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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111999, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550078

RESUMO

Tramadol is a widely used analgesic with additional antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. This compound has been reported in continental waters reaching concentrations of µg/L as a consequence of its inefficient removal in sewage treatment plants and increasing use over time. In this study, European chubs (Squalius cephalus) were exposed to 1 µg/L of tramadol in water for 42 days with a subsequent 14 days of depuration. Our results revealed that chubs exposed to this analgesic underwent changes in their behaviour as compared to the control group. The behavioural outcome was also influenced by the individual concentration of tramadol in brain tissue. In particular, experimental fish presented anxiolytic-like effects, characterized by less bold and less social individuals. Exposed animals were less frequently out of the shelter and moved a shorter distance, indicating that they explored the new environment less during the boldness test. In the novel object recognition experiment, although they distinguished the new item, they examined it less and displayed a reduced activity. Shoal cohesion was disrupted as observed in an increased distance between individuals. After the depuration phase, this alteration remained whereas the boldness effect disappeared. Moreover, the degree of behavioural changes was correlated with the concentration of the substance in brain. According to our findings, chronic presence of tramadol in the environment can impact the fitness of exposed aquatic fauna by altering evolutionary crucial behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Tramadol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Tramadol/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(9): 1453-1461, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880082

RESUMO

Although chemicals have been traditionally regulated on an individual basis in aquatic ecosystems, they often co-exist as different types of complex mixtures. Laboratory assays were conducted for assessing the responses of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) to individual and mixture chemicals [trace element cadmium (Cd), thiamethoxam, deltamethrin, malathion and prochloraz]. Data obtained from 96 h semi-static toxicity assays implied that deltamethrin elicited the highest toxic effect on the various developmental phases (larval, juvenile and adult phases) of G. rarus with LC50 values ranging from 0.00061 to 0.25 mg a.i. L-1, followed by prochloraz, malathion and Cd with 96-h LC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 1.1, from 7.1 to 26, and from 7.6 to 15 mg a.i. L-1, respectively. Thiamethoxam elicited the lowest toxic effect on the organisms with 96-h LC50 values ranging from 38 to 202 mg a.i. L-1. Larval phase was not always the most sensitive period in the three detected phases to most of chemicals. Chemical combinations containing deltamethrin and malathion displayed synergetic responses to the larvae of G. rarus. Besides, the binary mixtures of Cd-deltamethrin and Cd-prochloraz also exhibited synergetic response to rare minnows. Our results indicate that extra information is necessary to develop practical criteria for selecting chemical combinations that require legislative attention according to their likelihood to exert synergetic responses. Thence, more investigations on mixture toxicities of various chemicals should be taken as a priority for producing synergetic interaction to improve the environmental risk assessment of chemicals.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Imidazóis , Malation
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110954, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800228

RESUMO

Current study aims to determine difference in metal accumulation pattern in muscle of Liza parsia (pelagic, omnivore), Amblypharyngodon mola (surface feeder, herbivore) and Mystus gulio (benthic, carnivore) depending on their niche and feeding habit and how it affects the endogenous antioxidants and glucose metabolism in fish muscle. Fishes were collected from Malancha, Diamond Harbour and Chandanpiri, West Bengal, India. Concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium were measured in water, sediment and fish muscle. Metal pollution index (MPI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated to evaluate the ability of fish to accumulate specific metals in muscle tissue from the aquatic environment. Metal concentrations were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in water, sediment, fish muscles from Malancha than Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. L. parsia (MPI: 0.4-1.6) showed highest metal deposition in their muscle followed by A. mola (MPI: 0.37-1.38) and M. gulio (MPI: 0.2-1.2). Malondealdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase and cortisol levels increased in case of L. parsia from Malancha and Chandanpiri. Succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, Ca+2 ATPase and cytochrome C oxidase levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower at Malancha and Chandanpiri than Diamond Harbour. Heat shock protein (HSP70) expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all fish species at Malancha followed by Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. Glucose, glycogen, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen phosphorylase levels varied between sites and selected fish species. Serum cortisol level was measured and found to be the highest in L. parsia from Malancha (2.94 ± 0.12 ng/ml) and the lowest in M. gulio from Diamond Harbour (0.7 ± 0.05 ng/ml). The results indicate that metal toxicity alters antioxidant levels, oxidative status and energy production in fish in species specific manner. Our results also indicate that Mystus has the highest degree of adaptability in response to metal toxicity possibly due to its specific food habit and niche position. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintenance of oxidative and metabolic status to combat metal-induced oxidative load will be helpful for the fishes to acquire better resistance under such eco-physiological stress. Alteration of niche and interactive segregation in aquatic organism may be one of the key modulator of resistance against such stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/enzimologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Especificidade da Espécie , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105568, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791376

