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1.
Value Health ; 23(9): 1210-1217, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Significant literature exists on the effects of medication adherence on reducing healthcare costs, but less is known about the effect of medication adherence among Medicare low-income subsidy (LIS) recipients. This study examined the effects of medication adherence on healthcare costs among LIS recipients with diabetes, hypertension, and/or heart failure. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed Medicare claims data (2012-2013) linked to the Area Health Resources Files. Using measures developed by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance, adherence to 11 medication classes was studied among patients with 7 possible combinations of the diseases mentioned. Adherence was measured in 8 categories of proportion of days covered (PDC): ≥95%, 90% to <95%, 85% to <90%, 80% to <85%, 75% to <80%, 50% to <75%, 25% to <50%, and <25%. Annual Medicare costs were compared across adherence categories. A generalized linear model was used to control for patient/community characteristics. RESULTS: Among patients with only one disease, such as diabetes, patients with the lowest adherence (PDC < 25%) had $3152/year higher Medicare costs than patients with the highest adherence (PDC ≥ 95%; $11 101 vs $7949; P < .05). The adjusted costs among patients with PDC < 25% was $1893 higher than patients with PDC ≥ 95% ($9919 vs $8026; P < .05). Among patients with multiple chronic conditions, patients' adherence to medications for fewer diseases had higher costs. CONCLUSIONS: Greater medication adherence is associated with lower Medicare costs in the Medicare LIS population. Future policy affecting the LIS program should encourage better medication adherence among patients with chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Medicare/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
2.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(9): 855-867, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The economic effects of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), nosocomial infections (nosInf) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) have so far been poorly studied. We analyzed the impact of these complications on treatment revenues in hospitalized patients with decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: 371 consecutive patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, who received a paracentesis between 2012 and 2016, were included retrospectively. DRG (diagnosis-related group), "ZE/NUB" (additional charges/new examination/treatment methods), medication costs, length of hospital stay as well as different kinds of specific treatments (e. g., dialysis) were considered. Exclusion criteria included any kind of malignancy, a history of organ transplantation and/or missing accounting data. RESULTS: Total treatment costs (DRG + ZE/NUB) were higher in those with nosInf (€â€Š10,653 vs. €â€Š5,611, p < 0.0001) driven by a longer hospital stay (23 d vs. 12 d, p < 0.0001). Of note, revenues per day were not different (€â€Š473 vs. €â€Š488, p = 0.98) despite a far more complicated treatment with a more frequent need for dialysis (p < 0.0001) and high-complex care (p = 0.0002). Similarly, SBP was associated with higher total revenues (€â€Š10,307 vs. €â€Š6,659, p < 0.0001). However, the far higher effort for the care of SBP patients resulted in lower daily revenues compared to patients without SBP (€â€Š443 vs. €â€Š499, p = 0.18). ACLF increased treatment revenues to €â€Š10,593 vs. €6,369 without ACLF (p < 0.0001). While treatment of ACLF was more complicated, revenue per day was not different to no-ACLF patients (€â€Š483 vs. €â€Š480, p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: SBP, nosInf and/or ACLF lead to a significant increase in the effort, revenue and duration in the treatment of patients with cirrhosis. The lower daily revenue, despite a much more complex therapy, might indicate that these complications are not yet sufficiently considered in the German DRG system.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/economia , Infecções Bacterianas/economia , Infecção Hospitalar/economia , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Peritonite/economia , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Infecção Hospitalar/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/terapia , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1464, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The winter pressure often experienced by NHS hospitals in England is considerably contributed to by severe cases of seasonal influenza resulting in hospitalisation. The prevention planning and commissioning of the influenza vaccination programme in the UK does not always involve those who control the hospital budget. The objective of this study was to describe the direct medical costs of secondary care influenza-related hospital admissions across different age groups in England during two consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The number of hospital admissions, length of stay, and associated costs were quantified as well as determining the primary costs of influenza-related hospitalisations. Data were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database between September 2017 to March 2018 and September 2018 to March 2019 in order to incorporate the annual influenza seasons. The use of international classification of disease (ICD)-10 codes were used to identify relevant influenza hospitalisations. Healthcare Resource Group (HRG) codes were used to determine the costs of influenza-related hospitalisations. RESULTS: During the 2017/18 and 2018/19 seasons there were 46,215 and 39,670 influenza-related hospital admissions respectively. This resulted in a hospital cost of £128,153,810 and £99,565,310 across both seasons. Results showed that those in the 65+ year group were associated with the highest hospitalisation costs and proportion of in-hospital deaths. In both influenza seasons, the HRG code WJ06 (Sepsis without Interventions) was found to be associated with the longest average length of stay and cost per admission, whereas PD14 (Paediatric Lower Respiratory Tract Disorders without Acute Bronchiolitis) had the shortest length of stay. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that influenza-related hospital admissions had a considerable impact on the secondary healthcare system during the 2017/18 and 2018/19 influenza seasons, before taking into account its impact on primary health care.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Influenza Humana/economia , Vacinação/economia , Adulto , Inglaterra , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810157

RESUMO

Limited data are available regarding treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), treatment costs and clinical outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in Japan. This retrospective database study analyzed the Medical Data Vision database for DLBCL patients who received treatment during the identification period from October 1 2008 to December 31 2017. Among 6,965 eligible DLBCL patients, 5,541 patients (79.6%) received first-line (1L) rituximab (R)-based therapy, and then were gradually switched to chemotherapy without R in subsequent lines of therapy. In each treatment regimen, 1L treatment cost was the highest among all lines of therapy. The major cost drivers i.e. total direct medical costs until death or censoring across all regimens and lines of therapy were from the 1L regimen and inpatient costs. During the follow-up period, DLBCL patients who received a 1L R-CHOP regimen achieved the highest survival rate and longest time-to-next-treatment, with a relatively low mean treatment cost due to lower inpatient healthcare resource utilization and fewer lines of therapy compared to other 1L regimens. Our retrospective analysis of clinical practices in Japanese DLBCL patients demonstrated that 1L treatment and inpatient costs were major cost contributors and that the use of 1L R-CHOP was associated with better clinical outcomes at a relatively low mean treatment cost.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/economia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ciclofosfamida/economia , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doxorrubicina/economia , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão/epidemiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/economia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/economia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/economia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prednisona/economia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Rituximab/economia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Vincristina/economia , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 177e-186e, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based practices in medicine are linked with a higher quality of care and lower health care cost. For trigger finger, identifying patient factors associated with nonadherence to evidence-based practices will aid physicians in treatment decisions. The objectives were to (1) determine patient factors associated with treatment nonadherence, (2) examine the success rates of steroid injections, and (3) evaluate the economic consequences of nonadherence to treatment recommendations. METHODS: The authors used data from the Clinformatics DataMart database from 2010 to 2017 to conduct a population-based analysis of patients with single-digit trigger finger. The authors calculated rates of steroid injection success and examined associations between injection success and patient factors using chi-square tests. In addition, the authors analyzed differences in the cost to the insurer, the cost to the patient, and total cost. RESULTS: A total of 29,722 patients were included in this analysis. Injection success rates were similar for diabetic (72 percent) and nondiabetic patients (73 percent), women (73 percent), and men (73 percent). Nonetheless, diabetics (OR, 1.4; 95 percent CI, 1.4 to 1.5; p < 0.001) and women (OR, 1.2; 95 percent CI, 1.1 to 1.2; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to receive nonadherent treatment. In total, $23 million (U.S. dollars) were spent on nonadherent trigger finger care. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics and women have increased odds of having surgery without a prior steroid injection, despite similar success rates of steroid injections compared to nondiabetics and men. Because performing surgical release before any steroid injections may represent a higher cost treatment option, providers should provide steroid injections before surgery for all patients regardless of diabetes status or sex to minimize overtreatment. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/economia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Dedo em Gatilho/terapia , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/economia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais/economia , Injeções Intralesionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Dedo em Gatilho/economia
7.
