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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518684

RESUMO

Generally, fish are thought to have a limited ability to utilize carbohydrate. Postprandial blood glucose is cleared sluggishly in fish, resulting in prolonged hyperglycemia. Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) play an important role in glucose utilization. In the present study, the expression levels of glut2 in different tissues were detected in grass carp. Furthermore, the effects of oral glucose administration on glut2 mRNA expression in the liver, intestine and kidney were investigated, and we also evaluated the response of glut2 mRNA to insulin and glucagon in the primary hepatocytes of grass carp. The expression level of glut2 mRNA was highest in the liver, followed by the intestine and kidney, but lower in other tissues. The result of glucose tolerance test (GTT) showed that serum glucose reached the highest level at 3 h after GTT and recovered to the basic level at 6 h. The glut2 mRNA in the intestine was up-regulated at 1 h after GTT. However, the glut2 mRNA expression in the liver of grass carp was unchanged after GTT for 1, 3, 6 h, and even decreased at 12 h after GTT. In addition, the expression of glut2 mRNA in the primary hepatocytes was enhanced by insulin and glucagon at 3 h post treatment. These results suggested that glut2 expression in the liver of grass carp was sensitive to insulin and glucagon, but not blood glucose. The up-regulation of glut2 by these hormones might be involved in the bi-directional transportation of glucose in the liver.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/biossíntese , Glucose/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526840

RESUMO

The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates the responses of various immune cytokines. In this study, we identified socs3s genes of blunt snout bream. 209- and 216-aa long peptides are encoded by socs3a and socs3b genes, respectively. The socs3s mRNAs are expressed consistently during the entire process of embryonic development. Whole-mount in situ hybridization detected socs3a in the eyes and posterior somites at 12 h post fertilization (hpf), transcribed at the otic vesicle at 24 hpf, and transcribed at the eyes, brain, and otic vesicle at 36 hpf; while the socs3b mRNA was transcribed at the notochord at 12 hpf, expressed in the brain, eyes, and tailbud at 24 hpf, and detected in the brain at 36 hpf. The expression of socs3a is slightly different from that of socs3b in tissues of juvenile and adult blunt snout bream. After recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) treatment, the transcript levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were increased in gills, spleen, kidney, and gonads. After Aerononas hydrophila infection, the mRNA levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were significantly increased in the liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney tissues. Blunt snout bream were susceptible to various pathogenic microorganisms, we intraperitoneally injected blunt snout bream with A. hydrophila to explore the immune mechanism of socs3s. These results suggested that socs3s of blunt snout bream plays important roles in the regulation of embryonic development and tissue growth, and that socs3s may also play key roles in regulating the bacterial-induced congenital immune response. Socs3s genes has the potential to be used as targeted genes to improve the immunity against bacteria, which is conducive to the improvement of production and breeding.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/biossíntese , Animais , Especificidade de Órgãos
3.
Food Chem ; 308: 125576, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648092

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of cold storage at different temperatures (4, -0.5, -3, and -20 °C) on protein degradation and its relationship to structural changes of black carp muscle. At -0.5 and 4 °C, major structural changes occurred, including the formation of gaps between myofibers and myofibrils, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Gel-based proteomic analysis showed that these structural changes were accompanied by degradation of a series of myofibrillar proteins, including titin, nebulin, troponin, myosin, myomesin, myosin-binding protein, and α-actinin. Loss of extractable gelatinolytic and caseinolytic protease activities was also observed. At -3 and -20 °C, formation of ice crystals was the most noticeable change. The major proteins were degraded at different locations in the black carp muscle, and gelatinolytic and caseinolytic proteases appear to contribute to the degradation of those proteins.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Temperatura Baixa , Conectina/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Miosinas/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteômica
4.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124935, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563720

