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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105616, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039795

RESUMO

Understanding internal dose metrics is integral to adequately assess effects environmental contaminants might have on aquatic wildlife, including fish. In silico toxicokinetic (TK) models are a leading approach for quantifying internal exposure metrics for fishes; however, they often do not adequately consider chemicals that are actively biotransformed and have not been validated against early-life stages (ELS) that are often considered the most sensitive to the exposure to contaminants. To address these uncertainties, TK models were parameterized for the rapidly biotransformed chemical benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in embryo-larval and adult life stages of fathead minnows. Biotransformation of B[a]P was determined through measurements of in vitro clearance. Using in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, in vitro clearance was integrated into a multi-compartment TK model for adult fish and a one-compartment model for ELS. Model predictions were validated using measurements of B[a]P metabolites from in vivo flow-through exposures to graded concentrations of water-borne B[a]P. Significantly greater amounts of B[a]P metabolites were observed with exposure to greater concentrations of parent compound in both life stages. However, when assessing biotransformation capacity, no differences in phase I or phase II biotransformation were observed with greater exposures to B[a]P. Results of modelling suggested that biotransformation of B[a]P can be successfully implemented into in silico models to accurately predict life stage-specific abundances of B[a]P metabolites in either whole-body larvae or the bile of adult fish. Models developed increase the scope of applications in which TK models can be used to support environmental risk assessments.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Simulação por Computador , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Desentoxicação Metabólica Fase I , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II , Toxicocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111161, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853865

RESUMO

The present study was implemented to evaluate oxidative stress, immune response, Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling molecules related genes expression of Rhynchocypris lagowski living in biofloc technology (BFT) system and exposed to waterborne ammonia. According to the differences of C:N ratios, the experiment was divided into four groups: C:N 10.8:1 (control group), C:N 15:1, C:N 20: 1 and C:N 25:1. The results demonstrated that BFT can effectively regulate water quality and promote growth, and the C:N 20:1 group has the most significant effect (P < 0.05). Besides, significant increases in immune enzymes (lysozyme, complement C3, C4, immunoglobulin M and nitric oxide synthase) and anti-inflammatory factor (IL-2) activity of R. lagowski were emerged in the treatment C:N 20:1 after the 56-d growth experiment and the challenging trial (P < 0.05). Comparing the antioxidant status of R. lagowski in liver and gut before and after ammonia stress: superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity in treatments C:N 20:1 were significant increased (P < 0.05), while the level of malondialdehyde was marked lower than that in control. Meanwhile, treatment C:N 20:1 considerably upregulated Nrf2 signaling molecules related genes and significantly down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory factor gene in NF-κB signaling pathway compared with the control (P < 0.05). These results indicated that BFT could enhance growth, antioxidant and immune response and regulate Nrf2 and NF-κB related genes expression in R. lagowski, with most excellent effects in fish given C:N 20:1 group.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Aquicultura , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110944, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800225

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a weak estrogenic endocrine disruptor and a well-known plasticizer, has the potential to perturb diverse physiological functions; however, its impact on immune and metabolic function in aquatic vertebrates is relatively less understood. The present study aims to investigate the impact of BPA on hepatotoxicity, metabolic and immune parameters vis-à-vis estrogen receptor expression modulation in a freshwater teleost, Labeo bata (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes). The 96-h median lethal concentration of BPA in L. bata has been determined as 4.79 mg/L. Our data demonstrate that congruent with induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG), chronic exposure to sub-lethal BPA (2 and 4 µM/L) attenuates erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but not leukocyte number. Further, a significant increase in MDA, concomitant with diminished catalase and heightened GST activity corroborates well with hepatic dystrophic changes, appearance of fatty liver (macrovesicular steatosis) and elevated serum lipids (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL) in BPA-treated groups. Interestingly, a differential regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes at transcript and protein level signifies negative influence of BPA on hepatic ERα/ERß homeostasis in this species. While at a lower dose it promotes Akt phosphorylation (activation), BPA at the higher dose attenuates ERK1/2 phosphorylation (activation), suggesting potential alteration in insulin sensitivity. Importantly, dose-dependent decrease in hepatic TNF-α, IL-1ß, iNOS (NOS2) expression and nitric oxide (NO) level corresponds well with progressive decline in p-NF-κB, p-p38 MAPK, albeit with differential sensitivity, in BPA-exposed groups. Collectively, BPA exposure has wide-spread negative influence on hematological, biochemical and hepatic events in this species.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Animais , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Água Doce/química , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Inflamação , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110954, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800228

