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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401772

RESUMO

We explore the phenological response by Danish hoverflies (Syrphidae) to continually rising annual temperatures by analysing >50.000 natural history collection and citizen science records for 37 species collected between 1900 and 2018, a period during which the annual average temperature in Denmark rose significantly (p << 0.01). We perform a simple linear regression analysis of the 10th percentile observation date for each species against year of observation. Fourteen of the species showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation between 10th percentile date and year of observation, indicating earlier emergence as a likely response to climatic warming. Eighteen species showed a non-significant (p ≥ 0.05) negative correlation between 10th percentile date and year of observation, while four species showed a non-significant (p ≥ 0.05) positive correlation, and one showed neither a positive nor a negative correlation. We explore the possible impact of the length of the data series on the regression analysis by dividing the species into four groups depending on how far back in time we have data: ultra-short series (with data from 2003-2018); short series (data from 1998-2018); medium series (data from 1980-2018); long series (data from 2018 to before 1980). The length of the series seems to have an effect on the results as 60% of the long series species (nine out of 15) showed a statistically significant negative correlation, while for the shorter series species less than 35% showed a statistically significant negative correlation. When we reduced the long series in length to short series, the proportion of statistically significant negative correlations fell to 33%, confirming this assumption. We conclude that northern temperate hoverflies generally react to the ongoing climatic warming by emerging earlier.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Aquecimento Global/história , Aclimatação , Animais , Ciência do Cidadão , Dinamarca , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Modelos Lineares , Museus , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294130

RESUMO

In order to investigate the impact of confinement in a car trunk on decomposition and insect colonization of carcasses, three freshly killed pig (Sus scrofa domesticus Erxleben) carcasses were placed individually in the trunks of older model cars and deployed in a forested area in the southwestern region of British Columbia, Canada, together with three freshly killed carcasses which were exposed in insect-accessible protective cages in the same forest. Decomposition rate and insect colonization of all carcasses were examined twice a week for four weeks. The exposed carcasses were colonized immediately by Calliphora latifrons Hough and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) followed by Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen) and Protophormia terraenovae (R.-D.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). There was a delay of three to six days before the confined carcasses were colonized, first by P. regina, followed by Pr. terraenovae. These species represented the vast majority of blow fly species on the confined carcasses. Despite the delay in colonization, decomposition progressed much more rapidly in two of the confined carcasses in comparison with the exposed carcasses due to the greatly increased temperatures inside the vehicles, with the complete skeletonization of two of the confined carcasses ocurring between nine and 13 days after death. One confined carcass was an anomaly, attracting much fewer insects, supporting fewer larval calliphorids and decomposing much more slowly than other carcasses, despite similarly increased temperatures. It was later discovered that the vehicle in which this carcass was confined had a solid metal fire wall between the passenger area and the trunk, which served to reduce insect access and release of odors. These data may be extremely valuable when analyzing cadavers found inside vehicle trunks.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Automóveis , Colúmbia Britânica , Cadáver , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patologia Legal , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Suínos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Sci Justice ; 60(2): 173-179, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111291

RESUMO

Blow flies are common primary colonizers of carrion, play an important role in the transfer of microbes between environments, and serve as a vector for many human pathogens. While some investigation has begun regarding the bacteria associated with different life stages of blow flies, a well replicated study is currently not available for the majority of blow flies. This study investigated bacteria associated with successive life stages of blow fly species Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina. A total of 38 samples were collected from four true replicates of L. sericata and P. regina. Variable region four (V4) of 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) was amplified and sequenced on MiSeq FGx sequencing platform using universal 16S rDNA primers and dual-index sequencing strategy. Bacterial communities associated with different life stages of L. sericata and P. regina didn't differ significantly from each other. In both blow fly species, Bacilli (e.g., Lactococcus) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Providencia) constituted >95% of all bacterial classes across all life stages. At the genus level, Vagococcus and Leuconostoc were present at relatively high abundances in L. sericata whereas Yersinia and Proteus were present at comparatively high abundances in P. regina. Overall, information on bacterial structures associated with various life stages of blow flies can help scientists in better understanding or management of vector-borne pathogen dispersal and in increasing the accuracy of microbial evidence based postmortem interval (PMI) prediction models.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dípteros/microbiologia , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Microbiota , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Virginia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110323, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066008