Med Care ; 58(8): 689-695, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been associated with reduced morbidity among adults with chronic back pain, less is known about the association between CAM use and health care expenditures. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to first estimate health care expenditures of adult CAM users and nonusers with chronic back pain and then assess CAM's influence on health care expenditures. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was an ambidirectional cohort study. DATA: Linked National Health Interview Survey (2012) and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2013-2014). MEASURES: CAM use was defined as 3 or more visits to a practitioner in the 12 months before the National Health Interview Survey interview. Covariates included age, sex, race-ethnicity, and body mass index. The outcome was annual health care expenditures (overall and within 8 categories, including office-based visits and prescription medication). ANALYSES: Survey-weighted, covariate adjusted predicted marginal means models were applied to quantify health care expenditures. Survey-weighted, covariate adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate CAM's influence on expenditures, and the Z mediation test statistic was applied to quantify the independent effects of CAM. RESULTS: Overall, health care expenditures were significantly lower among CAM users with chronic back pain compared with non-CAM users for both 2013 and 2014: $8402 versus $9851 for 2013; $7748 versus $10,227 in 2014, annual differences of -$1499 (95% confidence interval: -$1701 to -$1197) and -$2479 (95% confidence interval: -$2696 to -$2262), respectively (P<0.001). Adult CAM users also had significantly lower prescription medication as well as outpatient expenses (P<0.001). CAM use was identified as a partial mediator to health care expenditures. CONCLUSION: CAM use is associated with lower overall health care expenditures, driven primarily by lower prescription and outpatient expenditures, among adults with chronic back pain in the United States.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/economia , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Dor nas Costas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
8.
Med Care ; 58(8): 722-726, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is linked with adverse health outcomes and associated costs. Current information on the relationship between childhood obesity and inpatient costs is limited. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe trends and quantify the link between childhood obesity diagnosis and hospitalization length of stay (LOS), costs, and charges. RESEARCH DESIGN: We use the National Inpatient Sample data from 2006 to 2016. SUBJECTS: The sample includes hospitalizations among children aged 2-19 years. The treatment group of interest includes child hospitalizations with an obesity diagnosis. MEASURES: Hospital LOS, charges, and costs associated with a diagnosis of obesity. RESULTS: We find increases in obesity-coded hospitalizations and associated charges and costs during 2006-2016. Obesity as a primary diagnosis is associated with a shorter hospital LOS (by 1.8 d), but higher charges and costs (by $20,879 and $6049, respectively); obesity as a secondary diagnosis is associated with a longer LOS (by 0.8 d), and higher charges and costs of hospitalizations (by $3453 and $1359, respectively). The most common primary conditions occurring with a secondary diagnosis of obesity are pregnancy conditions, mood disorders, asthma, and diabetes; the effect of a secondary diagnosis of obesity on LOS, charges, and costs holds across these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity diagnosis-related hospitalizations, charges, and costs increased substantially during 2006-2016, and obesity diagnosis is associated with higher hospitalization charges and costs. Our findings provide clinicians and policymakers with additional evidence of the economic burden of childhood obesity and further justify efforts to prevent and manage the disease.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Tempo de Internação/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To point out challenges and opportunities for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) with the use of telemonitoring to face the increasing costs of non-communicable chronic diseases, based on its general panorama in Brazil, business dynamics and reapplication of data from American studies. METHODS: Quali-quantitative approach with exploratory research. The field work focused on the analysis of the national market from private companies, since no experiences or studies related to this theme were identified in the SUS. To analyze the panorama and market dynamics, we investigated the offer of this technology based on the products and services available and their demand by reference hospitals the ten largest private health plan companies. To support the central discussion, we analyzed the reduction of costs with hospital admissions by the SUS due to chronic non-communicable diseases sensitive to telemonitoring (HCDST), using data from Datasus and some American studies from the MEDLINE/PubMed database. RESULTS: Although in the embryonic phase, business agents search for new business opportunities, whereas public initiatives for the use of telemonitoring in collective health seem inexistent. The reapplication of U.S. data would reduce spending on HCDST and provide benefits, such as the reduction in emergency room care, acute hospitalizations, readmissions and home care time, among others, which point to even greater economic gains. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a major project to reduce HCDST using this technology has the potential to advance in a comprehensive network of primary care, contribute to a greater dynamism of the national productive and innovative base and induce innovations along the chain of this emerging industry.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização , Telemedicina/economia , Brasil , Comércio , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 295-302, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653050