RESUMO

Current study aims to determine difference in metal accumulation pattern in muscle of Liza parsia (pelagic, omnivore), Amblypharyngodon mola (surface feeder, herbivore) and Mystus gulio (benthic, carnivore) depending on their niche and feeding habit and how it affects the endogenous antioxidants and glucose metabolism in fish muscle. Fishes were collected from Malancha, Diamond Harbour and Chandanpiri, West Bengal, India. Concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium were measured in water, sediment and fish muscle. Metal pollution index (MPI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated to evaluate the ability of fish to accumulate specific metals in muscle tissue from the aquatic environment. Metal concentrations were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in water, sediment, fish muscles from Malancha than Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. L. parsia (MPI: 0.4-1.6) showed highest metal deposition in their muscle followed by A. mola (MPI: 0.37-1.38) and M. gulio (MPI: 0.2-1.2). Malondealdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase and cortisol levels increased in case of L. parsia from Malancha and Chandanpiri. Succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, Ca+2 ATPase and cytochrome C oxidase levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower at Malancha and Chandanpiri than Diamond Harbour. Heat shock protein (HSP70) expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all fish species at Malancha followed by Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. Glucose, glycogen, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen phosphorylase levels varied between sites and selected fish species. Serum cortisol level was measured and found to be the highest in L. parsia from Malancha (2.94 ± 0.12 ng/ml) and the lowest in M. gulio from Diamond Harbour (0.7 ± 0.05 ng/ml). The results indicate that metal toxicity alters antioxidant levels, oxidative status and energy production in fish in species specific manner. Our results also indicate that Mystus has the highest degree of adaptability in response to metal toxicity possibly due to its specific food habit and niche position. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintenance of oxidative and metabolic status to combat metal-induced oxidative load will be helpful for the fishes to acquire better resistance under such eco-physiological stress. Alteration of niche and interactive segregation in aquatic organism may be one of the key modulator of resistance against such stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/enzimologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Especificidade da Espécie , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105580, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712368

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known estrogenic endocrine disruptor, is ubiquitously present in the environment, possessing the potential to interfere with the reproductive endocrine system in male mammals. However, there are limited studies on the reproductive toxicity in male aquatic animals associated with epigenetic modifications. In order to evaluate the potential effects of BPA on reproduction and better understand the underlying mechanism, adult male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 15 µg L-1 BPA over a period of 63 d. Results showed that BPA induced congestion of blood vessels and infiltration of inflammatory cells after 21 d exposure, and decreased sperm fertilization after 63 d exposure. The genome DNA methylation levels were significantly increased throughout the treatment, and a strong positive stain were found in the spermatocyte, spermatid and sperm. The H3K4me3 level in all types of germ cell were increased by 21 d exposure while decreased following 63 d exposure. The positive stain of H3K9me3 was decreased in sperms while increased in spermatids by 21 d exposure. In addition, the H3K9me3 level was significantly increased after 63 d exposure, and a strong positive stain were found in spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperms. Our result also revealed that the transcripts of DNA methyltransferase genes (dnmt1 and dnmt3-8) and histone methyltransferase genes (mll2-5, setdb1-2 and ezh2) were also markedly changed under BPA exposure for 21-63 d. These findings indicated that BPA had toxicity in male reproductive, and DNA/histone methylation might play a vital role in the regulation of BPA-triggered the decreased of sperm quality.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Histonas/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1477-1488, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700104

RESUMO

The growth hormone gene (gh) of Sarcocheilichthys sinensis was cloned and characterized in this study. The cDNA length of gh was 973 bp, containing a 5'-UTR of 15 bp, a 3'-UTR of 325 bp and an open reading frame of 633 bp. The genomic DNA of gh was 2135 bp in length containing five exons and four introns. The precursor peptide of gh contained 210 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide of 22 aa (Met1-Ala22) and a mature region of 188 aa (Ser23-Leu210). The similarity and identity ranges of the gh precursor peptide with those of other cyprinids were 88.6%-99.0% and 84.8%-98.6%, respectively. The gh of S. sinensis expressed at the highest level in the pituitary, and its expression was also detected in muscle and brain. Six polymorphic sites were detected in intron 1 (g.51InDel, g.64InDel and g.242InDel), intron 2 (g.864T>C), intron 3 (g.1017InDel) and intron 4 (g.1541A>G). Among these sites, g.242InDel was significantly associated with condition factor, g.1541A>G was associated with all six growth traits, while g.864T>C was associated with sex. The data obtained herein provide useful information for further studies on the regulation mechanisms of growth and sexual growth differences in S. sinensis.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , RNA Mensageiro
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110852, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554204

