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1.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 18-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lung hypoplasia associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results in respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension after birth. We have investigated whether aerating the lung before removing placental support (physiologically based cord clamping (PBCC)), improves the cardiopulmonary transition in lambs with a CDH. METHODS: At ≈138 days of gestational age, 17 lambs with surgically induced left-sided diaphragmatic hernia (≈d80) were delivered via caesarean section. The umbilical cord was clamped either immediately prior to ventilation onset (immediate cord clamping (ICC); n=6) or after achieving a target tidal volume of 4 mL/kg, with a maximum delay of 10 min (PBCC; n=11). Lambs were ventilated for 120 min and physiological changes recorded. RESULTS: Pulmonary blood flow (PBF) increased following ventilation onset in both groups, but was 19-fold greater in PBCC compared with ICC lambs at cord clamping (19±6.3 vs 1.0±0.5 mL/min/kg, p<0.001). Cerebral tissue oxygenation was higher in PBCC than ICC lambs during the first 10 min after cord clamping (59%±4% vs 30%±5%, p<0.001). PBF was threefold higher (23±4 vs 8±2 mL/min/kg, p=0.01) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was threefold lower (0.6±0.1 vs 2.2±0.6 mm Hg/(mL/min), p<0.001) in PBCC lambs compared with ICC lambs at 120 min after ventilation onset. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ICC, PBCC prevented the severe asphyxia immediately after birth and resulted in a higher PBF due to a lower PVR, which persisted for at least 120 min after birth in CDH lambs.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco , Constrição , Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Circulação Pulmonar , Cordão Umbilical , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Asfixia Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ovinos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Resistência Vascular
2.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(4): 159-162, oct.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184304

RESUMO

La hipertensión pulmonar es una enfermedad compleja, grave y de baja incidencia. Es un estado hemodinámicamente patológico con una presión de arteria pulmonar que supera los 25 mmHg. La presencia de hipertensión pulmonar en el puerperio es poco frecuente y conlleva un alto riesgo para la madre. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 31 años en puerperio mediato patológico post parto eutócico con datos de bajo gasto cardiaco. El ecocardiograma demostró la presión de la arteria pulmonar que iguala a la sistémica. La angiotomografía helicoidal de tórax descarta tromboembolismo pulmonar, y se realiza diagnóstico de hipertensión de la arteria pulmonar de etiología desconocida


Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, serious and low incidence disease. It is a haemodynamically pathological state with a pulmonary artery pressure that exceeds 25 mmHg. The presence of pulmonary hypertension in the puerperium is rare, and carries a high risk to the mother. The case is presented of a 31 year-old female in the subacute postpartum period of a normal delivery with data of low cardiac output. The echocardiogram showed that the pressure of the pulmonary artery was equal to the systemic. A thoracic helical angio-tomography ruled out pulmonary thromboembolism, making a diagnosis of pulmonary artery hypertension of unknown aetiology