RESUMO

The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) have become a promising candidate for waste disposal and are an ideal feed source for animal nutrition. The uptake of heavy metals could influence the growth of BSFL, but the effects of heavy metal pressures on the gut microbiota of BSFL are largely uncharacterized. Here, we examine the influences of Cu and Cd on the growth and gut microbiota of BSFL as well as the distribution of accumulated heavy metals in the larvae and their feces. Exposure to Cu (from 100 to 800 mg/kg) and Cd (from 10 to 80 mg/kg) did not significantly inhibit the weight gain of BSFL. With elevated exposure doses, the contents of both Cu and Cd accumulated in the bodies and feces of BSFL were remarkably increased. In the BSFL feces, Cu mainly existed as residues, while Cd mainly existed as either water-soluble states (in the low-exposure groups) or residues (in the high-exposure groups). Cd was more readily enriched (47.1%-91.3%) than Cu (<30%) in vivo. More importantly, exposure to Cu and Cd remarkably altered the gut microbiota of BSFL, particularly in the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. High exposure to the metals (i.e., Cu-800 and Cd-80 groups) substantially decreased the abundances of most of the dominant families, but significantly stimulated the enrichment of Brucellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Campylobacteraceae, and Enterococcaceae. Moreover, the bacterial diversity in the BSFL gut was significantly reduced following high exposure to the metals. These results may fill a gap in our knowledge of the effects of heavy metals on the intestinal microbiome of BSFL.


Assuntos
Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bioacumulação , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacocinética , Cobre/farmacologia , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dípteros/metabolismo , Dípteros/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Larva/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Eliminação de Resíduos
5.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 959-965, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036987

RESUMO

Effects of total replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with defatted black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) on egg production and quality, organ weight, and apparent retention (AR) of components were investigated in Shaver White hens from 28 to 43 wk of age. A total of 108 birds, (6 birds/cage) were assigned to three diets (6 replicates/diet). Diets were control corn-SBM diet and two additional diets made with the addition of either 10 or 15% BSFLM. Diets met or exceeded breeder specifications, contained TiO2 as an indigestible marker, and were prepared in pellet form. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Hen-day egg production (HDEP) was monitored daily. Feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) were monitored in 4-wk intervals. All eggs laid on the sixth day of wks 31, 35, 39, and 43 were used for egg weight (EW), Haugh units (HU), yolk color (YC), shell breaking strength (SBS), and shell thickness (ST). Excreta samples were collected for 3 consecutive days on wk 33 for AR and two birds/cage were necropsied at the end. There were no (P > 0.05) diet effects on HDEP, FI, and HU. Inclusion of BSFLM linearly decreased (P < 0.05) egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) BW. There was no (P > 0.05) interaction between diet and sampling time point on egg quality parameters. Inclusion of BSFLM increased SBF and YC linearly (P < 0.05) and ST quadratically (P = 0.028). Inclusion of BSFLM quadratically (P ≤ 0.01) reduced empty ceca weight and increased liver weight and had no effect (P > 0.05) on gizzard, small intestine, and pancreas weights. Feeding BSFLM linearly (P = 0.001) and quadratically (P = 0.007) increased apparent metabolizable energy (AME). Data showed that defatted BSFLM resulted in deeper orange yolks and improved eggshell quality; however, unfavorable FCR linked to lighter eggs as well as heavier birds and liver warrants further investigations.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dípteros/química , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Larva/química , Óvulo/fisiologia
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110075, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794867

RESUMO

The list of factors influencing the development of forensically important insects and the related effects on minimum post mortem (PMImin) estimations is long and well established by various authors in forensic entomology over the last decades. Despite the fact that several authors mention precocious egg development, i.e. first instar larva in the genital tract of some species of Calliphoridae, as a potential error source for PMImin estimations just two studies were performed to examine the occurrence of precocious eggs both in laboratory and field populations of blow flies. In the present study the occurrence of gravid females with precocious eggs in a wild population of Calliphora vicina in Frankfurt am Main was surveyed over 152 days and their seasonal distribution was analyzed as well as the influence of abiotic variables on their abundance. During the sampling occasions, 5.216 females were sampled of which 44 % were gravid. 54 % of all gravid females had a precocious egg/first instar larva in their genital tract. This number varied depending on the season and showed the highest amount in spring with almost 64 % of all gravid females. Hence, precocious eggs in wild populations of blow flies can occur much more frequently than mentioned in forensic literature. Consequences for the evaluation of entomological evidence in forensic casework should not be overrated since focusing alone on the largest larva in a sample is not recommended as the sole reference in an entomological PMImin estimation. The entomological report has to justify its findings, discuss different options and finally state what is considered to be the most likely scenario based on the complete evidence (e.g. including all species and relevant age cohorts as well as succession data) and the case specific history.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Entomologia Forense , Larva/fisiologia , Animais , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oviposição/fisiologia , Ovoviviparidade/fisiologia , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
7.
J Biotechnol ; 310: 62-67, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877336