RESUMO

Maps with grey or even white spaces are still present in spite of the fact that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are at the forefront of research in aquatic toxicology and environmental safety. This is also the case for the Mureș River basin. The intensive use of industrial substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides such as organochlorine compounds (OCPs) has caused global contamination of the aquatic environment. In our study we have found very high concentrations of both PCBs (2110-169,000 ng/g lipid weight ΣPCB, 1950-166,000 ng/g lipid weight ΣPCB7) and OCPs (1130-7830 ng/g lipid weight ΣDDT, 47.6-2790 ng/g lipid weight ΣHCH, 5.53-35.6 ng/g lipid weight ΣChlordane, and 6.74-158 ng/g lipid weight HCB) in the gonad tissue of Barbus barbus (Linnaeus, 1758) males and females. Contrary to most studies where the weight, length, and lipid percentage are positively correlated with the concentration of POPs from different tissue types, we observed a downward trend for the lipid normalized concentrations of some pollutants in gonads while these indices were actually increasing. The decrease of lipid normalized POPs with the increase of CF and lipid percentage may be due to the fact that individuals are eliminating hard and soft roes every year during reproduction which could mean that some quantities of pollutants are also eliminated along with the hard and soft roes. The high POPs concentrations found in our study should be a needed wakeup call for environmentalists and a starting point in developing monitoring and management measures for these pollutants.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Masculino , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Romênia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105528, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569996

RESUMO

Abamectin (ABM) has been extensively used in Chinese aquaculture systems for parasite control, but no information is available regarding its effects on the important freshwater commercial fish species Schizothorax prenanti. We performed an acute toxicity test to determine the effects of ABM on S. prenanti, and the 48- and 96-h median lethal concentration values were 33.32 and 15.98 µg/L, respectively. In a second test, animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of ABM (0.5, 2 or 8 µg/L) for 8 days, and various cytological and biochemical parameters were measured. ABM caused DNA damage in hepatocytes, with significant increases in Olive Tail Moment values and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. Hepatocytic apoptosis occurred following all treatments, and was accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and caspase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, there were significant decreases in glutathione peroxidase levels and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increases in malonaldehyde levels. ABM-induced hepatocytic apoptosis in S. prenanti was probably triggered by ROS generation following a cascade reaction of caspases in mitochondrial or death receptor pathways, which caused antioxidant inhibition, oxidative product accumulation, and DNA damage in the liver.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Água Doce/química , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 763-769, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356000

RESUMO

The lower Melet River is a drinking water source that is surrounded by hazelnut grove, agricultural lands, resulting in the accumulation of genotoxic agents such as mining activities, various domestic and agricultural wastes. Therefore, it receives many domestic and agricultural wastes that contain the genotoxic agent. This study was aimed to assess the heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, and bioaccumulation in the tissues of Alburnus chalcoides. Comet assay and micronucleus test were used to evaluate the genotoxic effects on the blood cells of A. chalcoides. The concentrations of heavy metals and metalloid in the water, in the sediments and in the muscle of fish were in the order of Fe > Al > Mn > As > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd = Pb = Co, Fe > Al > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > As > Co > Ni > Cd and Fe > Zn > Al > Mn > Cu > Pb > As > Cr > Ni > Co > Cd, respectively. The blood cells of fish collected from the polluted location showed significantly higher DNA damage and micronucleus frequency compared to the reference location (p < 0.05). The study indicated that the DNA integrity of A. chalcoides was affected by heavy metals which originated from many anthropogenic sources.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agricultura , Animais , Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Rios/química , Turquia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110566, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283408