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Débito Cardíaco
3.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(10): 1231-1235, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the difference and correlation between continuous non-invasive arterial pressure (CNAP) monitor and pulse indicated continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) monitor on determination of hemodynamic parameters in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, and to assess the feasibility of non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamics with CNAP. METHODS: A prospective observation self-control study was conducted.The critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation who needed hemodynamics monitoring, and admitted to the fourth department of intensive care unit (ICU) of Fujian Provincial Hospital from June 2018 to March 2019 were enrolled. PiCCO catheter were inserted immediately after admission, the hemodynamic indexes were measured by thermodilution method, and mean arterial pressure (MAPPiCCO), cardiac index (CIPiCCO), pulse pressure variation rate (PPVPiCCO) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRIPiCCO) were obtained at 0 hour and 24 hours respectively. Meanwhile, the above indexes (MAPCNAP, CICNAP, PPVCNAP and SVRICNAP) were measured with CNAP. All measurements were repeated thrice and average values were reported. The differences in above parameters between the two methods were evaluated. Pearson test was used for the correlation analysis and Bland-Altman analysis method was used for consistency test. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled into this study. One patient died within 24 hours was excluded, 2 patients were excluded due to withdrawing treatment within 24 hours, 2 patients were excluded because of atrial fibrillation, and 1 patient's data was lost due to technical problems. Thus, data from 32 patients were available for final analysis. There were 12 females and 20 males, aging 26-84 years old with the mean of (66.8±19.1) years old, body mass index (BMI) of (23.7±3.9) kg/m2, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score of 19.5±5.3, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score of 9.7±4.1. There were no significant differences in CI or PPV between CNAP and PiCCO groups [CI (mL×s-1×m-2): 59.8±12.6 vs. 58.5±14.2, PPV: (14.7±6.8)% vs. (14.0±6.8)%, both P > 0.05]. MAP and SVRI measured by CNAP were significantly higher than those measured by PiCCO [MAP (mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 65.6±9.4 vs. 60.1±9.2, SVRI (kPa×s×L-1×m-2): 206.2±53.9 vs. 179.5±57.8, both P < 0.01]. The correlation analysis showed that MAP, CI, PPV and SVRI measured by the two methods were significantly positively correlated (r value was 0.624, 0.864, 0.835 and 0.655 respectively, all P < 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed that CNAP and PiCCO had a good consistency for the measurement of CI and PPV, the average differences were 1.2 mL×s-1×m-2 and 0.5% respectively, while the 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were -12.8-15.3 mL×s-1×m-2 and -7.1%-8.2% respectively. However, the consistency of MAP and SVRI measured by those two methods was poor, the average differences were 5.5 mmHg and 26.8 kPa×s×L-1×m-2 respectively, while the 95%CI was -10.4-21.3 mmHg and -64.5-118.0 kPa×s×L-1×m-2 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CNAP was comparable with PiCCO when monitoring CI and PPV in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients; while the results of MAP and SVRI might be inaccurate, which should be interpreted correctly and carefully.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Estado Terminal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Débito Cardíaco , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial
5.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 23(4): 415-432, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586496

RESUMO

This paper introduces a new measure to evaluate heart output from a dynamical systems approach. The measure is based on the time delay technique for two-dimensional state space reconstruction from time series of interbeat intervals. The system's trajectories within this space are depicted and the mean distance, as well as the total and maximum distances travelled by the system, are calculated in pixels. Preliminary data from adolescents with highly positive emotional regulation (HPER) style (n=10) and adolescents with highly negative (HNER) style (n=10) who underwent a protocol of stress induction show the usefulness of the new metrics to distinguish the dynamical behavior of the heart systems from these groups. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that changes in all three distances across conditions (baseline, anticipation of stress, exposure to stress, and recovery) were significant in the HPER group but not in the HNER group. As to the physiological meaning of the new measure a correlational analysis revealed that associations with time-domain HRV measures were stronger than associations with frequency-domain HRV measures in both groups. Because of the small sample size, bootstrap resampling was used to obtain confidence intervals. Distances calculated with the new measure are sensitive to the ER-related cardiac flexibility under acute stress conditions. However, the physiological meaning of the new indices remains unclear.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos
6.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4 (Supl)): 415-422, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047339

RESUMO

O exercício físico é recomendado no tratamento da hipertensão arterial. Agudamente, a execução do exercício promove aumento da pressão arterial (PA), mas, no período de recuperação pós-exercício, é possível evidenciar redução da PA e, principalmente, após um período de treinamento físico crônico, pode haver diminuição da PA clínica e de 24 horas dos hipertensos. Apesar desses efeitos serem conhecidos, sua magnitude e mecanismos dependem do tipo de exercício executado e de suas características. Este artigo revê os efeitos agudos e crônicos clássicos do exercício aeróbico e os efeitos mais recentemente estudados dos exercícios resistidos isométrico e dinâmico na PA, seus mecanismos e fatores de influência, ressaltando os pontos que embasam as recomendações atuais sobre o uso do exercício na hipertensão arterial. O conhecimento atual demonstra que: 1) o exercício aeróbico promove aumento da PA sistólica durante sua execução, gera hipotensão pós-exercício clinicamente relevante e reduz a PA clínica e de 24 horas após o treinamento; 2) o exercício resistido isométrico promove aumento progressivo da PA sistólica e diastólica durante sua execução, não produz hipotensão pós-exercício consistente e reduz a PA clínica após o treinamento, mas esse efeito hipotensor ocorre com um protocolo específico de exercício de handgrip; e 3) o exercício resistido dinâmico promove grande aumento da PA sistólica e diastólica durante sua execução, gera hipotensão pós-exercício cuja relevância clínica ainda precisa ser comprovada e parece diminuir a PA clínica, mas não a ambulatorial, após o treinamento. Face a esses conhecimentos, o treinamento aeróbico complementado pelo resistido dinâmico é recomendado na hipertensão