RESUMO

This work provides methods for chitosan production with larval exoskeletons from Hermetia illucens and characterizes the produced material. The study aims to provide optimal reaction conditions for the purification of chitin from insect material and evaluates the key characteristics of the insect-based chitosan compared to crab shell chitosan. H. illucens is a sustainable source of high-quality protein, lipids and compost currently applied as aquaculture feed and soil improver. The ecdysis of the H. illucens larvae results in larval exoskeletons (LE) rich in chitin and suitable for chitosan production. Using procedures based on crab shell processing, two steps were performed to purify chitin from the larval exoskeletons. The results showed that formic acid is a suitable demineralization agent, requiring 5 mol per kg larval exoskeletons and thorough washing afterwards for 89 % demineralization effectivity (DME). The effect of the deproteinization variables were explored via design of experiments and analyzed using linear regression resulting in chitin contents of the deproteinized material of 83 % in small-scale and 87 % in 10 L-scale, respectively. Heterogeneous and homogeneous deacetylation was performed to convert chitin in different chitosan fractions. Heterogeneous deacetylation at 120 °C resulted in a deacetylation degree (DD) of 72 % and a yield of 43 % at maximum with regard to the total chitin applied. Homogeneous deacetylation at 4 °C resulted in a low chitosan yield of 13 % and a DD of 34 %. However, chitosan solubilized in acetic acid revealed superior film forming properties and a high viscosity. The results indicated that the chitosan from insects has comparable properties than those produced from crab shells, although the properties are also strongly dependent on the manufacturing conditions.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/metabolismo , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/biossíntese , Animais , Quitosana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3237-3240, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655903

RESUMO

Chrysomya bezziana is an obligate, myiasis-causing fly in humans and warm-blooded animals throughout the tropical and subtropical Old World. We report a case of cutaneous myiasis due to C. bezziana in a dog from Guangxi province in China. A total of 35 maggots were removed from the lesions. Direct sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed that the specimen belonged to haplotype CB_bezz02, which was previously reported in Malaysia and the Gulf region. This paper also reviews reported cases of screwworm myiasis from humans and animals in China. Geographical records indicate that the distribution of C. bezziana is expanding, suggesting that an integrated pest management control should be taken into consideration in China.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Miíase/veterinária , Animais , China , Citocromos b/genética , Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cães , Haplótipos , Humanos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Miíase/parasitologia
9.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(6): 1646-1652, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372636

RESUMO

Thousands of black soldier larvae hatch simultaneously from eggs laid within rotting vegetation or animal carcasses. Over the next few weeks, they grow while compressed by both their surroundings and each other. When compressed, these larvae rearrange to reduce the forces upon them. How quickly can larvae rearrange, and what final state do they choose? In this experimental study, we use a universal testing machine to conduct creep tests on larvae, squeezing them to set volume fractions and measuring the time course of their reaction force. Live larvae come to equilibrium at a rate 10 times faster than dead larvae, indicating that their small movements can rearrange them faster than just settling. The relaxation of dead larvae is well described by stretched exponentials, which also characterize hierarchical self-avoiding materials such as polymers or balls of crumpled aluminum foil. The equilibrium pressures of live larvae are comparable to those of dead larvae, suggesting that such pressures are dictated by the physics of their bodies rather than their behavior. Live larvae perform fluctuations to actively maintain this equilibrium pressure. This ability to survive large pressures might have applications in the larvae-rearing industry, where both live and dead larvae are packed in containers for shipping.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Movimento , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 9979-9988, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411878

RESUMO

A delta class glutathione S-transferase gene (BoGSTd2) is identified from Bradysia odoriphaga for the first time. Developmental expression analysis showed that expression of BoGSTd2 is significantly higher in the fourth instar larval stage and the adult stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis found that BoGSTd2 was expressed predominantly in the midgut and Malpighian tubules in the fourth instar larvae and the abdomen of adults. Expression of BoGSTd2 was significantly upregulated following exposure to chlorpyrifos and clothianidin. In vitro inhibition and metabolic assays indicated that recombinant BoGSTd2 could not directly metabolize chlorpyrifos and clothianidin. Nevertheless, disk diffusion assays indicated that BoGSTd2 plays an important role in protection against oxidative stress. RNAi assays showed that BoGSTd2 participates in the elimination of reactive oxygen species induced by chlorpyrifos and clothianidin. These results strongly suggest that BoGSTd2 plays an important role in chlorpyrifos and clothianidin detoxification in B. odoriphaga by protecting tissues from oxidative stress induced by these insecticides.