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 72 countries; 15 million persons live with chronic filarial lymphedema. It can be a disabling condition, frequently painful, leading to reduced mobility, social exclusion, and depression. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis aims to stop new infections and care for affected persons, but morbidity management has been initiated in only 38 countries. We examine economic costs and benefits of alleviating chronic lymphedema and its effects through simple limb care. We use economic and epidemiological data from 12 Indian states in which 99% of Indians with filariasis reside. Using census data, we calculate the age distribution of filarial lymphedema and predict the burden of morbidity of infected persons. We estimate lifetime medical costs and lost earnings due to lymphedema and acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) with and without community-based limb-care programs. Programs of community-based limb care in all Indian endemic areas would reduce costs of disability by 52%, saving a per person average of US$2,721, equivalent to 703 workdays. Per-person savings are 185 times the program's per-person cost. Chronic lymphedema and ADLA impose a substantial physical and economic burden in filariasis-endemic areas. Low-cost programs for lymphedema management based on limb washing and topical medication are effective in reducing the number of ADLA episodes and stopping progression of disabling lymphedema. With reduced disability, people can work longer hours per day, more days per year, and in more strenuous, higher paying jobs, resulting in important economic benefits to themselves, their families, and their communities.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Progressão da Doença , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/terapia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673350

RESUMO

Globally, about one in four people develop a psychiatric disorder during their lifetime. Specifically, the lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia is about 0.48%, and schizophrenia can have detrimental effects on a patient's life. Therefore, estimating the economic burden of schizophrenia is important. We investigated the cost-of-illness trend of schizophrenia in South Korea from 2006 to 2016. The cost-of-illness trend was estimated from a societal perspective using a prevalence-based approach for direct costs and a human capital approach for indirect costs. We utilized information from the following sources: 1) National Health Insurance Service, 2) Korean Statistical Information Service, Statistics Korea, 3) the National Survey of Persons with Disabilities, 4) Budget and Fund Operation Plan, Ministry of Justice, 5) Budget and Fund Operation Plan, Ministry of Health and Welfare, and 6) annual reports from the National Mental Health Welfare Commission. Direct healthcare costs, direct non-healthcare costs, and indirect costs by sex and age group were calculated along with sensitivity analyses of the estimates. The cost-of-illness of schizophrenia in Korea steadily increased from 2006 to 2016, with most costs being indirect costs. Individuals in their 40s and 50s accounted for most of the direct and indirect costs. Among indirect costs, the costs due to unemployment were most prevalent. Our estimation implies that schizophrenia is associated with a vast cost-of-illness in Korea. Policymakers, researchers, and physicians need to put effort into shortening the duration of untreated psychosis, guide patients to receive community-care-based services rather than hospital-based services and empower lay people to learn about schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Esquizofrenia/economia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(7): e404-e413, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One possible policy response to the burden of diet-related disease is food taxes and subsidies, but the net health gains of these approaches are uncertain because of substitution effects between foods. We estimated the health and cost impacts of various food taxes and subsidies in one high-income country, New Zealand. METHODS: In this modelling study, we compared the effects in New Zealand of a 20% fruit and vegetable subsidy, of saturated fat, sugar and salt taxes (each set at a level that increased the total food price by the same magnitude of decrease from the fruit and vegetable subsidy), and of an 8% so-called junk food tax (on non-essential, energy-dense food). We modelled the effect of price changes on food purchases, the consequent changes in fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage purchasing, nutrient risk factors, and body-mass index, and how these changes affect health status and health expenditure. The pre-intervention intake for 340 food groups was taken from the New Zealand National Nutrition Survey and the post-intervention intake was estimated using price and expenditure elasticities. The resultant changes in dietary risk factors were then propagated through a proportional multistate lifetable (with 17 diet-related diseases) to estimate the changes in health-adjusted life years (HALYs) and health system expenditure over the 2011 New Zealand population's remaining lifespan. FINDINGS: Health gains (expressed in HALYs per 1000 people) ranged from 127 (95% uncertainty interval 96-167; undiscounted) for the 8% junk food tax and 212 (102-297) for the fruit and vegetable subsidy, up to 361 (275-474) for the saturated fat tax, 375 (272-508) for the salt tax, and 581 (429-792) for the sugar tax. Health expenditure savings across the remaining lifespan per capita (at a 3% discount rate) ranged from US$492 (334-694) for the junk food tax to $2164 (1472-3122) for the sugar tax. INTERPRETATION: The large magnitude of the health gains and cost savings of these modelled taxes and subsidies suggests that their use warrants serious policy consideration. FUNDING: Health Research Council of New Zealand.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Alimentos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos , Adulto , Feminino , Frutas/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Nova Zelândia , Verduras/economia
13.