Physical exercise is recommended for hypertension treatment. Acutely, exercise execution increases blood pressure (BP), but, during the recovery period, BP decreases, and after a chronic training period, clinic and ambulatory BP may decrease in hypertensives. Despite these known effects of exercise, their magnitude and mechanisms depend on the type of exercise and its characteristics. This article reviews the classical acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise and the more recent knowledge about isometric and dynamic resistance exercises on BP, its mechanisms and factors of influence, highlighting the aspects underlying exercise recommendations for hypertension. Current scientific knowledge shows that: 1) aerobic exercise increases systolic BP during its execution, produces a clinically significant post-exercise hypotension, and chronically decreases clinic and 24-hour BP; 2) isometric resistance exercise produces a progressive increase in systolic and diastolic BP during its execution, does not promote consistent post-exercise hypotension, and decreases clinic BP after training, but this hypotensive effect results from a specific protocol of isometric handgrip; and 3) dynamic resistance exercise produces a huge progressive increase in systolic and diastolic BP during its execution, promotes post-exercise hypotension with questionable clinical relevance, and seems to decrease clinic but not ambulatory BP after training. Based on this current knowledge, regular aerobic exercise complemented by dynamic resistance exercise is recommended for hypertension


Assuntos
Exercício , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Volume Sistólico , Débito Cardíaco , Fatores de Risco , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipotensão
7.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(10): 912-922, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardiovascular and sedation reversal effects of IM administration of atipamezole (AA) in dogs treated with medetomidine hydrochloride (MED) or MED and vatinoxan (MK-467). ANIMALS: 8 purpose-bred, 2-year-old Beagles. PROCEDURES: A randomized, blinded, crossover study was performed in which each dog received 2 IM treatments at a ≥ 2-week interval as follows: injection of MED (20 µg/kg) or MED mixed with 400 µg of vatinoxan/kg (MEDVAT) 30 minutes before AA (100 µg/kg). Sedation score, heart rate, mean arterial and central venous blood pressures, and cardiac output were recorded before and at various time points (up to 90 minutes) after AA. Cardiac and systemic vascular resistance indices were calculated. Venous blood samples were collected at intervals until 210 minutes after AA for drug concentration analysis. RESULTS: Heart rate following MED administration was lower, compared with findings after MEDVAT administration, prior to and at ≥ 10 minutes after AA. Mean arterial blood pressure was lower with MEDVAT than with MED at 5 minutes after AA, when its nadir was detected. Overall, cardiac index was higher and systemic vascular resistance index lower, indicating better cardiovascular function, in MEDVAT-atipamezole-treated dogs. Plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were lower and recoveries from sedation were faster and more complete after MEDVAT treatment with AA than after MED treatment with AA. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Atipamezole failed to restore heart rate and cardiac index in medetomidine-sedated dogs, and relapses into sedation were observed. Coadministration of vatinoxan with MED helped to maintain hemodynamic function and hastened the recovery from sedation after AA in dogs.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinolizinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Distribuição Aleatória , Método Simples-Cego
8.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1222-1225, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484879

RESUMO

Bradycardia is a common complication at the early postoperative period after heart transplantation (HT). The heart rate (HR) usually recovers within a few weeks; however, several patients need a temporary pacemaker or chronotropic agents to stabilize their hemodynamics. Here, we report the first case of transient bradycardia associated with hemodynamic deterioration following HT, which was successfully treated with cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase-3-inhibiting agent. A 59-year-old man received HT for advanced heart failure due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. General fatigue persisted even after the HT. His HR was around 60 beats per minute (bpm) with sinus rhythm. Echocardiography showed no abnormal findings. Right heart catheterization showed that the cardiac index (CI) was 1.9 L/minute/m2. Continuous intravenous infusion of isoproterenol (0.003 µg/kg/minute) increased the HR to 80 bpm and CI to 2.7 L/minute/m2 and improved his symptoms. Isoproterenol was switched to oral administration of cilostazol (100 mg, twice a day), which maintained the HR at around 80 bpm and CI of 2.5 L/minute/m2. The patient's HR gradually recovered and cilostazol could be discontinued three months after the HT. Oral administration of cilostazol can be a therapeutic option for patients with sinus bradycardia following HT, who need positive chronotropic support.