RESUMO

An emerging Multi-Ion Toxicity (MIT) model for assessment of environmental salt pollution is based on the premise that major ion toxicity to aquatic organisms is related to a critical disturbance of the trans-epithelial potential across the gills (ΔTEP), which can be predicted by electrochemical theory. However, the model has never been evaluated physiologically. We directly tested key assumptions by examining the individual effects of eight different salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2, MgSO4, KCl, K2SO4, CaCl2, and CaSO4) on measured TEP in three different fish species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas = FHM; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus = CC; bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus = BG). A geometric concentration series based on previously reported 96-h LC50 values for FHM was used. All salts caused concentration-dependent increases in TEP to less negative/more positive values in a pattern well-described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The ΔTEP responses for different salts were similar to one another within each species when concentrations were expressed as a percentage of the FHM LC50. A plateau was reached at or before 100 % of the LC50 where the ΔTEP values were remarkably consistent, with only 1.4 to 2.2-fold variation. This relative uniformity in the ΔTEP responses contrasts with 28-fold variation in salt concentration (in mmol L-1), 9.6-fold in total dissolved solids, and 7.9-fold in conductivity at the LC50. The Michaelis-Menten Km values (salt concentrations causing 50 % of the ΔTEPmax) were positively related to the 96-h LC50 values. ΔTEP responses were not a direct effect of osmolarity in all species and were related to specific cation rather than specific anion concentrations in FHM. These responses were stable for up to 24 h in CC. The results provide strong physiological support for the assumptions of the MIT model, are coherent with electrochemical theory, and point to areas for future research.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/fisiologia , Sais/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Eletrodos , Brânquias/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111051, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763565

RESUMO

The present study was performed to determine the effect of waterborne cadmium (Cd) exposure on oxidative stress, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction, and to explore the mechanism of Cd-induced liver damage in freshwater teleost Procypris merus. To this end, P. merus were exposed to waterborne 0, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L Cd for 30 days (equal to 0, 2.22 and 4.45 µmol Cd/l). The waterborne Cd exposure significantly increased hepatic Cd accumulation and impaired histological structure of the liver of P. merus. both low and high-dose waterborne Cd exposure induced oxidative stress in the liver of P. merus, through increases Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxide species (ROS) accumulation in the liver. The Cd-induced oxidative stress in liver may result from reduction of enzyme activities (superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalases (CAT), GSH-S-transferases (GST)) and transcriptional expression of antioxidant related genes (gpx1, gpx2, cata, gsta1, sod1). Furthermore, the present study showed that waterborne Cd exposure decreased the transcriptional factor (nrf2) expression, which might lead to the down-regulation of antioxidant gene expression. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations demonstrated that waterborne Cd exposure induced autophagy in the liver of P. merus. Gene expression analysis showed that waterborne Cd exposure also induced mRNA expression of a set of genes (beclin1, ulk1, atg5, lc3a, atg4b, atg9a, and p62) involved in the autophagy process, indicating that the influence of Cd on autophagy involved transcription regulation of autophagy gene expression. Waterborne Cd exposure induced a sharp decrease in ATP content in the liver of P. merus. In addition, the expression of mitochondrial function genes (sdha, cox4i1, cox1, atp5f1, and mt-cyb) are significantly decreased in the liver of P. merus in Cd treated groups, manifesting the suppression of Cd on mitochondrial energy metabolism. Taken together, our experiments demonstrate that waterborne Cd exposure induced oxidative stress, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver of P. merus. These results may contribute to the understanding of mechanisms that hepatotoxicity of Cd in teleost.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fígado/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
6.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 246-257, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607658