RESUMO

Increasing studies have established the toxic effects of BPA on development and reproduction in animals. In present study, we investigated epigenetic effects on the transcription of several ovarian steroidogenic genes in rare minnows Gobiocypris rarus after BPA exposure at 15 µgL-1 for 21, 42 and 63 d. Results showed that short term BPA exposure (21 d) caused significant increase of both estradiol and testerone levels whereas long term exposure (63 d) led to significant decrease of them. The oocytes development was hindered after BPA exposure. BPA treatments for 21 and 42 d resulted in significant increase of genome DNA methylation in ovary while 63-d exposure caused marked decrease. The histone trimethylation levels (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) in the ovary were also disturbed by BPA. H3K9me3 was significantly decreased after 21 d whereas it was markedly increased after 42 and 63 d. The 42-d exposure caused significant decrease for H3K4me3. Meanwhile, 42- and 63-d BPA exposure led to significant decrease of H3K27me3. DNA methylation could involve in gene expression regulation of cyp17a1 and cyp19a1a after BPA exposure. After short (21 d) and long term (63 d) BPA exposure, the respective mRNA expression down-regulation and up-regulation of star, cyp11a1, and cyp17a1 were mediated by H3K9me3. This study suggests that epigenetic modulation including DNA and histone methylation could be responsible for the detrimental effects on ovary development upon BPA exposure in G. rarus. It is speculated that BPA exposures for short or long term duration could disturb the steroidogenesis in entirely different mechanisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Testosterona/metabolismo
5.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(5): 851-864, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The growth promoting effect of lysine and betaine as well as the expression of candidate genes reflecting their efficacy, such as ghrelin, leptin, Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R), Insulin like Growth Factor (IGF- 1) and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) was examined in Labeo rohita fingerlings. METHODS: One hundred eighty healthy juveniles from a homologous population were randomly distributed to 15 rectangular tanks of 150 litres capacity. The experiment was carried out for 60 days with five treatment groups consisting T1 (0.25% Betaine), T2 (0.5% Betaine), T3 (0.75% Lysine) and T4 (1.5% Lysine) and control group. The experiment was carried out for 60 days with five treatment groups consisting T1 (0.25% Betaine), T2 (0.5% Betaine), T3 (0.75% Lysine) and T4 (1.5% Lysine) and control group. At the end of trial, the growth parameters such as weight gain, SGR, PER were estimated from the weight of the triplicate groups. The digestive, metabolic and antioxidant enzymes were analysed using spectrophotometric methods. The intestine, brain and liver were sampled from the treatments and expression of different genes ghrelin, leptin, GHSR, IGF-1 and GHRH was also performed by realtime PCR. RESULTS: A significant (P<0.05) increase in weight gain, SGR, PER and lowest FCR was found in T4 group which was significantly (p < 0.05) different from other experimental groups. The highest mRNA expression levels of expression were found in T4 group which was similar to that of ghrelin gene mRNA of T2 group. The significantly (p<0.05) highest GHSR, GHRH and IGF-1 gene expression levels were found in T4 treatment group compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals that the lysine and betaine stimulate growth and expression of ghrelin GHRH, GHS-R and IGF-1 genes. The increase of IGF-I mRNA expression with lysine and betaine supplementation revealed that these compounds act as growth modulators. However, lysine was found to be a more potent modulator of growth compared to betaine.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisina/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grelina/genética , Grelina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109666, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542645

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a type of persistent organic pollutants that are widely distributed in multiple environmental media and organisms and have a teratogenic effect on and toxicity to animals and humans. The residual levels of seventeen PFAAs in the tissues of two regular consumption fish species, Culter erythropterus and Aristichthys nobilis in Lake Chaohu were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatograph - mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS). The distributions of PFAAs and the effect of the lipid contents were analyzed, and the health risks of typical PFAAs were evaluated. The results showed that perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was the predominant contaminant (80.50 ±â€¯58.31 ng/g and 19.17 ±â€¯12.57 ng/g wet weight, ww), followed by perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (55.02 ±â€¯34.82 and 14.79 ±â€¯6.24 ng/g, ww) in both fish. The level of total PFAAs was the highest in the liver tissues of Culter erythropterus (359.87 ng/g, ww) and the lowest in the kidney tissues in A. nobilis (10.06 ng/g, ww). Due to the higher trophic level of C. erythropteru, the total PFAA concentrations were significantly higher in all tissues than those in A. nobilis. Liver muscle ratio of C. erythropteru was the highest, indicating the most accumulation in the liver. The concentrations of PFAAs in fish tissues were influenced by the lipid content, resulting in a difference between the lipid-normalized concentrations and the wet weight concentrations of the PFAAs. The non-carcinogenic risks of PFOS were higher than those of PFOA through the ingestion of C. erythropterus and A. nobilis. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of C. erythropterus were greater than those of A. nobilis, and fish tissue intake could cause an increasing of risks up to 60%, indicating that long-term and large amount ingestion of carnivorous fish and related tissues with higher trophic level, such as C. erythropterus should be avoided.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caproatos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Lagos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/farmacocinética , Animais , Caproatos/farmacocinética , China , Fluorcarbonetos/farmacocinética , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109683, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550567