Assuntos
Bradicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Cilostazol/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Bradicardia/diagnóstico por imagem , Bradicardia/etiologia , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vet J ; 251: 105346, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492384

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the sedative and cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) administrated via intranasal (IN) and intramuscular (IM) routes. This masked, randomised, crossover study used six male beagle dogs, receiving 0.02 mg/kg dexmedetomidine either IN (DEX-IN) or IM (DEX-IM), and an equal volume of saline by the alternative route. Dexmedetomidine plasma concentration was measured before (TB) and at time points (T) 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after drug administration (T0). Physiological variables, sedation scores and sedation times were recorded until recovery. Echocardiography was performed at TB and between T20-T40. Repeated data over time were analysed using a Scheirer-Ray-Hare test. Other data were compared using a Wilcoxon or Student's t test. Times from T0 to sternal position and from lateral to sternal position were longer for DEX-IN than DEX-IM (P = 0.018 and P = 0.009, respectively). Time from sternal to standing position was shorter for DEX-IN than DEX-IM (P = 0.03). Dexmedetomidine plasma concentrations were significantly lower for DEX-IN than DEX-IM from T10 to T120. Heart rate was significantly lower for DEX-IM than DEX-IN from T5 to T20. Echocardiography showed a decrease in systolic function and calculated cardiac output in DEX-IM as compared to baseline. The DEX concentration-sedation curve for DEX-IN as compared to DEX-IM was leftward shifted, whereas the IN and IM DEX concentration-variation-in-heart-rate curves overlapped. Although reaching lower plasma concentrations, IN dexmedetomidine produced similar sedation to IM dexmedetomidine without affecting cardiovascular function.


Assuntos
Administração Intranasal/veterinária , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/sangue , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(8): 574-579, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474036

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze effects of pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technology in amelioration of myocardial damage in fluid resuscitation of patients with large area burn in the early stage. Methods: From November 2015 to November 2017, medical data of 52 patients with large area burn hospitalized in our unit, meeting the inclusion criteria, were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-seven patients (18 males and 9 females) with age of (43±10)years in tradition group hospitalized from November 2015 to November 2016 were monitored by traditional monitoring methods for fluid resuscitation, and 25 patients (18 males and 7 females) with age of (44±10)years in PiCCO group hospitalized from December 2016 to November 2017 were monitored by traditional monitoring methods and PiCCO monitoring equipment for fluid resuscitation. Fluid infusion coefficients and total fluid replacement volume of patients in both groups at the first and second post burn hour (PBH) 24, as well as the levels of N terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) immediately on admission and post burn day (PBD) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 were recorded. Data were processed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, chi-square test, t test and Bonferroni correction, and Mann-Whitney U test and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) The fluid infusion coefficients of patients in tradition group at the first and second PBH 24 were respectively (1.42±0.10) and (0.94±0.14)mL·kg(-1)·% total body surface area (TBSA)(-1), and those in PiCCO group were respectively (1.76±0.14) and (0.85±0.08) mL·kg(-1)·%TBSA(-1). Fluid infusion coefficient and total fluid replacement volume at the first PBH 24 of patients in PiCCO group were significantly higher than those in tradition group (t=-9.775, -4.769, P<0.01). Fluid infusion coefficient at the second PBH 24 of patients in PiCCO group was significantly lower than that in tradition group (t=2.682, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in total fluid replacement volume at the second PBH 24 in patients between the two groups (t=1.167, P>0.05). (2) Immediately on admission and PBD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, the levels of NT-proBNP of patients in tradition group were respectively 518 (320, 763), 236 (98, 250), 139 (62, 231), 172 (104, 185), 296 (225, 341), 727 (642, 921), 1 840 (1 357, 2 081), 1 005 (671, 1 297) pg/mL, and those in PiCCO group were respectively 444 (206, 601), 66 (29, 73), 54(28, 75), 139(101, 175), 199 (106, 279), 576 (333, 837), 833 (466, 1 080), 485 (225, 710) pg/mL. The levels of NT-proBNP of patients in PiCCO group on PBD 1, 2, 6, and 7 were significantly lower than those in tradition group (Z=-5.004, -3.967, -5.285, -4.626, P<0.01). The levels of NT-proBNP immediately on admission and PBD 3, 4, and 5 in patients between the two groups were close (Z=-0.834, -0.806, -2.665, -2.153, P>0.05). (3) Immediately on admission and PBD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, the levels of cTnT of patients in tradition group were respectively (42±15), (21±12), (17±7), (11±4), (12±4), (94±32), (88±23), (42±23) pg/L, and those in PiCCO group were respectively (37±15), (9±3), (10±3), (13±3), (12±5), (85±30), (60±26), (22±14) pg/L. The levels of cTnT of patients in PiCCO group on PBD 1, 2, 6, and 7 were significantly lower than those in tradition group (t=5.227, 4.751, 4.239, 3.845, P<0.01). The levels of cTnT immediately on admission and PBD 3, 4, and 5 of patients between the two groups were close (t=1.098, -1.562, -0.117, 1.107, P>0.05). (4) The levels of CK-MB of patients in PiCCO group on PBD 3, 6, and 7 were significantly lower than those in tradition group (t=3.123, 4.103, 3.178, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The levels of CK-MB immediately on admission and PBD 1, 2, 4, and 5 in patients between the two groups were close (t=0.351, 1.868, 1.100, 0.798, 2.094, P>0.05). Conclusions: PiCCO monitoring technology can monitor and guide fluid resuscitation of patients with large area burn in the early stage more scientifically and reasonably, and the effect of reducing myocardial damage is better than traditional monitoring methods.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/terapia , Débito Cardíaco , Hidratação , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 43(6): 329-336, ago.-sept. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183251