RESUMO

To assess the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on fish, juvenile Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/L neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and dinotefuran) for 60 days. The endpoints, including oxidative stress and DNA damage, were determined. The results of oxidative stress assays showed that SOD activities were significantly increased in the 2.0 mg/L imidacloprid and 0.5 mg/L nitenpyram and dinotefuran treatments (p < 0.05). CAT activity was significantly increased with 0.1 mg/L nitenpyram (p < 0.05), whereas it was significantly decreased in the 0.1 and 2.0 mg/L dinotefuran treatment groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, MDA content was significantly decreased in all imidacloprid treatments and in the 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L dinotefuran treatments (p < 0.05); however, it was significantly increased in the 0.1 mg/L nitenpyram treatment (p < 0.05). GSH content was significantly increased at all treatments except for the 0.5 mg/L dinotefuran treatment (p < 0.05). The transcript expression results showed that gstm mRNA expression was significantly inhibited by 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L imidacloprid, and gstp1 mRNA expression was significantly inhibited by all nitenpyram treatments (p < 0.05). In addition, ugt1a mRNA expression was significantly inhibited in the 0.5 mg/L nitenpyram treatment (p < 0.05). The results of the DNA damage assay showed that tail moments were significantly increased by the 2.0 mg/L imidacloprid treatment (p < 0.01), while tail DNA was significantly increased by 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L imidacloprid, 2.0 mg/L nitenpyram and all dinotefuran treatments (p < 0.01). Moreover, olive tail moments were significantly increased by the 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L imidacloprid and 2.0 mg/L dinotefuran treatments (p < 0.01). Therefore, our oxidative stress and DNA damage findings demonstrated that imidacloprid and nitenpyram could cause adverse effects on juvenile rare minnows.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Environ Res ; 184: 109359, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199321

RESUMO

The study was designed to evaluate chronic toxicity of pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin through biochemical, histopathological, ultrastructural and molecular biomarkers in liver of freshwater carp Catla catla. The fish were exposed to two sub-lethal concentrations (0.21 µg/L and 0.41 µg/L) for a period of 45 days. Compared to the control, a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the activity of enzymatic antioxidants catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione content (GSH) was registered after initial 15 days of exposure to the toxicant, followed by decline on 30th and 45th day. Whereas, MDA level remained elevated throughout the exposure duration at both the tested concentrations. Light microscopy revealed changes like sinusoidal dilation, vacuolation, pycnosis, karyolysis, nuclear pleomorphism, lymphocyte infiltration in liver of the exposed fish, with highest mean degree of tissue change (DTC) value of 58.6 ± 3.19 on 45th day. Ultrastructurally, cytopasmic vacuolation, reduced glycogen granules, dilated RER, deformed nuclear membrane, swollen & distorted mitochondria and augmentation in lipid bodies were the prominently observed cytopathological alterations. These anomalies increased in time-concentration dependent manner, being most severe after 45 days at higher concentration. The gene expression levels of Gadd-45α and Bcl-2 depicted altered patterns. Gadd-45α exhibited significant upregulation by 45th day, while Bcl-2 demonstrated initial upregulation, with subsequent downregulation on 30th and 45th day. Principal component analysis (PCA) generated two components, PC1 (SOD, GSH, MDA and DTC) and PC2 (CAT and GST). The findings suggest that cypermethrin inflicts marked hepatototoxic effects on Catla catla even at sub-lethal concentrations.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114245, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220757

RESUMO

Tris (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) is one of the most commonly used organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) analogues and is commonly detected in surface water and sediments. Limited information is available about the metabolic pathway or metabolite formation related to TEHP in fish. In this study, rare minnows (Gobiocyprisrarus) were exposed to TEHP in static water for 30 d to investigate the bioaccumulation and metabolite distribution in the fish muscle, liver, kidney, gill, GI-tract, ovary and testis. Based on the estimated kup,parent and kd,parent values, the bioconcentration factors (BCFparent) of TEHP in fish tissues were calculated in the order of kidney > ovary ≈ liver ≈ testis > gill ≈ GI-tract > muscle; this finding was consistent with the results of our previous study on other alkyl-substituted OPFRs. In addition, this study identified the metabolic profiles of TEHP in the liver. TEHP was oxidatively metabolized by the fish to a dealkylated metabolite (di 2-ethylhexyl phosphate; DEHP) and hydroxylated TEHP (OH-TEHP). OH-TEHP further underwent extensive phase II metabolism to yield glucuronic acid conjugates. DEHP was mainly distributed in rare minnow in the following order: liver > GI-tract > kidney â‰« other tissues. However, the metabolite showed lower accumulation potential in fish tissues than TEHP, with metabolite parent concentration factors (MPCFs) for DEHP of less than 0.1 in all the investigated tissues. The BCFparent values of TEHP in various fish tissues were only 9.0 × 10-3-7.2 × 10-4 times its estimated tissue-water partition coefficient (Ktissue-water) values based on tissue lipid, protein and water contents, which indicated the significance of biotransformation in reducing the bioaccumulation potential of TEHP in fish. The toxicokinetic data in the present study help in understanding the tissue-specific bioaccumulation and metabolism pathways of TEHP in fish and highlight the importance of toxicology research on TEHP metabolites in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Organofosfatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
Aquat Toxicol ; 222: 105464, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160575