RESUMO

Thiamethoxam has emerged as an environmental contaminant detected in aqueous environments, and its endocrine-disrupting effect at chronic exposure in teleosts remains unknown. In the present study, a docking experiment and an in vivo test were integrated to systematically explore the toxic mechanisms of thiamethoxam in fish. Histological analysis, plasma VTG and hormone level (E2, 11-KT, T3 and T4) determinations, and HPG and HPT gene expression quantification were performed after Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was exposed to thiamethoxam (0, 0.5, 5, and 50 µg/L) for 90 days. According to the docking study, thiamethoxam had different interactions with ERα, AR and TRα via hydrogen bonding. A decrease in body length and plasma T4 was observed in both genders. The histological damage in liver and delayed gonadal development were observed in both genders at 50 µg/L thiamethoxam treatment. In males, the following HPG axis genes were upregulated: gnrh and cyp19b in the brain; vtg and cyp19a in the liver; and cyp17 and cyp19a in the gonad. In females, erɑ in the liver was significantly upregulated with 0.5 µg/L thiamethoxam treatment, and cyp17 in the gonad was upregulated with all treatment. The suppression of cyp19a, gnrh, cyp11a, and ttr was observed at the concentration of 5 µg/L in the female liver. Taken together, the endocrine system of Chinese rare minnow might be disrupted after chronic exposure to thiamethoxam.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/metabolismo , Tiametoxam/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/genética , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Feminino , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 986-996, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422176

RESUMO

Evolutionary development has increased the diversity of genotypes and the complexity of gene functions in fish. TLR22 has been identified as a teleost-specific gene, but its functions are tremendously different among different fish species. Whether the functional diversity relates to the difference of genotypes remains poorly understand. In this study, we cloned and identified three TLR22 molecules from Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti), named as spTLR22-1, spTLR22-2 and spTLR22-3. The full-length coding regions of spTLR22s are 2841 bp, 2805 bp and 2868 bp and coding 946 aa, 934 aa and 955 aa, respectively. All spTLR22s are composed of multiple leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane structure and a Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that three spTLR22s were close to Cyprinus carpio TLR22-1, TLR22-2 and TLR22-3, respectively. Among the spTLR22s, they presented not close relationship but remained to belong to TLR22 subfamily. All spTLR22s were ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, but the expression levels of spTLR22s were dominant in immune-related tissues, such as gill and spleen. The expression levels of spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 were significantly increased after treatment with bacteria, LPS and Poly(I:C). However, spTLR22-2 seems like no response to these treatments. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that all spTLR22s could activate NF-κB signaling pathway, but only spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-2 could activate IFN-ß signaling pathway. Interestingly, in the ligand recognition analysis, spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 but not spTLR22-2 had the recognized potential to Poly(I:C), and all spTLR22s could not recognize LPS. Both spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 significantly up-regulated the expression of anti-viral-related genes (Mx, IFN and ISG15) and down-regulated the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 after the overexpression in carp EPC cell line, but spTLR22-2 failed to impact the expression of these genes. Moreover, we found that all spTLR22s localized to the intracellular region. Taken together, our results reveal that spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 but not spTLR22-2 may be involved into the anti-viral immune response via IFN-ß signaling pathway, and all spTLR22s can activate NF-κB signaling pathway but only spTLR22-1 and spTLR22-3 response to the stimulation of bacteria and LPS.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Linhagem Celular , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Luciferases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/veterinária , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109478, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374383