Am Surg ; 86(6): 643-651, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholecystectomy is a common procedure with significantly varied outcomes. We analyzed differences in comorbidities, outcomes, and cost of cholecystectomy by acute care surgery (ACS) versus hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Patients were retrospectively identified between 2008 and 2015. Exclusion criteria included the following: (1) part of another procedure; (2) abdominal trauma; (3) ICU admission; vasopressors. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-six ACS and 122 HPB patients were analyzed. The HPB subset had higher burden of comorbid disease and significantly lower projected 10-year survival (87.4% ACS vs 68.5% HPB, P < .0001). Median lengths of stay were longer in HPB patients (2 vs 5 days, P < .0001) as were readmission rates (30-day 5.6% vs 13.1%, P = .040; 90-day 7.9% vs 20.5%, P = .005). Median cost was higher including operative supply cost ($969.42 vs $1920.66, P < .0001) and total cost of care ($7340.66 vs $19 338.05, P < .0001). A predictive scoring system for difficult gallbladders was constructed and a phone application was created. CONCLUSION: Cholecystectomy in a complicated patient can be difficult with longer hospital stays and higher costs. The utilization of procedure codes to explain disparities is not sufficient. Incorporation of comorbidities needs to be addressed for planning and reimbursement.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Colecistectomia/economia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 296-301, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been no comprehensive study determining the financial burden of breast cancer in the South African (SA) public sector. OBJECTIVES: To develop a method to determine the cost of breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy per episode of care and to quantify the associated costs relating to chemotherapy at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), a government hospital in SA. These costs included costs associated with the management of adverse events arising from chemotherapy. METHODS: Retrospective patient-level data were collected for 200 patients from electronic databases and patient folders between 2013 and 2015. Direct medical costs were determined from the health funder's perspective. The information collected was categorised into the following cost components: chemotherapy medicines, support medicines, administration of chemotherapy, laboratory tests, radiology scans and imaging, doctor consultations and adverse events. Time-and-motion studies were conducted on a set of new patients and the data obtained were used for the study sample of 200 patients. All the above costs were used to determine the cost of chemotherapy per episode of care. The episode of care was defined as the care provided from 2 months prior to the date of commencing chemotherapy (pre-chemotherapy phase), during chemotherapy (treatment phase) and until 6 months after the date when the last cycle of chemotherapy was administered (follow-up phase). RESULTS: A method was developed to determine the episode-of-care costs for breast cancer at GSH. The total direct medical cost for treatment of breast cancer at GSH for 200 patients was ZAR3 154 877, and the average episode-of-care cost per patient was ZAR15 774. The average cost of management of adverse events arising from the various treatment modalities was ZAR13 133 per patient. It was found that the cost of treating a patient with adverse events was 1.8 times higher than the cost of treating a patient without adverse events. Of the patients, 86.5% managed to complete their prescribed chemotherapy treatment cycles, and the average cost of treatment of these patients was 1.3 times more than the average cost for patients who could not complete their treatment, based on the number of treatment cycles received. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive method to determine the costs associated with breast cancer management per episode of care was developed, and costs were quantified at GSH according to the treatment protocol used at the hospital.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Lobular/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/economia , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/economia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/economia , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Periódico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/economia , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Honorários por Prescrição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 78, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global public threat. Given the pandemic of COVID-19, the economic impact of COVID-19 is essential to add value to the policy-making process. We retrospectively conducted a cost and affordability analysis to determine the medical costs of COVID-19 patients in China, and also assess the factors affecting their costs. METHODS: This analysis was retrospectively conducted in Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital between 24 January and 16 March 2020. The total direct medical expenditures were analyzed by cost factors. We also