RESUMO

In this work, rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was applied as a sentinel organism and set in cages at control and test sampling sites in Donghu Lake for 4 weeks in March, June, September, and December 2016 to assess the biological toxicity of in situ water. Sampling for active biomonitoring and physicochemical variables was performed weekly. The control was obtained from the outdoor pool of the Institute of Hydrobiology, China. Superoxide dismutase, lipoperoxidation, metallothioneins, acetylcholinesterase activity, and Vtg mRNA expression were determined as biomarkers during the field exposure period. Survival and growth also were monitored to evaluate the overall physiological condition of the fish. The seasonal changes of organic pollutants and trace metals (As, Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) in surface water were determined. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index was applied to summarize biomarker responses and correlate stress levels with concentrations of organic pollutants and trace metals in the surface water. Results indicated that complex pollution by persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals was present in Donghu Lake and that the in situ exposed organisms were stressed. Moreover, the complex pollution of Donghu Lake in summer and autumn was more serious than that in spring and winter. Active biomonitoring combined with IBR analysis enabled good discrimination among different exposure seasons. The proposed protocol with caged rare minnow revealed marked biological effects caused by the investigated Lake and a useful approach that can easily be extended to monitor water pollution.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , China , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/análise , Metalotioneína , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127597, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707321

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that gibel carp A strain was more susceptible to herpesvirus infection than other strains. Thus, we hypothesized that F strain might display better defense responses than the A strain against cadmium (Cd) exposure. To test our hypothesis, gibel carp A strain and F strain were exposed to three diets comprising of different concentrations of Cd for 8 weeks to compare their resistances to Cd. Comprehensive evaluations on biochemical, physiological and histological responses were conducted post-exposure. Results showed that no adverse effects and differences were observed on growth in two strains of gibel carp, compromising of the remarkable hepatoxicity-caused liver damage as shown by histological observations. Dietary Cd exposure stimulated antioxidant defense in the liver to counteract the Cd hepatoxicity, especially in the F strain. Activation of ER stress response positively stimulated the autophagy, then triggering apoptosis in fish after dietary Cd exposure. Thus, Cd-induced autophagy served as a protective strategy to alleviate hepatoxicity, but overaction of ER stress also triggered irreparable cell death via apoptosis. Cd induced dysregulation of lipid accumulation, which might be a common mechanism in response to hepatoxicity. Last but not least, the F strain showed stronger response on antioxidant, ER stress and autophagy, but apoptosis were remitted compared with the A strain, implying the F strain showed stronger response but better defense strategies to dietary Cd exposure. Our finding provides useful information for genetic breeding in aquaculture, and ultimately contribute to the safety assessment of aquatic products for human consumption.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes , Aquicultura , Cruzamento , Carpas , Dieta , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Carpa Dourada/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Fígado
8.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127437, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593824

RESUMO

Venlafaxine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is one of the most abundant antidepressants in municipal wastewater effluents (MWWE). The early life stages are particularly sensitive to contaminant exposure, but few studies have examined whether persistent exposure to venlafaxine impart adverse developmental outcomes. The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is a widely used model for ecotoxicological studies, and this fish is native to Alberta, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that environmental levels of venlafaxine compromises early developmental behavioural performances in fathead minnows. Embryos were exposed to waterborne venlafaxine at either 0, 0.06, 0.33, 0.66, 1.37 or 3 µg L-1 concentration for 7 days. Environmental levels of venlafaxine did not impact the survival, hatch rate or heart rate of fathead minnow embryos and larvae but reduced the growth of larvae even at concentrations as low as 0.06 µg L-1. We validated thigmotaxis as a screen for anxiolytic and anxiogenic behaviour in fathead minnow larvae by exposing them to concentrations of ethanol and caffeine, respectively. Behavioural analyses revealed that early developmental exposure to venlafaxine does not alter thigmotaxis but reduced the activity of fathead minnows. The larval behavioural assays reported here for fathead minnow have the potential to be used as screening tools for the risk assessment of neurotoxic contaminants in MWWE. Overall, we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to environmental levels of venlafaxine during the critical early developmental window does not elicit an anxiogenic response but may adversely affect the larval growth performance of fathead minnows.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alberta , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias
9.
Chemosphere ; 257: 126825, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381281

