldaganatok kezelésére a NEAK 21,7 milliárd Ft-ot (80,2 millió USD; 68,0 millió EUR) költött 2018-ban. A költségek 58,0%-át az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás költségei teszik ki. Az összköltségek megoszlása szerint a legmagasabb költségek a férfiaknál (4,98 milliárd Ft) és a noknél (3,25 milliárd Ft) is a 65-74 éves korcsoportban figyelhetok meg. A legnagyobb betegszámot a járóbeteg-szakellátás esetében találtuk: 88 134 fo, ezt a háziorvosi ellátás (55 324 fo) és a CT, MRI (28 426 fo) követte. A vastagbél rosszindulatú daganata esetében az egy betegre jutó aktívfekvobeteg-kassza alapján az éves egészségbiztosítási kiadás 1,206 millió Ft (4463 USD/3782 EUR) volt a férfiak és 1,260 millió Ft (4661 USD/3950 EUR) a nok esetében. Következtetés: Hazánkban az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás bizonyult a fo költségtényezonek, mely magában foglalja az onkoterápiás gyógyszeres költségeket is. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 14-21. INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer and the second most common cause of mortality in Hungary in both sexes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the annual epidemiological disease burden and health insurance cost of colorectal cancer in Hungary. DATA AND METHODS: Data were derived from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (NHIFA) of Hungary for the year 2018. Types of cancer were identified with the following codes of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision: C18, C19, C20, C21, D010-D014, D12. The data analysed included annual patient numbers according to age groups and sex, prevalence of care utilisation per 100 000 population, and annual health insurance costs for all types of care and all cancer types. RESULTS: In 2018, NHIFA spent 21.7 billion HUF (80.2 million USD, 68.0 million EUR) on the treatment of colorectal cancer. 58.0% of the costs was spent on acute inpatient care. Regarding total costs, the highest costs were found in the 65-74 age group in both men (4.98 billion HUF) and women (3.25 billion HUF). The highest patient numbers were in outpatient care: 88 134 patients, general practice care (55 324 patients) and CT, MRI (28 426 patients). The annual health care treatment cost per patient was 1.206 million HUF (4463 USD/3782 EUR) in men and 1.260 million HUF (4661 USD/3950 EUR) in women. CONCLUSION: Acute inpatient care, including the costs of oncotherapeutic pharmaceuticals, was found to be the major cost driver in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 14-21.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino
17.
Orv Hetil ; 162(162 Suppl 1): 38-45, 2021 03 28.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774607

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Az idegrendszeri károsodás az egyik leggyakrabban kialakuló komplikáció a cukorbetegek körében, mely az egyénnek és a finanszírozónak is jelentos terhet jelent. Célkituzés: Elemzésünk célja volt a diabeteses polyneuropathia okozta epidemiológiai és egészségbiztosítási betegségteher elemzése. Adatok és módszerek: Az adatok a Nemzeti Egészségbiztosítási Alapkezelo (NEAK) finanszírozási adatbázisából származnak, és a 2018. évet fedik le. Meghatároztuk az éves betegszámokat és a 100 000 lakosra jutó igénybevételi prevalenciát, továbbá az éves egészségbiztosítási kiadásokat korcsoportos és nemenkénti bontásban és ellátási típusonként. A vizsgált kórképet a Betegségek Nemzetközi Osztályozása (10. revízió) szerinti G6320-as kóddal azonosítottuk. Eredmények: A diabeteses polyneuropathia kezelésére a NEAK 6,63 milliárd Ft (24,52 millió USD; 20,78 millió EUR) egészségbiztosítási kiadást fordított 2018-ban. E költségek legnagyobb hányadát a gyógyszerek ártámogatása adta (78,29%). A teljes népességre számolt, 100 000 fore vetített prevalencia 862/100 000 fo volt a férfiak, 981/100 000 fo a nok esetében, együtt 924/100 000 fo a járóbeteg-szakellátásban. A 65-74 évesek jelentek meg a legnagyobb számban az egyes ellátási szinteken. A nemek eloszlása között a legtöbb vizsgált korcsoport tekintetében számottevo különbség nem tapasztalható, 65 év felett azonban már jóval magasabb a nok aránya. Következtetés: A betegség elofordulási gyakorisága a nok esetében 15,6%-kal magasabb. Idosebb korban jelentosen magasabb betegszámot figyeltünk meg. A neuropathiás szövodmények elkerülése érdekében a terápiás kezelésen túl a megelozésre is sokkal nagyobb figyelmet javasolunk fordítani. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 38-45. INTRODUCTION: Neurological complications are the most common type of complications among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, which put a heavy burden on both individuals and health insurance organizations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological and health insurance disease burden of non-insulin-dependent diabetes with neurological complications. DATA AND METHODS: Data were derived from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (NHIFA) of Hungary for the year 2018. Data analysed included annual patient numbers and prevalence of care utilisation per 100 000 population according to age groups and sex. Patients were identified with the following code of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision: G6320. RESULTS: In 2018, NHIFA spent 6.63 billion HUF (24.52 million USD; 20.78 million EUR) on treating diabetic polyneuropathy. Reimbursement of pharmaceuticals was the main cost driver (78.29% of total expenditure). Based on patient numbers in outpatient care, prevalence in 100 000 population was 862 men, 981 women, together 924 people based on outpatient-care utilization. Most patients were aged between 65-74 years in all forms of care. Regarding sex, no significant differences were found among most age groups, however, the ratio of women tends to be higher above 65 years of age. CONCLUSION: Prevalence was found to be by 15.6% higher among women. Significantly higher patient numbers were found in old age. Besides therapeutic interventions, prevention should gain considerably more attention to avoid polyneuropathic complications. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 38-45.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/economia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino
18.
Orv Hetil ; 162(162 Suppl 1): 46-53, 2021 03 28.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774608

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A pertrochanter töréssel kapcsolatos szolgáltatások igénybevétele jelentos terhet jelent a társadalom és az egészségügyi rendszerek számára. Célkituzés: Elemzésünk célja volt a pertrochanter törés okozta éves epidemiológiai és egészségbiztosítási betegségteher meghatározása Magyarországon. Adatok és módszerek: A felhasznált adatok a Nemzeti Egészségbiztosítási Alapkezelo (NEAK) finanszírozási adatbázisából származnak 2018. évre vonatkozóan. A betegszámok alapján meghatároztuk a 100 000 lakosra jutó prevalenciát, az éves egészségbiztosítási kiadásokat korcsoportos és nemenkénti bontásban. Az elemzésbe az érintett egészségbiztosítási ellátások teljes körét bevontuk. A pertrochanter töréseket a Betegségek Nemzetközi Osztályozása (BNO, 10. revízió) szerinti S7210-es kóddal azonosítottuk. Eredmények: A legnagyobb országos betegszámot a járóbeteg-szakellátás esetében találtuk: 2845 férfi, 6312 no, együtt 9157 fo. Ezt követte az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás (2388 férfi és 5858 no, együtt 8246 fo). A valamennyi életkorra számított, 100 000 lakosra vetített prevalencia a férfiaknál 51,1 beteg, a noknél 114,7 beteg, együtt 84,3 beteg volt az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátásban. A pertrochanter törés kezelésére 7,329 milliárd Ft-ot költöttek 2018-ban (27,12 millió USD, illetve 22,98 millió EUR). A kiadások 28,0%-a férfiaknál, 72,0%-a noknél jelent meg. Az egészségbiztosítási kiadások 90,7%-a az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátásban jelentkezett. Az egy betegre jutó átlagos éves összesített egészségbiztosítási kiadás 858 710 Ft (3177 USD/2693 EUR) volt a férfiak és 901 047 Ft (3334 USD/2826 EUR) a nok esetében. Következtetés: A pertrochanter törés elofordulási gyakorisága 2,5-szer magasabb a nok esetében, mint a férfiaknál. Az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás igénybevétele bizonyult a legfobb költségtényezonek. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 46-53. INTRODUCTION: Health services utilization related to pertrochanteric fractures represents a significant burden for the society and health care systems. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyse the epidemiological and health insurance burden of pertrochanteric fractures in Hungary. DATA AND METHODS: Data were derived from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (NHIFA) of Hungary for the year 2018. The data analysed included annual patient numbers, prevalence per 100 000 population in acute inpatient care, health insurance costs calculated for age groups and sex for all types of care. Patients with pertrochanteric fracture were identified with the code S7210 of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. RESULTS: We found a significant patient turnover in outpatient care: 2845 men, 6312 women, in total 9157 patients, followed by acute inpatient care (2388 men, 5858 women, together: 8246 patients). Based on patient numbers in acute inpatient care, the prevalence per 100 000 among men was 51.1, among women 114.7, together 84.3 patients. In 2018, NHIFA spent 7.329 billion HUF (27.12 million USD, 22.98 million EUR) on the treatment of pertrochanteric fractures. 28.0% of the costs was spent on the treatment of male, 72.0% on female patients. Reimbursement of acute inpatient care was the main cost driver (90.7% of the total expenditure). The average annual treatment cost per patient was 858 710 HUF (3177 USD/2693 EUR) for men and 901 047 HUF (3334 USD/2826 EUR) for women. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pertrochanteric fracture was 2.5 times higher in women compared to men. Acute inpatient care was the major cost driver in the treatment of pertrochanteric fracture. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 46-53.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Fraturas Ósseas , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino
19.
Orv Hetil ; 162(162 Suppl 1): 54-60, 2021 03 28.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774609

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A térd és a lábszár sérülései jelentos terhet jelentenek az egyén és a társadalom számára. Célkituzés: Elemzésünk célja volt a térd- és lábszársérülés okozta éves epidemiológiai és egészségbiztosítási betegségteher vizsgálata Magyarországon. Adatok és módszerek: Az elemzésben felhasznált adatok a Nemzeti Egészségbiztosítási Alapkezelo (NEAK) finanszírozási adatbázisából származnak, és a 2018. évet fedik le. Vizsgáltuk az éves egészségbiztosítási kiadásokat, azok megoszlását, az éves betegszámot, valamint a 100 000 lakosra vetített prevalenciát korcsoportok és nemek szerinti bontásban. A térd és a lábszár sérülései kórképeket a Betegségek Nemzetközi Osztályozása (BNO, 10. revízió) szerinti S80-S89-es kóddal azonosítottuk. Eredmények: A legköltségesebb ellátási forma az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás volt, amelynek országos betegszáma összesen 18 398 fo (9868 fo férfi, 8530 fo no) volt. Az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás betegforgalmi adatai alapján a 100 000 fore eso prevalencia a férfiaknál 211,2 fo, a noknél 167,0 fo, együtt 188,1 fo volt. A NEAK 8,808 milliárd Ft-ot költött 2018-ban a térd- és lábszársérülések kezelésére, ami 32,59 millió USD-nak, illetve 27,62 millió EUR-nak felelt meg. Az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás a teljes egészségbiztosítási kiadás 61,4%-ával volt a legmeghatározóbb költségelem. A kiadások 52,0%-a férfiaknál, míg 48,0%-a noknél jelent meg. A 49. életévig a férfiak, míg az 50. életév feletti korosztályban a nok sérüléseibol származó ellátások betegszámai és költségei a magasabbak. Következtetés: Az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás bizonyult a fo költségtényezonek. A betegség elofordulási gyakorisága 26%-kal volt magasabb a férfiak esetében, mint a noknél. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 54-60. INTRODUCTION: Injuries to the knee and lower leg pose a great burden for the individual and society. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the annual epidemiological disease burden and the health insurance treatment cost of knee and lower leg injuries in Hungary. DATA AND METHODS: Data were derived from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (NHIFA) of Hungary for the year 2018. The data analysed included annual health insurance costs and their distribution and annual patient numbers and prevalence per 100 000 population calculated for age groups and sex. Patients with knee and lower leg injuries were identified with the following code of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision: S80-S89. RESULTS: The most expensive insurance treatment category was acute inpatient care, presenting 18 398 patients in total (9868 men, 8530 women). Based on patient numbers in acute inpatient care, the prevalence in 100 000 population among men was 211.2 patients, among women 167.0 patients, in total 188.1 patients. In 2018, NHIFA spent 8.808 billion HUF on the treatment of patients with knee and lower leg injuries (32.59 million USD, 27.62 million EUR). Acute inpatient care with 61.4% of the total health insurance expenditure was the main cost driver. 52.0% of the costs was spent on the treatment of male, while 48.0% on female patients. Until the age of 49, the number of patients and their costs were higher for men, while those over the age of 50 were higher for women. CONCLUSION: Acute inpatient care was the major cost driver. The prevalence of the disease was by 26% higher in men compared to women. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 54-60.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Traumatismos do Joelho , Traumatismos da Perna , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Traumatismos do Joelho/economia , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Joelho/terapia , Traumatismos da Perna/economia , Traumatismos da Perna/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Perna/terapia , Masculino
20.