assessed affordability by comparing the simulated out-of-pocket expenditure of COVID-19 cases relative to the per capita disposable income. Differences between groups were tested by student t test and Mann-Whitney test when appropriate. A multiple logistic regression model was built to determine the risk factors associated with high cost. RESULTS: A total of 70 COVID-19 patients were included in the analysis. The overall mean cost was USD 6827 per treated episode. The highest mean cost was observed in drug acquisition, accounting for 45.1% of the overall cost. Total mean cost was significantly higher in patients with pre-existing diseases compared to those without pre-existing diseases. Pre-existing diseases and the advanced disease severity were strongly associated with higher cost. Around USD 0.49 billion were expected for clinical manage of COVID-19 in China. Among rural households, the proportions of health insurance coverage should be increased to 70% for severe cases, and 80% for critically ill cases to avoid catastrophic health expenditure. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that clinical management of COVID-19 patients incurs a great financial burden to national health insurance. The cost for drug acquisition is the major contributor to the medical cost, whereas the risk factors for higher cost are pre-existing diseases and severity of COVID-19. Improvement of insurance coverage will need to address the barriers of rural patients to avoid the occurrence of catastrophic health expenditure.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurology ; 95(1): e1-e10, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the economic and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) burden incurred by households with a child affected by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). METHODS: Hospital records, insurance claims, and detailed resource use questionnaires completed by caregivers were used to capture the direct and indirect costs to households of 40 children affected by SMA I, II, and III in Australia between 2016 and 2017. Prevalence costing methods were used and reported in 2017 US dollar (USD) purchasing power parity (PPP). The HRQoL for patients and primary caregivers was quantified with the youth version of the EQ-5D and CareQoL multiattribute utility instruments and Australian utility weights. RESULTS: The average total annual cost of SMA per household was $143,705 USD PPP for all SMA types (SMA I $229,346, SMA II $150,909, SMA III $94,948). Direct costs accounted for 56% of total costs. The average total indirect health care costs for all SMA types were $63,145 per annum and were highest in families affected by SMA II. Loss of income and unpaid informal care made up 24.2% and 19.8% respectively, of annual SMA costs. Three of 4 (78%) caregivers stated that they experienced financial problems because of care tasks. The loss in HRQoL of children affected by SMA and caregivers was substantial, with average caregiver and patient scores of 0.708 and 0.115, respectively (reference range 0 = death and 1 = full health). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the substantial and far-ranging economic and quality of life burden on households and society of SMA and are essential to fully understanding the health benefits and cost-effectiveness associated with emerging disease-modifying therapies for SMA.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Atrofias Musculares Espinais da Infância/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Value Health ; 23(6): 705-709, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trauma care provides value to the critically injured. Our aim was to assess whether trauma team involvement adds value to the care of minimally injured patients and to define its costs. METHODS: Minimally injured patients admitted to a trauma center were propensity matched and compared by involvement versus no involvement of the trauma service (TS). Demographics, injury severity, complications, length of emergency department stay, mortality, and hospital costs and charges were studied. RESULTS: A total of 1253 patients were enrolled, with 308 propensity matched to the following groups: TS (n = 102) and no TS (n = 206). TS demonstrated a 30% increase in total charges and costs with no difference in complications. TS did demonstrate decreased time in the emergency department but had an increased delay to operation. Findings were similar when stratified for only lower extremity injuries. CONCLUSIONS: TS involvement for minimally injured patients does not increase value. Reducing TS involvement while avoiding trauma undertriage may reduce costs to the healthcare system without affecting outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525965

RESUMO