RESUMO

Neuroactive compounds are routinely detected in surface waters at concentrations that pose potential threats to wildlife. Exposure to neurotoxicants can adversely affect exposed organism by altering ecologically-important behaviors (e.g., feeding and predator response) that are likely to have important repercussions for populations. These compounds can elicit behavioral effects at concentrations lower than those that induce overt toxicity as indicated by mortality or decreased growth. Though a wide variety of methods have been employed to assess the behavior of early life stage fish, it is unclear which assays are best suited for identifying ecologically-relevant behavioral changes following exposures to neurotoxicants. The goal of the present study was to promote the use of behavioral assays for assessing the behavioral impacts of exposure to neurotoxic compounds by comparing the performance of different behavioral assays in larval fish. To achieve this goal, the sensitivity and practicality of three behavioral assays (i.e., feeding, optomotor response, and C-start assays) were compared in larval fathead minnows exposed to a known neurotoxicant, chlorpyrifos. There were significant alterations in the performance of fathead minnow larvae in all three behavioral assays in response to a 12-d embryo-larval exposure to chlorpyrifos. However, feeding and C-start were the most practical of the selected assays, as they took less time and allowed for larger samples sizes. Further work to standardize behavioral testing methods, and to link alterations to ecologically-relevant behaviors, will help promote the use of these assays when investigating the potential environmental impacts of neurotoxic compounds.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bioensaio , Substâncias Perigosas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(5): 613-624, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385600

RESUMO

Arsenic is ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. We investigated the acute toxic effects of arsenite [As(III)] exposure on rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) in vivo. The 96-h LC50 value for exposure to As(III) was 13.73 mg/L. As(III) bioaccumulation in different tissues was measured using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the extent of As(III) accumulation was, from greatest to least, liver > intestine > gills > muscle > kidney > testis > brain. Histological examination revealed that in As(III)-treated fish, numerous cellular and tissue alterations were present in the gill, liver, and intestine tissues. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy showed ultrastructural alterations in hepatocytes. We also performed transcriptome analyses to investigate As(III)-induced toxicity response in the liver of As(III)-treated fish; various oxidative-related genes were differentially expressed, and their expression levels were further validated using qPCR. This study is one of the many steps we aim to take on the way to promote the rare minnow to an international standard laboratory animal.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Testes de Toxicidade
11.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(5): 524-534, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342294

RESUMO

Recent studies on the distribution of microplastics in the Charleston Harbor, SC, USA revealed that a large part of the microplastic particles that are found in the intertidal sediments are tire wear particles. These particles originate from the wear of tire treads on roadways, and wash into the estuary during rain events. The abundance of these particles has raised questions about potential toxicity to aquatic organisms that ingest these particles. The synthetic rubber in car tires consists of a large variety of chemicals, which can vary between manufacturers, but usually contains styrene-butadiene rubber, carbon black and zinc. To investigate the potential toxicity of tire wear particles, both mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to different concentrations of crumb rubber particles (38-355 µm) in a 7-day static renewal exposure. Dissection of the fish revealed that crumb rubber was ingested and accumulated in the intestinal tract. At the highest concentration tested (6 g/L) partial mortality was observed in the fathead minnow, which came close to the assumed LC50. To investigate if polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were leaching from the particles, bile fluorescence was measured, together with potential induction of cytochrome P450-1A through the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay. Elevated levels of 2-, 4-, and 5-, ring structures representative of PAHs were detected in the bile of exposed animals. Bile fluorescence indicated that 4-ring PAH compounds were the most bioavailable from the crumb rubber particles. Induction of EROD activity was observed in exposed animals at environmentally relevant concentrations of the crumb rubber particles (<1-2 g/L), and this elevated EROD activity indicated that PAH compounds from the crumb rubber particles were being metabolized in both mummichogs and fathead minnow.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Estuários , Fundulidae/fisiologia , Microplásticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7192, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346059