Assuntos
Dípteros/enzimologia , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Animais , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Dípteros/genética , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dípteros/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Inativação Metabólica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Tiazóis/metabolismo
11.
J Med Entomol ; 56(6): 1623-1635, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290542

RESUMO

In forensic entomology, the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) estimative is usually based on the oldest immature recovered from a local of death. The time spent by fly immatures in the intrapuparial period comprises more than 50% of their complete life cycles. An accurate estimate of the duration of this period will improve PMImin estimates. The blow fly Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani 1850) was found in six criminal cases in the city of Curitiba. Even though there is data on the morphology of the larval instars and developmental rate of H. semidiaphana, the intrapuparial period has not been investigated. Here, we provide a detailed description of the intrapuparial morphological changes of H. semidiaphana, which might be useful to estimate minimum PMI. Samples of H. semidiaphana in the intrapuparial period were obtained from immatures reared on an artificial diet in incubators adjusted to 25°C or 20°C temperature regimes. Blow fly puparia of H. semidiaphana were fixed at intervals of 3 and 6 h until emergence of the adult. The external morphological traits of sampled immatures were analyzed using light microscopy. Our analysis of the intrapuparial period of H. semidiaphana provided 21 traits from which nine were age informative. These nine characteristics divide the developmental time (144 h at 25°C and 192 h at 20°C) into smaller sections. The developmental data provided, together with the time line allows a practical way to make interspecific comparisons as well as to estimate the age of H. semidiaphana based on the intrapuparial development.


Assuntos
Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Brasil , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/anatomia & histologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
J Med Entomol ; 56(6): 1598-1604, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287880

RESUMO

The inhibitory effect of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) larval excretions-secretions (ES) on Staphylococcus aureus was determined using a portable colorimetric method without the need for any dedicated spectral instrument. Polystyrene 96 well microplates were used and 100 µl of the bacterial inoculum (5 × 105 CFU/ml) plus 100 µl of the dipteran exosecretions at different concentrations were added to each well. Subsequently, 50 µl of a 1% solution of the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stain was added to each well to determine the bacterial viability. The color development in each well was measured with the ImageJ software S. aureus was exposed to different concentrations of the ES of both species individually. At a concentration of 800 ppm ES of C. rufifacies or Co. macellaria, bacterial growth was inhibited 97.45 ± 1.70% and 82.21 ± 1.88%, respectively. As expected, exposure to a lower concentration (i.e., 50 ppm) was less inhibitory (C. rufifacies ES, 77.65 ± 4.25% and Co. macellaria ES, 43.54 ± 4.63%). This study demonstrates for the first time the bactericidal activity of C. rufifacies and Co. macellaria ES against S. aureus. This finding is promising as it could result in the identification and synthesis of proteins capable of suppressing pathogen development in wounds. Additionally, the proposed method can simplify the use of expensive laboratory instruments for antimicrobial activity determination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dípteros/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Secreções Corporais/química , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
J Med Entomol ; 56(5): 1215-1224, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329911

RESUMO

The age of insects found on corpses is often used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval by forensic entomologists. Insect development is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, and temperature is the most important environmental factor that determines the length of insect development. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a globally distributed fly that is commonly found on corpses, and this study investigated the development of C. rufifacies from China at various constant temperatures. At 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C, the developmental time from egg to adult was 870.17 ± 11.50, 566.20 ± 8.79, 406.38 ± 10.98, 291.14 ± 4.71, 232.59 ± 5.96, 192.47 ± 3.45, and 160.48 ± 7.15 h, respectively. We established three developmental models for C. rufifacies to estimate the age of the developing insect: the isomorphen diagram model, the isomegalen diagram model and the thermal summation model. Regression analysis was conducted to obtain the relationship between body length and development time of the larvae from hatching to wandering. The developmental threshold temperatures of the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, and wandering larvae, and intra-puparial stages were 12.28 ± 0.30, 11.74 ± 0.95, 12.70 ± 0.55, 11.68 ± 0.96, 10.53 ± 1.53, and 12.51 ± 0.41°C, respectively. The developmental threshold temperature, and the thermal summation constant during the entire developmental period were 3759.95 ± 170.80 degree hours and 11.96 ± 0.38°C, respectively. This study provides an improved dataset to estimate the postmortem interval of corpses using C. rufifacies.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Entomologia Forense , Temperatura Alta , Animais , China , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Med Entomol ; 56(6): 1590-1597, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265073