RESUMO

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing allows for the disruption or modification of genes in a multitude of model organisms. In the present study, we describe and employ the method for use in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), in part, to assist in the development and validation of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). The gene coding for an enzyme responsible for melanin production, tyrosinase (tyr), was the initial target chosen for development and assessment of the method since its disruption results in abnormal pigmentation, a phenotype obvious within 3-4 d after injection of fathead minnow embryos. Three tyrosinase-targeting guide strands were generated using the fathead minnow sequence in tandem with the CRISPOR guide strand selection tool. The strands targeted two areas: one stretch of sequence in a conserved region that demonstrated homology to EGF-like or laminin-like domains as determined by Protein Basic Local Alignment Search Tool in concert with the Conserved Domain Database, and a second area in the N-terminal region of the tyrosinase domain. To generate one cell embryos, in vitro fertilization was performed, allowing for microinjection of hundreds of developmentally-synchronized embryos with Cas9 proteins complexed to each of the three guide strands. Altered retinal pigmentation was observed in a portion of the tyr guide strand injected population within 3 d post fertilization (dpf). By 14 dpf, fish without skin and swim bladder pigmentation were observed. Among the three guide strands injected, the guide targeting the EGF/laminin-like domain was most effective in generating mutants. CRISPR greatly advances our ability to directly investigate gene function in fathead minnow, allowing for advanced approaches to AOP validation and development.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Cyprinidae/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/enzimologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Melaninas/genética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética
14.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 243-244: 110429, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097715

RESUMO

Growth hormone (ScGH) and growth hormone receptor (ScGHR) genes from the barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus), in addition to their cDNAs, were cloned. The associations between their mRNA expression levels and growth-related traits were analysed, and the differences in the levels of expression of growth regulation-related genes between the largest and smallest individuals were compared. The full-length 1182-bp cDNA of ScGH contained a 633-bp open reading frame (ORF), and the length of the gene had 2492 bp. The full-length 2825-bp cDNA of ScGHRa contained a 1818-bp ORF, and the gene had 6970 bp. The full-length 2822-bp cDNA of ScGHRb contained a 1737-bp ORF, and the gene had 8149 bp. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that ScGH was only expressed in the pituitary. ScGHRa was expressed predominantly in muscle, and the expression level of ScGHRb was the highest in the liver. The ScGHRa mRNA levels in the muscle were significantly negatively correlated with the caudal peduncle length. However, no correlation between growth-related traits and ScGH and ScGHRb expression levels were found. Pituitary ScGH, liver GHRb and liver insulin-like growth factor I (igf-1) expression levels were significantly higher in the largest individuals than those in the smallest S. curriculus individuals. Contrarily, the largest individuals had significantly lower expression levels of muscle igf-1 and liver myog than the smallest individuals. Overall, our results provide novel molecular information for growth-regulation study of S. curriculus.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , DNA Complementar/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/química , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores da Somatotropina/química , Receptores da Somatotropina/metabolismo
15.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113937, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952101