Orv Hetil ; 162(162 Suppl 1): 6-13, 2021 03 28.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774610

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A szív- és érrendszeri betegségek a vezeto halálokok között szerepelnek világszerte, az összes halálozás egyharmadáért, míg az európai halálozások közel feléért felelosek. Célkituzés: Vizsgálatunk célja volt a heveny szívinfarktus okozta epidemiológiai és egészségbiztosítási betegségteher elemzése. Adatok és módszerek: Adataink a Nemzeti Egészségbiztosítási Alapkezelo (NEAK) finanszírozási adatbázisából származnak a 2018-as évre vonatkozóan. Meghatároztuk az éves betegszámokat és a legnagyobb kiadással rendelkezo ellátási forma, az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás tekintetében a 100 000 fore jutó prevalenciát, valamint az éves egészségbiztosítási kiadásokat korcsoportos és nemenkénti bontásban az egyes ellátási típusokra vonatkozóan. A heveny szívinfarktust a Betegségek Nemzetközi Osztályozásának 10. revíziója alapján az I21-es kódcsoporttal azonosítottuk. Eredmények: A NEAK heveny szívinfarktusra fordított kiadása összesen 16,728 milliárd Ft (61,902 millió USD; 52,463 millió EUR) volt 2018-ban. A teljes kiadás 95,8%-át az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás költségei (16,032 milliárd Ft; 59,321 millió USD; 50,276 millió EUR) képezték; ezen ellátási forma keretén belül összesen 16 361 fo (9742 férfi és 6619 no) került kórházi felvételre. A valamennyi életkorra számított, 100 000 lakosra vetített prevalencia 208,54 beteg volt a férfiak és 129,61 beteg a nok esetében az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátásban. A nemenkénti eloszlást tekintve az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátásban a férfiak abszolút száma - a 75 év felettiek kivételével - valamennyi vizsgált korcsoportban meghaladta a nokét. Következtetés: Az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás igénybevétele bizonyult a legfobb költségtényezonek. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 6-13. INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases have been the leading causes of death worldwide accounting for one third of all-cause mortality, and nearly half of mortality in Europe. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological disease burden of acute myocardial infarction. DATA AND METHODS: Data were derived from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (NHIFA) of Hungary for 2018. Data analysed included annual patient numbers, prevalence per 100 000 population in acute inpatient care, health insurance costs calculated for age groups and sex for all types of care. Patients with acute myocardial infarction were identified with the code: I21 of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. RESULTS: In 2018, NHIFA spent 16.728 billion HUF on the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, 61.902 million USD, 52.463 million EUR. Acute inpatient care accounted for 95.8% of costs (16.032 billion HUF; 59.321 million USD; 50.276 million EUR) with 16 361 persons (9742 male; 6619 females) hospitalised. Based on patient numbers in acute in-patient care, prevalence per 100 000 among men was 208.54, among women 129.61 patients. In all age groups, except for patients aged >75 years, the number of males was higher than that of females. CONCLUSION: Acute inpatient care was the major cost driver in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 6-13.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Infarto do Miocárdio , Idoso , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/economia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia
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