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the predictive value of the inotropic score (IS) and vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) in low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) in children after congenital heart disease surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and to establish whether mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and cardiac troponin I (cTn-I), associated to the IS and VIS scores, increases the predictive capacity in LCOS. Design: A prospective observational study was carried out. Setting: A Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. Patients: A total of 117children with congenital heart disease underwent CPB. Patients were divided into two groups: LCOS and non-LCOS. Interventions: The clinical and analytical data were recorded at 2, 12, 24 and 48h post-CPB. Logistic regression was used to develop a risk prediction model using LCOS as dependent variable. Main outcome measures: LCOS, IS, VIS, MR-proADM, cTn-I, age, sex, CPB time, PIM-2, Aristotle score. Results: While statistical significance was not recorded for IS in the multivariate analysis, VIS was seen to be independently associated to LCOS. On the other hand, VIS>15.5 at 2h post-CPB, adjusted for age and CPB timepoints, showed high specificity (92.87%; 95%CI: 86.75-98.96) and increased negative predictive value (75.59%, 95%CI: 71.1-88.08) for the diagnosis of LCOS at 48h post-CPB. The predictive power for LCOS did not increase when VIS was combined with cTn-I >14ng/ml at 2h and MR-proADM >1.5nmol/l at 24h post-CPB. Conclusions: The VIS score at 2h post-CPB was identified as an independent early predictor of LCOS. This predictive value was not increased when associated with LCOS cardiac biomarkers. The VIS score was more useful than IS post-CPB in making early therapeutic decisions in clinical practice post-CPB


Objetivo: Estudiar el valor predictivo de la escala inotrópica (IS) y la escala vasoactiva-inotrópica (VIS) en el síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco (SBGC) en niños poscirugía de cardiopatías congénitas mediante bypass cardiopulmonar (BCP). Determinar si adrenomedulina (MR-proADM) y troponina cardiaca-I (cTn-I) asociadas con IS y VIS incrementan su capacidad predictora de SBGC. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo y observacional. Ámbito: Cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Pacientes: Ciento diecisiete pacientes pediátricos con cardiopatías congénitas corregidos mediante BCP, clasificados en función de la presencia o no de SBGC. Intervenciones: Los datos analíticos y clínicos se midieron a las 2, 12, 24 y 48h post-BCP. Las principales variables se analizaron mediante regresión logística multivariante, considerando SBGC como variable dependiente. Variables de interés principales: SBGC, IS, VIS, MR-proADM, cTn-I, edad, sexo, BCP, PIM-2 y escala Aristóteles. Resultados: El IS no alcanzó significación estadística en el estudio multivariante; sin embargo, el VIS se asoció independientemente a SBGC. El VIS>15,5 a las 2h del ingreso en CIP, ajustado por edad y tiempo de CEC, muestra alta especificidad (92,87%; IC 95%: 86,75-98,96%) y alto valor predictivo negativo (75,59%; IC 95%: 71,10-88,08) para predecir SBGC a las 48h post-BCP. La capacidad predictora no se incrementa al incorporar cTn-I>14ng/ml a las 2h y ADM>1,5nmol/l a las 24h del postoperatorio. Conclusiones: El VIS a las 2h post-BCP es un predictor independiente precoz de SBGC. Este valor no se incrementa al asociarse biomarcadores cardiacos de LCOS. La escala de VIS fue más útil que la escala de IS en la toma de decisiones terapéuticas tras la cirugía cardiaca