RESUMO

Multiple repeated patterns of adaptive radiation were revealed in cyprinid fish inhabiting the compact geographic region of the Ethiopian Highlands. We found four independently evolved radiations in the evolutionary hexaploid (2n = 150) Labeobarbus lineage based on matrilineal relationships of >800 individuals. Each radiation displayed similar patterns of mouth phenotype diversification, and included ecomorphs/species of the generalized, lipped, scraping (one or two), and large-mouthed (one to three) types. All radiations were detected in geographically isolated rivers, and originated from different ancestral populations. This is the first documented case in which numerous parallel radiations of fishes occurred-via different ways-in a riverine environment. Some radiations are very recent and monophyletic, while others are older and include ecomorphs that originated in separate mini flocks and later combined into one. The diversification bursts among Ethiopian Labeobarbus were detected in the mid-upper reaches of rivers (1050-1550 m above sea level), which likely offer ecological opportunities that include diverse habitats yet poor fauna (i.e. lower competition and relaxed selection). This promising example of parallel evolution of adaptive radiation warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Animais , Etiópia , Rios
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178369

RESUMO

This study aimed at achieving the molecular characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1ß (PGC-1ß) and exploring its modulatory roles in mitochondria biogenesis in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). A full-length cDNA of PGC-1ß was cloned from liver which covered 3110 bp encoding 859 amino acids. The conserved motifs of PGC-1ß family proteins were gained by MEME software, and the phylogenetic analyses showed motif loss and rearrangement of PGC-1ß in fish. The function of PGC-1ß was evaluated through overexpression and knockdown of PGC-1ß in primary hepatocytes of blunt snout bream. We observed overexpression of PGC-1ß along with enhanced mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) expression and mtDNA copies in hepatocytes, and its knockdown led to slightly reduced NRF1 expression. However, knockdown of PGC-1ß did not significantly influence TFAM expression or mtDNA copies. The alterations in mitochondria biogenesis were assessed following high-fat intake, and the results showed that it induces downregulation of PGC-1ß. Furthermore, significant decreases in mitochondrial respiratory chain activities and mitochondria biogenesis were observed by high-fat intake. Our findings demonstrated that overexpression of PGC-1ß induces the enhancement of TFAM expression and mtDNA amount but not NRF-1. Therefore, it could be concluded that PGC-1ß is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in blunt snout bream but not through PGC-1ß/NRF-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Aminoácidos , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Fígado , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Biogênese de Organelas , Filogenia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126461, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213373

RESUMO

In addition to aiding in digestion of food and uptake of nutrients, microbiota in guts of vertebrates are responsible for regulating several beneficial functions, including development of an organism and maintaining homeostasis. However, little is known about effects of exposures to chemicals on structure and function of gut microbiota of fishes. To assess effects of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on gut microbiota, male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to environmentally-relevant concentrations of the legacy PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in water. Measured concentrations of BaP ranged from 2.3 × 10-3 to 1.3 µg L-1. The community of microbiota in the gut were assessed by use of 16S rRNA metagenetics. Exposure to environmentally-relevant aqueous concentrations of BaP did not alter expression levels of mRNA for cyp1a1, a "classic" biomarker of exposure to BaP, but resulted in shifts in relative compositions of gut microbiota in females rather than males. Results presented here illustrate that in addition to effects on more well-studied molecular endpoints, relative compositions of the microbiota in guts of fish can also quickly respond to exposure to chemicals, which can provide additional mechanisms for adverse effects on individuals.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/microbiologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Água
15.
Gene ; 737: 144478, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061762

RESUMO

Different types of fish taxa generally seem to present diverse phylogeographic structures and show different responses to environmental changes. In southern China, however, a large number of phylogeographic studies have been employed for small and/or benthic fish species, while phylogeographic patterns of larger and migratory species are not well understood. In this study, we chose Megalobrama terminalis, an endemic cyprinid from Southern China with a median size and relatively high migratory potential as a candidate to explore the phylogeographic structure and to seek the relevant driving forces using a multilocus approach (two mitochondrial markers and three nuclear markers). Our results show that M. terminalis exhibits three mtDNA genetic groups, each presenting genetic structure to the local geography, but the differentiation level was much weaker than that of small and/or benthic fish species reported in earlier studies. Nuclear loci did not observe pronounced genetic group subdivision, but did examine noteworthy genetic differentiation between the Hainan Island population and the mainland populations. Divergence time estimation and demographic analyses suggest that sea-level changes associated with the Late Pleistocene glacial cycles have exerted pronounced effects on the divergence of the three groups and the expansion of M. terminalis populations. Above all, our study provides important knowledge that can be used to improve monitoring programs and develop a conservation strategy for this endemic organism.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Cyprinidae/genética , Filogeografia , Animais , Mudança Climática , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Água Doce , Oceanos e Mares
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1920): 20193008, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075533