RESUMO

The decomposition of a living being involves a series of changes produced by a number of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the colonization of blowflies on the decomposition of chicken carcasses and on the emission of sulfur compounds. The loss of the mass of carcasses and the release rate of sulfur compounds were compared for 30 d in chicken carcasses with and without blowflies in field conditions. The tissue degradation was slower in the carcasses without insects compared to those colonized by blowflies. The decomposition stages of fresh, bloated, active decay, and advanced decay were observed in the carcasses without flies; while the decomposition stages of fresh, active decay, advanced decay, and dry remains were identified in carcasses with flies. Two sulfur compounds, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, were present during the entire decomposition process. The emission of these compounds is not directly associated with the presence of the blowflies' immature stages during the whole decomposition process. However, in cadavers with insects, the highest emission of both compounds occurred in day 2, while in cadavers without insects, the peak of emission was observed in day 4. In addition, the presence of the larval stages I and II of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) matched with the peak of emission of both compounds.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Galinhas , Dípteros/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Cadáver , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudanças Depois da Morte
15.
J Med Entomol ; 56(6): 1726-1728, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237327

RESUMO

Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), commonly known as black soldier fly is a dipterous species which can produce enteric pseudomyiasis in humans and domestic animals. Veterinary cases of intestinal myiasis caused by H. illucens in dogs have not been reported previously. We present this rare pseudomyiasis (= accidental myiasis) produced by infestation with several larvae of the intestinal tract in a dog inhabiting a city in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Miíase/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças do Cão/classificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Miíase/classificação , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/parasitologia
16.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(7): 549-558, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230224

RESUMO

Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer, is an invasive cecidomyiid pest that causes serious losses of Brassica oilseed and vegetable crops in the Northeastern U.S. and Canada. Currently, few alternatives to systemic insecticides exist for its management. Because a single feeding larva can render heading Brassica crops unmarketable, management strategies that prevent oviposition are needed urgently. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is a promising management approach for swede midge because it prevents mating and subsequent crop damage. While the swede midge pheromone has been identified, one of the major barriers to using it in mating disruption is the high cost of synthesis. Racemic blends, consisting of natural and non-natural stereoisomers, could be useful for mating disruption because they are cheaper to produce. However, it is not clear whether racemic pheromone blends attract males and/or prevent them from locating and mating with females. Here, we studied the behavior of male swede midge in Y-tube and wind tunnel bioassays to pheromone blends. Specifically, we tested whether males: (1) are attracted to different doses of pheromone, (2) discriminate between blends comprising natural stereospecific or racemic components, or a combination thereof, and (3) are able to locate and copulate with females in pheromone-permeated olfactometers. We found that picogram amounts of pheromone attracted males and prevented them from locating females in y-tube olfactometers. While males were more attracted to stereospecific blends, compared to racemic blends, all blends tested prevented nearly all males mating with females. Therefore, low dose racemic blends may be promising for pheromone-mediated mating disruption.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Animais , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estereoisomerismo
17.
J Med Entomol ; 56(6): 1571-1581, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219576

RESUMO

Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius is one of the most common myiasis-causing and carrion-feeding fly species in the tropics. This species has a worldwide distribution due to globalization and therefore is of critical importance to the public health sector and forensic investigations. Development studies carried worldwide show that Ch. megacephala reared at similar temperatures may require different amounts of time to complete their cycle of growth. The present study determined for the first time the life-history information of this species in Sri Lanka. Chrysomya megacephala colonies were reared on three different food sources (bovine muscle, swine muscle, and swine liver) considering the most common forensic entomology rearing mediums and the capability of Ch. megacephala to cause myiasis in cattle. Furthermore, colonies were reared at four temperature regimes representing several specific development conditions of this blowfly: 1) 20°C representing the estimation of the lower developmental threshold for this species in Sri Lanka; 2) 25 and 27°C representing typical room/environmental temperatures in Sri Lanka; and 3) 38°C as this is the typical living animal temperature, representing myiasis conditions. Results show that temperature significantly affected larval length and width over time; however, tissue type was not a significant factor. The fastest development was recorded at 38°C for immature feeding on bovine muscle (162.15 h), followed by those fed swine liver (184.15 h) and swine muscle (208.00 h). The calculated minimum temperature threshold for Ch. megacephala was 13°C. Data generated will be crucial for future forensic investigations involving living or deceased individuals colonized by this species.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Bovinos , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Fígado , Músculos , Sri Lanka , Sus scrofa , Temperatura
18.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039194