RESUMO

An increasing concern for Gemini surfactants (GS) based on the class alkanediyl-α-ω-bis (dimethylalkylammonium bromide) has been reported in ecotoxicological researchbecause of their estrogenic properties causing an alarm to aquatic life. In this study, we analyzed the toxic effects of the synthesized GS (12-2-12 and 16-2-16) leading to histological changes in fingerlings (kidney, gills, intestine, and liver) of Cirrhinusmrigala. Damage in the tissues in correlation with their normal architecture was observed microscopically and was manifold. The tissue-specific morphological alterations associated with somatic index (MAV- mean alteration value) were used as biomarker. The present study also highlighted the changes in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). In order to estimate the sub-lethal toxic properties of GS, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of GS were evaluated using blood smear assay and HeLa cell line respectively. Results of the study exhibited potential biotoxicity where GS with the highest hydrophobicity showed upper most toxicity level under different exposure time, while GS with less hydrophobic features exhibited least stressful regimeto the tested animal. The prepared GS were also examined for their biodegradability following the die-away method. The theoretical approach estimates the structural information by computational simulation.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Estresse Oxidativo , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Cyprinidae/anatomia & histologia , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/patologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324054

RESUMO

Two endemic fish in the upper Yangtze River, the Rock Carp (Procypris rabaudi) and Prenant's Schizothoracin (Schizothorax prenanti), were used as research objects in this study to assess the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on fish of varying sizes. Fish were exposed to TDG-supersaturated water at the levels of 145, 140, 135, 130, and 125%. The results showed that fish swam slowly, responded clumsily, and then exhibited spiral swimming performance after a period of exposure to TDG-supersaturated water. Fish exhibited exophthalmos, body swelling, gill bleeding, and caudal fin bleeding when they died in the TDG-supersaturated water. With the increase in TDG supersaturation, the tolerance capacity of fish to supersaturated TDG significantly reduced. At high supersaturation, the difference in survival time between species was not significant, while fish with smaller sizes showed greater tolerance capacity. At low supersaturation, the tolerance capacity of fish was mainly affected by species, and the influence of size was relatively small. With the decrease in TDG supersaturation, the catalase (CAT) activity first increased and then decreased. Rock Carp displayed significantly less activity than Prenant's Schizothoracin on exposure to TDG-supersaturated water. At high supersaturation levels, the CAT activity of Prenant's Schizothoracin of small size was greater than that of large Prenant's Schizothoracin. In contrast, small Prenant's Schizothoracin showed less CAT activity at low TDG levels than did large individuals.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gases/efeitos adversos , Gases/metabolismo , Rios/química , Natação/fisiologia , Animais , China
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 637-648, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271836

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of restricted feeding on the growth performance, oxidative stress and inflammation of Megalobrama amblycephala fed high-carbohydrate (HC) diets. Fish (46.94 ±â€¯0.04 g) were randomly assigned to four groups containing the satiation of a control diet (30% carbohydrate) and three satiate levels (100% (HC1), 80% (HC2) and 60% (HC3)) of the HC diets (43% carbohydrate) for 8 weeks. Results showed that HC1 diet remarkably decreased final weight (FW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), hepatic activities of total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), the AMP/ATP ratio, the p-AMPKα/t-AMPKα ratio, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) protein expression and hepatic transcriptions of AMPKα2, SIRT1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), catalase (CAT), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) and interleukin10 (IL 10) compared to the control group, whereas the opposite was true for protein efficiency ratio (PER), nitrogen retention efficiency (NRE), energy retention efficiency (ERE), plasma glucose levels, alanine transaminase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) activities, hepatic contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 1ß (IL 1ß), ATP and AMP contents and hepatic transcriptions of kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1), IkB kinase α (IKK α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TNF α, IL 1ß, interleukin 6 (IL 6) and transforming growth factor ß (TGF ß). As for the HC groups, fish fed the HC2 diet obtained relatively high values of SGR, PER, NRE, ERE, hepatic activities of T-AOC, SOD and CAT, the AMP/ATP ratio, the p-AMPKα/t-AMPKα ratio, SIRT1 protein expression and hepatic transcriptions of AMPKα2, Nrf2, CAT, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), Mn-SOD, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and interleukin10 (IL 10), while the opposite was true for hepatic content of IL 6 and transcription of IKK α. Overall, an 80% satiation improved the growth performance and alleviated the oxidative stress and inflammation of blunt snout bream fed HC diets via the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1 pathway and the up-regulation of the activities and transcriptions of Nrf2-modulated antioxidant enzymes coupled with the depression of the levels and transcriptions of the NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/veterinária , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 726-731, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265912