RESUMO

Whole genome duplication (WGD) is commonly believed to play key roles in vertebrate evolution. However, nowadays polyploidy exists in a few fish, amphibian and reptile groups only, and seems to be an evolutionary dead end in vertebrates. We investigate the evolutionary significance of polyploidization in Cyprinidae-a fish family that contains more polyploid species than any other vertebrate group-with integrated biogeographic, phylogenetic and genomic analyses. First, polyploid species are found to be significantly frequent in areas of higher altitude and lower mean annual temperature compared with diploid species in Cyprinidae. Second, a polyploidy-related diversification rate shift is observed in Cyprinidae. This increased net diversification rate is only seen in three polyploid lineages, and other polyploid lineages have similar net diversification rate as well as diploid lineages in Cyprinidae. Interestingly, significant 'lag times' existed between polyploidization and radiation in Cyprinidae. Multiple polyploid lineages were established approximately 15 Ma through recurrent allopolyploidization events, but the net diversification rate did not start to increase until approximately 5 Ma-long after polyploidization events. Environmental changes associated with the continuous uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and climate change have probably promoted the initial establishment and subsequent radiation of polyploidy in Cyprinidae. Finally, the unique retention of duplicated genes in polyploid cyprinids adapted to harsh environments is found. Taken together, our results suggest that polyploidy in Cyprinidae is far more than an evolutionary dead end, but rather shows substantially adaptive potential. Polyploid cyprinids thus constitute an ideal model system for unveiling largely unexplored consequences of WGD in vertebrates, from genomic evolution to species diversification.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Filogeografia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Filogenia , Poliploidia
17.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126073, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088464

RESUMO

Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is a byproduct of bitumen extraction in the surface-mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. Organic compounds in OSPW can be acutely or chronically toxic to aquatic organisms, so part of a long-term strategy for remediation of OSPW is ageing of water in artificial lakes, termed end-pit lakes. BaseMine Lake (BML) is the first oil sands end-pit lake, commissioned in 2012. At the time of its establishment, an effects-directed analysis of BML-OSPW showed that naphthenic acids and polar organic chemical species containing sulfur or nitrogen contributed to its acute lethality. However, the chronic toxicity of these same chemical fractions has not yet been investigated. In this work, the short-term fathead minnow reproductive bioassay was used to assess endocrine-system effects of two fractions of BML-OSPW collected in 2015. One of the fractions (F1) contained predominantly naphthenic acids, while the other (F2) contained non-acidic polar organic chemical species. Exposure of minnows to F1 or F2 at concentrations equivalent to 25% (v/v) of the 2015 BML-OSPW sample (5-15% of the 2012 BML-OSPW sample) did not alter reproductive performance, fertilization success, or concentrations of sex steroids in female or male minnows. Additionally, there were no significant differences in fertility, hatching success, or incidence of morphological indices of embryos collected on day 7 or 14 from exposed breeding trios. However, exposure of male fathead minnow to 25% (v/v) intact 2015 BML-OSPW resulted in a significantly greater hepatosomatic index. Exposure of fathead minnow to refined fractions of dissolved organic chemicals in 2015 BML-OSPW, or a 25% (v/v) of the intact mixture did not affect fertility or fecundity as measured by use of the 21-day reproductive bioassay. These data will be useful in setting future threshold criteria for OSPW reclamation and treatment.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Lagos/química , Campos de Petróleo e Gás/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alberta , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos , Masculino , Mineração , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 22(2): 180-193, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006128