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Débito Cardíaco , Biomarcadores , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Adrenomedulina/administração & dosagem , Troponina/administração & dosagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Modelos Logísticos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
12.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(9): 787-798, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453716

RESUMO

Introduction: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has become a well-established treatment option for patients with end stage heart failure (HF) who are refractory to medical therapy. While LVADs implantation does effectively improve hemodynamic performance many patients still possess peripheral pathological adaptations often present in end-stage HF. Therefore, increased attention has been placed on investigating the effects of exercise training for patients with LVADs to improve clinical outcomes. However, the available evidence on exercise training for patients with LVADs is limited. Areas covered: The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize: 1) The evolution of LVAD technology and usage; 2) The physiological responses to exercise in patients with LVADs; 3) The available evidence regarding exercise training; 4) Potential strategies to implement exercise training programs for this patient population. Expert opinion: The available evidence for exercise training to improve physical function and clinical outcomes for patients with LVADs is promising but limited. Future research is needed to further elucidate the ideal exercise training parameters, method of delivery for exercise training, and unique barriers and facilitators to exercise training for patients receiving LVAD implantation.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar , Débito Cardíaco , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Respiração
13.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 423-429, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408386

RESUMO

An understanding of the complexity of the cardiovascular system is incomplete without a knowledge of the venous system. It is important for students to understand that, in a closed system, like the circulatory system, changes to the venous side of the circulation have a knock-on effect on heart function and the arterial system and vice versa. Veins are capacitance vessels feeding blood to the right side of the heart. Changes in venous compliance have large effects on the volume of blood entering the heart and hence cardiac output by the Frank-Starling Law. In healthy steady-state conditions, venous return has to equal cardiac output, i.e., the heart cannot pump more blood than is delivered to it. A sound understanding of the venous system is essential in understanding how changes in cardiac output occur with changes in right atrial pressure or central venous pressure, and the effect these changes have on arterial blood pressure regulation. The aim of this paper is to detail simple hands-on physiological assessments that can be easily undertaken in the practical laboratory setting and that illustrate some key functions of veins. Specifically, we illustrate that venous valves prevent the backflow of blood, that venous blood pressure increases from the heart to the feet, that the skeletal muscle pump facilitates venous return, and we investigate the physiological and clinical significance of central venous pressure and how it may be assessed.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Fisiologia/educação , Veias/fisiologia , Pressão Venosa/fisiologia , Volume Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Humanos
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 396-407, July-Aug. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012340

RESUMO

The use of technology has increased tremendously, by means of more reliable, smaller, more accessible and specially more user-friendly devices, which provide a wider range of features, and promote significant benefits for the population and health professionals. It is in this context that monitors and apps for heart rate (HR) measurement have emerged. HR is a clinical vital sign of diagnostic and prognostic importance. In response to body movement, HR tends to increase, in a direct relationship with the intensity of exercise. HR was primarily measured by the count of arterial pulse, and recently, HR can be precisely measured by monitors, bracelets and smartphone apps capable to perform real-time measurements and storage of data. This paper aimed to make a brief and updated review on the theme, providing a broader view of advantages and limitations of these resources for HR measurement in exercise. HR monitors and apps use basically two types of technology, optical sensor (photoplethysmography) and electrical signal from the heart. In general, these devices have shown good accuracy in measuring HR and HR variability at rest, but there are differences between brands and models considering the type, mode and intensity of exercise. HR measurements by monitors and smartphone apps are simple, accessible and may help cardiologists in the monitoring of the intensity of aerobic exercise, focusing on health promotion and on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Palpação/métodos , Exercício , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Frequência Cardíaca , Arritmias Cardíacas , Prognóstico , Esportes , Débito Cardíaco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Tecnologia Biomédica , Teste de Esforço/métodos
15.
Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am ; 31(3): 349-366, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351555