RESUMO

Application of traditional bait in aquaculture caused environment pollution and disease frequent occurrence. Residual coconut could be re-utilized to culture Spinibarbus sinensis as dietary supplement. Therefore, a novel integrated system of the improvement of yield, antioxidant and nonspecific immunity of Spinibarbus sinensis by dietary residual coconut was proposed and investigated. Spinibarbus sinensis could grow well in all supplement residual coconut groups. Survival rate, yield, whole fish body composition under 15-45% groups were increased compared with control group (CK). Bioactive substances (polyphenols and vitamin) in residual coconut enhanced AKP, ACP, phagocytic, SOD, CAT activities through up-regulating AKP, ACP, SOD, CAT genes expression levels. Theoretical analysis showed bioactive substances regulated these genes expressions and enzyme activities as stimulus signal, component, active center. Moreover, residual coconut improved mTOR and NF-kB signaling pathway. Furthermore, residual coconut inhibited Aeromonas hydrophila that increased resistance to diseases. This technology completed the solid waste recovery and the Spinibarbus sinensis culture simultaneously.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Óleo de Coco/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estudos de Viabilidade
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23442-23452, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197674

RESUMO

The current study demonstrates oxidative damage and associated neurotoxicity following pH stress in two freshwater carp Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus cirrhosus. Carp (n = 6, 3 replicates) were exposed to four different pH (5.5, 6, 7.5, and 8) against control (pH 6.8 ± 0.05) for 7 days. After completion of treatment, levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione reductase [GRd]) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (malondialdehyde [MDA], glutathione [GSH]), brain neurological parameters (Na+-K+ATPase, acetylcholinesterase [AcHE], monoamine oxidase [MAO], and nitric oxide [NO]), xanthine oxidase (XO), heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP90), and transcription factor NFkB were measured in carp brain. Variation in the pH caused a significant alteration in the glutathione system (glutathione and glutathione reductase), SOD-CAT system, and stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA). Xanthine oxidase was also induced significantly after pH exposure. Brain neurological parameters (MAO, NO, AChE, and Na+-K+ATPase) were significantly reduced at each pH-treated carp group though inhibition was highest at lower acidic pH (5.5). Cirrhinus cirrhosus was more affected than that of Labeo rohita. Molecular chaperon HSP70 expression was induced in all pH-treated groups though such induction was more in acid-stressed fish. HSP90 was found to increase only in acid-stressed carp brain. Expression of NFkB was elevated significantly at each treatment group except for pH 7.5. Finally, both acidic and alkaline pH in the aquatic system was found to disturb oxidative balance in carp brain which ultimately affects the neurological activity in carp. However, acidic environment in the aquatic system was more detrimental than the alkaline system regarding oxidative damage and subsequent neurotoxicity in carp brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Peixes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Água Doce , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Alimentos Marinhos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(4): 1355-1366, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177354

RESUMO

Cholinesterases are multifunctional enzymes and have been associated with diverse physiological functions in addition to their classical role at synapses. In the present study, cholinesterase (ChE) isozymes have been characterised in mucous secretions and their activity has been localised in the epidermis of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. Zymography using specific substrates and inhibitors revealed the presence of two ChE isozymes-ChE-1 and ChE-2. The isozyme ChE-1 was characterised as an atypical butyrylcholinesterase and ChE-2 as a typical acetylcholinesterase in skin mucous secretions of both the fish species. Enzyme histochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of ChE activity in the epidermis of the fish species investigated. In both the fish species, strong ChE activity was observed in the outer-layer epithelial cells, taste buds and neuromasts. The middle and basal layer epithelial cells showed moderate to weak ChE activity. Club cells and mucous goblet cells showed the absence of ChE activity. Characterisation with specific inhibitors indicates that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was the major cholinesterase type expressed in the epidermis of the two fish species investigated. Immunohistochemical localisation of apoptotic and cell proliferation markers, in addition, revealed high expression of active caspase 3 in the outer-layer epithelial cells, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the middle and basal layer epithelial cells. High ChE activity in caspase 3-positive cells in the outer layer of the epidermis and low in PCNA-positive cells in middle and basal layers could point towards the possible involvement of ChEs in cell death and their final extrusion from skin surface.