RESUMO

In recent years, reports of plastic debris in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of fish have been well documented in the scientific literature. This, in turn, increased concerns regarding human health exposure to microplastics through the consumption of contaminated fish. Most of the available research regarding microplastic toxicity has focused on marine organisms through direct feeding or waterborne exposures at the individual level. However, little is known about the trophic transfer of microplastics through the aquatic food chain. Freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna (hereafter Daphnia), and the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (FHM), are well-known model species used in standard toxicological studies and ecological risk assessments that provide a simple model for trophic transfer. The aim of this study was to assess the tissue translocation, trophic transfer, and depuration of two concentrations (20 and 2000-part ml-1) of 6 µm polystyrene (PS) microplastics particles between Daphnia and FHM. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were determined. Fluorescent microscopy was used to determine the number of particles in the water media and within the organs of both species. Throughout the five days of exposure, PS particles were only found within the GI tract of both species. The BCF for Daphnia was 0.034 ± 0.005 for the low concentration and 0.026 ± 0.006 for the high concentration. The BAF for FHM was 0.094 ± 0.037 for the low concentration and 0.205 ± 0.051 for the high concentration. Between 72 and 96 h after exposure all microplastic particles were depurated from both species. The presence of food had a significant effect on the depuration of microplastic particles from Daphnia but not for FHM. Based on the low BCF and BAF values for both species, rapid depuration rates, and null translocation of microplastic particles to organs and tissues from the GI tract, there is a low probability that microplastics will bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate under environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Daphnia/metabolismo , Microplásticos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953219

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore how Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) survive and defend against the toxicity of ambient total ammonia nitrogen (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/L TA-N) during 30-day exposure. As a result, hepatic malondialdehyde and protein carbonylation as well as histopathological alterations increased with increasing TA-N level, which suggested that chronic ammonia exposure caused oxidative stress and damage in the liver of fish. Meanwhile, the activities of hepatic total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) as well as the mRNA expression of Cu/Zn sod, cat, gpx and g6pd were elevated significantly along with significant reduction of glutathione (GSH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) (P < 0.05). These results indicated that hepatic antioxidant responses were activated to alleviate oxidative damages induced by ammonia, in which lower-concentration ammonia only initiate SOD-CAT-GR-G6PDH defense and higher ammonia activated the SOD-CAT-GPx-GSH-GR-G6PDH antioxidant response. In addition, significant increases of serum urea and hepatic ammonia, urea, glutamine, arginase as well as glutamine synthetase were detected with the increase of TA-N (P < 0.05), while serum ammonia levels kept stable (P > 0.05). The present findings further revealed that ammonia could be detoxified directly into glutamine and urea in Wuchang bream to cope with ammonia exposure. In conclusion, under chronic ammonia exposure, enhanced hepatic antioxidant responses as well as increased urea and glutamine synthesis worked in combination to allow Megalobrama amblycephala to defend against environmental ammonia toxicity.


Assuntos
Amônia , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Fígado , Ureia/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Amônia/toxicidade , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125914, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972493

RESUMO

In the present study, embryos of four food fishes viz. Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala were given acute (96 h) exposure to their respective LC0, LC10 and LC30 (causing 0, 10 and 30% mortality, respectively) concentrations of triclosan [TCS, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol], a broad spectrum biocide. Bioaccumulation, contents of protein, non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH and GSSG), MDA (lipid peroxidation product) and organic acids (fumarate, succinate, malate and citrate) along with the activities of AChE (neurological enzyme), GST (detoxification enzyme) and three metabolic enzymes (LDH, AST and ALT) were estimated after 48 and 96 h exposure and 10 days post exposure. Around 1/10 of the TCS in water got accumulated in the hatchlings after 96 h, increase over 48 h values was maximum at LC0 (+195.30, +143.23 and + 140.75%) but minimum at LC30 (+89.62, +84.26 and + 126.72%) for C. idella, L. rohita and C. mrigala, respectively. In C. carpio, TCS got accumulated only at LC30 after 48 h but at all the concentrations after 96 h exposure. Contents of protein, GSH, GSSG and activity of AChE decreased but activities of GSH, LDH, AST and ALT and contents of MDA and organic acids increased concentration dependently in all the fishes. TCS declined by 85-90% but its toxic effects on biomolecules prolonged till the end of the recovery period. Such acute exposures are accidental but there is a need to evaluate biomarkers for prolongation of the stress of small concentrations especially LC0 and LC10 (causing negligible mortality) of lipophilic pollutants like TCS.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Carpas/fisiologia , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
18.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(4): 913-922, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965587