The affordability of pharmaceuticals has been a major challenge in US health care. Generic substitution has been proposed as an important tool to reduce the costs, yet little is known how the prices of more expensive brand-name drugs would be affected by an increased utilization of generics. We aimed to examine the trend of overall utilization and the total costs of brand-name oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), the most widely used form of contraception, and its association with the pharmaceutical market concentration among the OCPs. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2011-2014, a nationally representative survey of healthcare utilization, were extracted on the utilization of generic and brand-name OCPs. A multiple logit regression analysis was conducted to assess the trend in utilization of brand-name OCPs over time. Total costs, including the costs to the payers and consumers, were synthesized. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), an index describing market concentration, was constructed, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the brand-name OCP prices and the market share of individual brand-name drugs. The odds of utilizing brand-name drugs decreased steadily in 2012, 2013, and 2014 compared to 2012 (AOR 0.87, 0.73, 0.55, respectively, p<0.05) controlling for patient mix. Despite significant decline in total utilization, there was a 90% increase in the price of brand-name OCPs, resulting an 18% increase in revenue from 2011 to 2014 for the industry. During this time, pharmaceutical market concentration for OCPs increased (HHI increased from 1105 in 2011 to 2415 in 2014). Each percentage point increase in the market share by a brand-name OCPs was associated with a $3.12 increase in its price. Market mechanisms matter. Practitioners and policy makers need to take market mechanisms into account in order to realize the benefits of generic substitutions.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Indústria Farmacêutica/tendências , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Adulto , Anticoncepção/economia , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/tendências , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Competição Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Competição Econômica/tendências , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med Care ; 58(7): 586-593, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social factors are important drivers of health. However, it is unclear to what extent neighborhood social conditions are associated with total and preventable health care utilization and costs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of neighborhood social conditions with total annual and potentially preventable Medicare costs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Retrospective cohort study. Medicare claims data from 2013 to 2014 linked with neighborhood social conditions at the US census block group level of 2013 for 93,429 Medicare fee-for-service and dually eligible patients. MEASURES: Neighborhood social conditions were measured by Area Deprivation Index at the census block group level, categorized into quintiles. Outcomes included total annual and potentially preventable utilization and costs. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographics and comorbidities, patients with the least disadvantaged social conditions had higher total annual Medicare costs [$427; 95% confidence interval (CI), $200-$655] and similar potentially preventable costs (-$23; 95% CI, -$56 to $10) as compared with patients with the intermediate level social conditions. Patients with the most disadvantaged social conditions had similar total Medicare costs (-$22; 95% CI, -$342 to $298) but higher potentially preventable costs ($53; 95% CI, $1-$104) than patients with the intermediate level social conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged neighborhood conditions are associated with lower total annual Medicare costs but higher potentially preventable costs after controlling for demographic, medical, and other patient characteristics. Socioeconomic barriers may limit access and use of primary care and disease management services, resulting in a higher proportion of their health care costs going to potentially preventable care.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/organização & administração , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
20.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(4): 188-193, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468824

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the socioeconomic burden of asthma in South Korea. The data were obtained from the National Patient Sample of 2014. The direct costs included health care and non-health care costs, and the indirect costs included loss of productivity. To estimate the prevalence of asthma, this study used both primary diagnoses and treatment-based criteria. The prevalence of asthma was 3.7% using primary diagnosis-based criteria. The total costs of asthma were $645.8 million. The direct and indirect costs were $553.9 million and $92.0 million, respectively. When the treatment-based criteria were applied, the prevalence decreased to 1.8% and the total costs decreased to $465.1 million. The direct and indirect costs were $394.9 million and $70.2 million, respectively. In the future, the cost of asthma, derived from various perspectives, should be regularly estimated and used as a basis for lowering the burden of disease due to asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/economia , Asma/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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