Assuntos
Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Epiderme/enzimologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Animais , Cyprinidae/anatomia & histologia , Epiderme/anatomia & histologia , Isoenzimas/metabolismo
15.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(4): 1463-1484, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222661

RESUMO

This study is aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of triclosan (TCS) in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita. The 96-h LC50 value of triclosan to L. rohita was found to be 0.39 mg L-1. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (0.039 mg L-1, treatment I and 0.078 mg L-1, treatment II) of TCS for 35 days, and certain hematobiochemical, antioxidant, histopathological responses were measured. Compared to the control group, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the values and genotoxicity of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and erythrocyte (RBC) in TCS-exposed fish, but the values of leucocyte count (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were found to be increased. A biphasic response in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) value was observed during the study period (35 days). Significant (p < 0.05) alterations in plasma biochemical parameters (glucose and protein), electrolytes (Na+, K+, and Cl-), and transaminases (GOT and GPT) were observed in fish treated with TCS in both treatments. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity was found to be decreased in fish treated with TCS in both treatments. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant index levels have also fluctuated in all the tissues (gill, liver, and kidney). The histological lesions were comparatively more severe in the gill than the liver and kidney. Comet assay showed DNA damage on exposure at two sublethal concentrations. The present results suggest that TCS is highly toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Testes Hematológicos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 261-266, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227854

RESUMO

Accumulation of 17 elements in muscle and liver of common nase and vimba bream, caught between February and May 2016 in the Danube River (1173 river kilometer), were assessed by ICP-OES. The principal component analysis grouped muscle and liver samples based on element concentrations (muscle grouped by higher Ba and Sr values, and liver grouped by higher Al, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn values), but no grouping between the two species was observed. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, and Zn were significantly higher in muscle, and concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, and Mn in liver of common nase, while vimba bream had significantly higher concentrations of Cr and Fe in liver. Common nase has a higher affinity for bioaccumulation of Cu, Fe, and Zn in muscle, while vimba bream has a higher affinity for Al, Cd, and Cr in muscle.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fígado/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Músculos/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sérvia
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(2): 302-307, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123762

RESUMO

The speciation of metals in surface sediments, as well as metal concentrations in muscle and liver of sharpbelly Hemiculter leucisculus from a stream near the Mo-Ni polymetallic mines in Maoshi town were investigated. The results indicated that metal concentrations were generally highest in the most upstream sampling location that is closest to the former mine operation. The total concentrations of Mn in sediments were higher than other metals. The Cr was mainly associated with residual fraction, while the order of bioavailability of metals (sum of the concentrations of exchangeable, reducible, and oxidizable fractions) was as follows: Cd (89.95%) > Mn (82.32%) > Ni (45.58%) > Mo (29.39%) > Hg (29.23%) > As (22.60%) > Pb (17.38%) > Cr (6.21%). The Cd concentration in muscle of H. leucisculus exceeded the permissible limit which indicated that the fish from this area are not safe for human consumption. The potential ecological risks of Cd cannot be ignored in this study area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , China , Cidades , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Humanos , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/normas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
18.
Tissue Cell ; 58: 70-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133248

RESUMO

Aromatase plays a central role in ovarian differentiation and development in teleosts. In the present study, we identified a cyp19a1a homologue from the ovary of Schizothorax prenanti and analysed its expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Cyp19a1a of S. prenanti showed high homology with that of other teleosts, especially S. kozlovi. The ovary and testis were the main sites of cyp19a1a expression in S. prenanti, and cyp19a1a transcript levels peaked in the mid-vitellogenic (MVG)-stage ovary and the mid-spermatogenic (MS)-stage testis. Signals of Cyp19a1a immunopositivity were detected in the spermatocytes and follicular cells of cortical alveolar-stage and MVG oocytes but not in spermatogonia or spermatids. Taken together, these findings indicate that Cyp19a1a may play an important role in oocyte vitellogenesis as well as spermatocyte development in S. prenanti.