RESUMO

Predictive approaches to assessing the toxicity of contaminant mixtures have been largely limited to chemicals that exert effects through the same biological molecular initiating event. However, by understanding specific pathways through which chemicals exert effects, it may be possible to identify shared "downstream" nodes as the basis for forecasting interactive effects of chemicals with different molecular initiating events. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) networks conceptually support this type of analysis. We assessed the utility of a simple AOP network for predicting the effects of mixtures of an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) and an androgen receptor agonist (17ß-trenbolone) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function in female fathead minnows. The fish were exposed to multiple concentrations of fadrozole and 17ß-trenbolone individually or in combination for 48 or 96 h. Effects on 2 shared nodes in the AOP network, plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) concentration and vitellogenin (VTG) production (measured as hepatic vtg transcripts) responded as anticipated to fadrozole alone but were minimally impacted by 17ß-trenbolone alone. Overall, there were indications that 17ß-trenbolone enhanced decreases in E2 and vtg in fadrozole-exposed fish, as anticipated, but the results often were not statistically significant. Failure to consistently observe hypothesized interactions between fadrozole and 17ß-trenbolone could be due to several factors, including lack of impact of 17ß-trenbolone, inherent biological variability in the endpoints assessed, and/or an incomplete understanding of interactions (including feedback) between different pathways within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:913-922. © 2020 SETAC.


Assuntos
Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Androgênios/toxicidade , Inibidores da Aromatase/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Estradiol/metabolismo , Fadrozol/toxicidade , Feminino , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Acetato de Trembolona/toxicidade , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518684

RESUMO

Generally, fish are thought to have a limited ability to utilize carbohydrate. Postprandial blood glucose is cleared sluggishly in fish, resulting in prolonged hyperglycemia. Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) play an important role in glucose utilization. In the present study, the expression levels of glut2 in different tissues were detected in grass carp. Furthermore, the effects of oral glucose administration on glut2 mRNA expression in the liver, intestine and kidney were investigated, and we also evaluated the response of glut2 mRNA to insulin and glucagon in the primary hepatocytes of grass carp. The expression level of glut2 mRNA was highest in the liver, followed by the intestine and kidney, but lower in other tissues. The result of glucose tolerance test (GTT) showed that serum glucose reached the highest level at 3 h after GTT and recovered to the basic level at 6 h. The glut2 mRNA in the intestine was up-regulated at 1 h after GTT. However, the glut2 mRNA expression in the liver of grass carp was unchanged after GTT for 1, 3, 6 h, and even decreased at 12 h after GTT. In addition, the expression of glut2 mRNA in the primary hepatocytes was enhanced by insulin and glucagon at 3 h post treatment. These results suggested that glut2 expression in the liver of grass carp was sensitive to insulin and glucagon, but not blood glucose. The up-regulation of glut2 by these hormones might be involved in the bi-directional transportation of glucose in the liver.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/biossíntese , Glucose/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526840

RESUMO

The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates the responses of various immune cytokines. In this study, we identified socs3s genes of blunt snout bream. 209- and 216-aa long peptides are encoded by socs3a and socs3b genes, respectively. The socs3s mRNAs are expressed consistently during the entire process of embryonic development. Whole-mount in situ hybridization detected socs3a in the eyes and posterior somites at 12 h post fertilization (hpf), transcribed at the otic vesicle at 24 hpf, and transcribed at the eyes, brain, and otic vesicle at 36 hpf; while the socs3b mRNA was transcribed at the notochord at 12 hpf, expressed in the brain, eyes, and tailbud at 24 hpf, and detected in the brain at 36 hpf. The expression of socs3a is slightly different from that of socs3b in tissues of juvenile and adult blunt snout bream. After recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) treatment, the transcript levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were increased in gills, spleen, kidney, and gonads. After Aerononas hydrophila infection, the mRNA levels of socs3s of blunt snout bream were significantly increased in the liver, spleen, intestine, and kidney tissues. Blunt snout bream were susceptible to various pathogenic microorganisms, we intraperitoneally injected blunt snout bream with A. hydrophila to explore the immune mechanism of socs3s. These results suggested that socs3s of blunt snout bream plays important roles in the regulation of embryonic development and tissue growth, and that socs3s may also play key roles in regulating the bacterial-induced congenital immune response. Socs3s genes has the potential to be used as targeted genes to improve the immunity against bacteria, which is conducive to the improvement of production and breeding.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/biossíntese , Animais , Especificidade de Órgãos
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