RESUMO

This article reviews the use of vasoactive medications prescribed in the postoperative management of patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. With a focus on the influence these medications have on the physiologic contributors to cardiac output and blood pressure, insight into decision making related to use, titration, and discontinuation of these medications is provided. Case studies offer vignettes to demonstrate the application of knowledge gleaned from the article.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Cirurgia Torácica , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Contração Miocárdica , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios
16.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 705-715, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352818

RESUMO

Commonly used in vitro fertilization protocols produce pregnancies without a corpus luteum (CL), a major source of reproductive hormones. In vitro fertilization pregnancies without a CL showed deficient gestational increases of central (aortic) arterial compliance during the first trimester and were at increased risk for developing preeclampsia. Here, we investigated whether there was generalized impairment of cardiovascular adaptation in in vitro fertilization pregnancies without a CL compared with pregnancies conceived spontaneously or through ovarian stimulation, which lead to 1 and >1 CL, respectively (n=19-26 participants per cohort). Prototypical maternal cardiovascular adaptations of gestation were serially evaluated noninvasively, initially during the follicular phase before conception, 6× in pregnancy, and then, on average, 1.6 years post-partum. The expected increases of cardiac output, left atrial dimension, peak left ventricular filling velocity in early diastole (E wave velocity), peripheral/central arterial pulse pressure ratio, and global AC, as well as decrease in augmentation index were significantly attenuated or absent during the first trimester in women who conceived without a CL, when compared with the 1 and >1 CL cohorts, which were comparable. Thereafter, these cardiovascular measures showed recovery in the 0 CL group except for E wave velocity, which remained depressed. These results provided strong support for a critical role of CL factor(s) in the transformation of the maternal cardiovascular system in early gestation. Regimens that lead to the development of a CL or replacement of missing CL factor(s) may be indicated to improve cardiovascular function and reduce preeclampsia risk in in vitro fertilization pregnancies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Corpo Lúteo/patologia , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Saúde Materna , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso
17.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; 53(5): 235-246, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327253

RESUMO

Objective. To examine how liver function (LF) relates to invasive hemodynamics cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in advanced heart failure (AHF) patients treated with maximally tolerated medical HF therapy. Design. A retrospective study of 309 consecutive AHF patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% treated with maximally tolerated medical HF therapy who were referred for AHF therapies. All patients underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) using Swan-Ganz catheters. Cardiac output was measured using thermodilution. Measurements of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac index (CI) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were obtained. RHC and evaluation of LF were repeated (median (IQR) = 186.5 (150-208) days) in 33 patients. Results. Mean (SD) age was 50 (±13) years, and 239 (77%) were men. Only 22 (7%) were treated with inotropes, and none were receiving mechanical circulatory support. Median (IQR) plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) was 32 (22-53) U/l, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 82 (63-122) U/l, bilirubin 14 (9-22) µmol/l, albumin 39 (35-43) g/l, lactate dehydrogenase 212 (175-275) U/l, and the prothrombin time/International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR) 1.1 (1.0-1.3). In multivariate analyses significant associations between LF tests and hemodynamics were seen for CVP: ALP (ß = 0.031, p = .0002), bilirubin (ß = 0.027, p = .004), and INR (ß = 0.013, p = .002). PCWP (ß = 0.020, p = .002) and CI (ß = -0.17, p = .005) were also associated with bilirubin. Over time, changes in bilirubin correlated positively with changes in CVP (ß = 1.496, p = .005). Conclusion. In optimally treated AHF patients, CVP was associated with both markers of biliary excretion and liver synthesis function, whereas changes in CVP were associated with changes in markers of biliary excretion. Decongestion may improve measures of LF in AHF.