Assuntos
Aromatase/biossíntese , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Ovário/enzimologia , Testículo/enzimologia , Animais , Aromatase/genética , Cyprinidae/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes , Masculino , Oócitos/enzimologia , Espermatócitos/enzimologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129293

RESUMO

Adaptive mechanisms underlying the long-term existence of intestinal parasites in their enzymatically hostile environment are still poorly understood, particularly with regard to fish cestodes. The study describes the activity distribution of proteolytic enzymes along the gut of the bream Abramis brama infected with intestinal cestodes Caryophyllaeus laticeps and characterizes the capacity of these worms to inhibit host proteinase activity. Mucosal proteolytic activity was mainly presented by serine proteinases. The research revealed an insignificant increase in total proteolytic activity from anterior and middle to posterior part of the gut accompanied with changes in proportions of various proteinase subclasses along the intestine. The trypsin (but not chymotrypsin) activity in the posterior section was significantly higher than in the mid-section. Both the incubation medium of the worms and their extract had a significant inhibitory effect on mucosal proteolytic activity and commercial trypsin samples. In both instances, the effect was comparable with that of a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, PMSF. SDS-PAGE electrophoregrams of the incubation medium of C. laticeps and its extract revealed three common protein bands, with apparent molecular masses from 19 to 47 kDa, possibly responsible for the worms' inhibitory capacities. According to casein-zymography performed, the target host proteinases for a putative cestode inhibitor (inhibitors) have an approximate molecular weight of 28-53 kDa. A comparative test with the extracts from three other cestodes showed that each of them can suppress the proteolytic activity of the bream mucosa. The level of inhibitory activity was found to increase with protein content in the extracts of these tapeworms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/enzimologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Cestoides/metabolismo , Cestoides/patogenicidade , Infecções por Cestoides/enzimologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Proteínas de Peixes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Mucosa Intestinal/enzimologia , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Peso Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1158-1167, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096329

RESUMO

The levels of Cr, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined in muscle and liver samples from 30 specimens of fish belonging to the species Labeobarbus aeneus, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis, and Labeo umbratus from the Vaal Dam. Health risks for human fish consumers were estimated using the target hazard quotient (THQ), the Se:Hg-ratio, and Se health benefit value (Se HBV). This is the first comprehensive report on Hg levels in fish from this lake. Mean concentrations ranging from 0.247-0.481 mg/kg dw in muscle and from 0.170-0.363 mg/kg dw in liver clearly show a contamination with this element. Although levels in muscle did not exceed maximum allowances for human consumption, a calculated THQ of 0.12 and 0.14 for the two Labeobarbus species, respectively, showed a potential risk due to additive effects. All Se:Hg-ratios as well as Se HBVs clearly suggested positive effects for fish consumers. Levels of Cu were remarkably high in the liver of L. umbratus, calling for further investigation on this species. Cadmium levels were above the maximum allowances for fish consumption in the liver of all three species (means between 0.190 and 0.460 mg/kg dw), but below the LOD in all muscle and intestine samples. This is also the first report of Ag in fish from South Africa. Levels were below the LOD in muscle, but well detectable in liver; they varied significantly between the two Labeobarbus species (0.054 ±â€¯0.030 and 0.037 ±â€¯0.016 mg/kg dw) compared to L. umbratus (1.92 ±â€¯0.83 mg/kg dw) and showed a positive correlation with Cu levels (63.7 ±â€¯17.0; 70.3 ±â€¯9.0 and 1300 ±â€¯823 mg/kg dw), possibly due to similar chemical affinities to metallothioneins. The detected Ag levels can serve as a basis to monitor the development of this new pollutant in aquatic environments in South Africa and worldwide.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , África do Sul
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