RESUMO

In fish breeding practices, gamete maturity of females is vital to reproductive success. For some species, it is possible to estimate the female maturation status based on abdomen observation, but quite difficult for some species which mature at big size. To screen out the potential biomarker in fish blood relating to female maturation, we employed the approach integrating the UPLC-MS/MS and RNA-seq techniques to investigate the metabolites and genes reflecting the sexual maturation and spawning of female blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. The study included four groups, 1-year-old immature female individuals, 2-year-old immature female individuals, 2-year-old sexually mature female individuals, and 2-year-old sexually mature female individuals after 24 h of successful spawning. The upregulated metabolites in mature females were involved in "steroid hormone biosynthesis," "metabolic pathways," "glycerophospholipid metabolism," etc. compared with those of immature individuals. As the key intermediate of steroid hormone biosynthesis, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone exhibited the highest level in 2-year-old mature females than in the immature females. Meanwhile, the metabolites (i.e., dodecanoic acid and myristic acid) participating in fatty acid synthesis exhibited much lower levels in the females after spawning than those before spawning. In addition to the metabolites, the genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis were significantly upregulated in the 2-year-old immature females compared to the 1-year-old immature females, indicating that the ovarian steroidogenesis plays important roles in ovarian development of M. amblycephala at the early stages. The significant upregulation of genes (i.e., itpr1, camk2, and mekk2) involved in the "GnRH signaling pathway" was observed in the mature females compared with the immature females, which indicated that the estrogen levels increased after female maturation in M. amblycephala. Moreover, many genes (e.g., gck, creb1, tf2-9, ryr2, asgr1, and creb1) regulating insulin secretion and thyroid hormone synthesis were significantly downregulated after female spawning. The dynamics of gene expression and metabolites observed in this study provide novel cues for guiding fish practical artificial reproduction.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Cyprinidae/sangue , Cyprinidae/genética , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/biossíntese , Metaboloma , Ovário/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcriptoma
19.
Food Chem ; 317: 126420, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101783

RESUMO

Although huangjiu is a popular alcoholic beverage in China, the occurrence of quick-intoxication suppresses huangjiu consumption and impedes development of the huangjiu industry. In this study, the Cryprinus carpio intoxication model was used to compare the differences in intoxication effect of alcoholic beverages and to assess the impacts of huangjiu components on intoxication for the first time. Exposure to huangjiu led to the most rapid physical imbalance of C. carpio, followed by red wine and Western liquor. Higher alcohols, biogenic amines and aldehydes could cause physical imbalance of fish by themselves, and synergistic effects were observed when combined with ethanol. 2-Phenylethanoland and isopentanol had the greatest positive effect on huangjiu intoxication, followed by histamine and phenethylamine. No synergistic effect was observed between individual aldehydes and ethanol. Identification of these impactful huangjiu components provides a new perspective on the establishment of more rigorous control on the quality and flavor of huangjiu.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vinho/toxicidade , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aldeídos/toxicidade , Animais , Aminas Biogênicas/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Pentanóis/toxicidade , Fenetilaminas/toxicidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125914, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972493

RESUMO

In the present study, embryos of four food fishes viz. Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala were given acute (96 h) exposure to their respective LC0, LC10 and LC30 (causing 0, 10 and 30% mortality, respectively) concentrations of triclosan [TCS, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol], a broad spectrum biocide. Bioaccumulation, contents of protein, non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH and GSSG), MDA (lipid peroxidation product) and organic acids (fumarate, succinate, malate and citrate) along with the activities of AChE (neurological enzyme), GST (detoxification enzyme) and three metabolic enzymes (LDH, AST and ALT) were estimated after 48 and 96 h exposure and 10 days post exposure. Around 1/10 of the TCS in water got accumulated in the hatchlings after 96 h, increase over 48 h values was maximum at LC0 (+195.30, +143.23 and + 140.75%) but minimum at LC30 (+89.62, +84.26 and + 126.72%) for C. idella, L. rohita and C. mrigala, respectively. In C. carpio, TCS got accumulated only at LC30 after 48 h but at all the concentrations after 96 h exposure. Contents of protein, GSH, GSSG and activity of AChE decreased but activities of GSH, LDH, AST and ALT and contents of MDA and organic acids increased concentration dependently in all the fishes. TCS declined by 85-90% but its toxic effects on biomolecules prolonged till the end of the recovery period. Such acute exposures are accidental but there is a need to evaluate biomarkers for prolongation of the stress of small concentrations especially LC0 and LC10 (causing negligible mortality) of lipophilic pollutants like TCS.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/fisiologia , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
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