Assuntos
Bilirrubina/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Fígado/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Biomarcadores/sangue , Débito Cardíaco , Cateterismo de Swan-Ganz , Pressão Venosa Central , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Testes de Função Hepática , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(8): 735-741, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The most common method of monitoring cardiac output (CO) is thermodilution using pulmonary artery catheter (PAC), but this method is associated with complications. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a non-invasive CO monitoring technique. This study compared the accuracy and efficacy of ICG as a non-invasive cardiac function monitoring technique to those of thermodilution and arterial pressure contour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients undergoing liver transplantation were included. Cardiac index (CI) was measured by thermodilution using PAC, arterial waveform analysis, and ICG simultaneously in each patient. Statistical analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis to assess the degree of agreement. RESULTS: The difference by thermodilution and ICG was 1.13 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were -0.93 and 3.20 L/min/m². The difference by thermodilution and arterial pressure contour was 0.62 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were -1.43 and 2.67 L/min/m². The difference by arterial pressure contour and ICG was 0.50 L/min/m², and the limits of agreement were -1.32 and 2.32 L/min/m². All three percentage errors exceeded the 30% limit of acceptance. Substantial agreement was observed between CI of thermodilution with PAC and ICG at preanhepatic and anhepatic phases, as well as between CI of thermodilution and arterial waveform analysis at preanhepatic phase. Others showed moderate agreement. CONCLUSION: Although neither method was clinically equivalent to thermodilution, ICG showed more substantial correlation with thermodilution method than with arterial waveform analysis. As a non-invasive cardiac function monitor, ICG would likely require further studies in other settings.


Assuntos
Cardiografia de Impedância , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Monitorização Fisiológica , Débito Cardíaco , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(8): 688-695, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Changes in gravity or body position provoke changes in hydrostatic pressure in the arterial system and in venous return. Potential asymmetries between left (QLV) and right ventricular (QRV) cardiac output during transient gravity changes were investigated. It was hypothesized that blood volume is temporarily stored in the pulmonary vessels, with amount and duration depending on the level and directions of gravity.METHODS: Eight healthy, male subjects (32 ± 3 yr, 182 ± 7 cm, 82 ± 6 kg) were tested on a tilt seat (TS), in a long arm human centrifuge (laHC), and during parabolic flights (PF). The gravitational changes during PF were reconstructed by changing gravity in a laHC and different body positions on a TS. All participants were tested in the seated, resting position. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded continuously and QLV was calculated, applying the Modelflow Algorithm. Gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath. QRV was calculated from these data according to the Fick Principle. Four sequences were superimposed and analyzed by ANOVA with the factors Time, Ventricle (QRV, QLV), and Mode (TS, PF, laHC).RESULTS: After reductions in gravity QRV and QLV were transiently desynchronized. ANOVA showed no main effect for Mode, but significant changes were found for Time and Ventricle and all interactions.DISCUSSION: Phases of reduced gravity seem to lead to transiently increased storage of blood volume inside the pulmonary vascular system. A more detailed understanding of these mechanisms might help to describe the compliance of the pulmonary vascular system in diseases of the pulmonary circulation.Hoffmann U, Koschate J, Appell Coriolano H-J, Drescher U, Thieschäfer L, Dumitrescu D, Werner A. Adaptation of systemic and pulmonary circulation to acute changes in gravity and body position. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(8):688-695.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Hipergravidade/efeitos adversos , Postura/fisiologia , Voo Espacial , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Centrifugação , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia
20.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 211-214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF) have a 50% five-year mortality rate and approximately 650,000 new cases of CHF are diagnosed annually. Plant-based diets are known to improve plasma lipid concentrations, reduce blood pressure, and as part of a lifestyle intervention, lead to the regression of atherosclerotic lesions. However, a paucity of data exists with regards to plant-based diets in the treatment of CHF. METHODS: Three patients diagnosed with CHF opted to undergo a dietary intervention consisting of a defined plant-based diet as an adjunct to standard medical treatment for CHF. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Patients' consumed the defined plant-based diet for an average of ˜79 days. RESULTS: Follow-up cardiac magnetic resonance images revealed a 92% increase in ejection fraction [mean ±â€¯standard deviation for all data] (22.0 ±â€¯6.9% vs 42.2 ±â€¯18.4%), 21% reduction in left ventricular mass (214 ±â€¯90 g vs 170 ±â€¯102 g), 62% increase in stroke volume (55.8 ±â€¯24.3 cc vs 90.3 ±â€¯30.6 cc) and a 17% increase in cardiac output (3.6 ±â€¯1.2 L/min vs 4.2 ±â€¯1.6 L/min). In patient 1, 90-95% ostial stenosis of the left anterior descending artery nearly completely regressed following the dietary intervention. All patients subjectively reported significant clinical improvements, including less angina, shortness of breath and fatigue. CONCLUSION: As an adjunct treatment, a defined plant-based diet may contribute to the reversal of cardiac morphological and functional abnormalities in the setting of CHF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/dietoterapia , Idoso , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Dieta Vegetariana , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
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