RESUMO

The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is an endemic fly species from the tropical, subtropical and warm temperate zones of America. This saprophagous species relies on its environment where it finds the decomposing matter for the larvae to grow. The polyphagous diet and the macronutrient quality (mainly lipids and proteins) of these larvae make them excellent candidates for various applications such as waste and organic material management, incorporation in animal feed or alternative energy source. Although rearing development in temperate regions requires artificial processes to continuously produce high quality eggs and larvae, few studies have been conducted on the mating and oviposition processes governing H. illucens reproduction. Research conducted in semi-artificial rearing conditions showed that the number of mating varied according to the season. It has been speculated that this behavior could be due to differences in the intensity of sunlight caused by the change of seasons. This study aims at evaluating the influence of sex-ratio, density and nycthemeral cycle on H. illucens reproduction. In order to tackle this issue, an artificial set up for oviposition to collect eggs has been developed. This egg collection system aims at centralize oviposition and simplify eggs collection. Two populations with opposite sex-ratio (male-dominant and female-dominant) were selected. Their respective eggs productions have been evaluated for five breeding densities. Eggs weights varied significantly among the densities for each opposite sex-ratio population and female dominant population produced most eggs weight from 6500 individuals /m3. Finally, four nycthemeral cycles (2, 6, 12 and 18h of daily light) were simulated to evaluate the impact of light duration on reproduction. Early oviposition pic associated with a decrease of the oviposition period are shown when H. illucens are exposed to increasing light duration. These experiments enable improvement of the understanding on artificial reproduction of H. illucens.


Assuntos
Dípteros/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Luz , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Razão de Masculinidade
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(10): 2830-2839, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Garlic is the second largest allium crop after onion and is grown all over the world. The onion maggot (Delia antiqua M.) is a pest that seriously affects the yield and quality of garlic. Cultural controls and insecticides have several potential problems, including pesticide residue and development of resistance. Screening resistant varieties is an ideal alternative method. RESULTS: The resistance of 213 accessions of garlic clones against onion maggot was identified. The results showed that the pest index was between 5.56% and 91.11%, with classification into six groups by cluster analysis: HR (highly resistant), R (resistant), MR (moderately resistant), MS (moderately susceptible), S (susceptible) and HS (highly susceptible). Among these accessions, 9 and 30 were HR and R to onion maggot, respectively. Comparing the resistances of seven pairs of accessions between the original accessions and their progenies showed that single bulb clonal selection could be an effective way to improve allicin content, onion maggot resistance and most morphological traits. The relationship between allicin content and resistance was investigated, and a significant positive relationship was found. Accessions with a high content of allicin have great potential as resistant accessions. CONCLUSION: This study showed significant differences among garlic germplasm in their response to Delia antiqua M. Some accessions were highly resistant and tolerant. Utilization of these accessions will help minimize environmental pollution, preserve agro-ecosystems and biodiversity, and make management processes more economical. Furthermore, these accessions could be used in breeding programs to develop new maggot-resistant onion cultivars. © 2019 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Dípteros/fisiologia , Alho/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Ácidos Sulfínicos/análise , Animais , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067258

RESUMO

Antibiotics are commonly used in livestock and poultry farming. Residual antibiotics in manure may lead to antibiotic pollution of soil, surface water, and groundwater through land application and run-off rainfall. The black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens is a good candidate for manure management. We evaluated the effect of sulfonamide pollution on the growth of H. illucens. Four treatments were considered with a sulfonamide content in the feed of 0 (control group), 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg. The control larvae were fed without sulfonamide. Survival and development status of the individuals were recorded daily. The weights of the fifth instar larvae, prepupae, and pupae were checked. Antioxidant enzyme activity was determined with the fifth instar larvae. The results showed that a low (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) concentration of sulfonamides had no effects on larval survival, pupation, and eclosion of BSFs. A high sulfonamide concentration of 10 mg/kg had a significant effect on the survival of larvae and pupae and on the body weight of larvae, prepupae and pupae. Peak of the cumulated pupation rate and eclosion rate in the sulfonamide treatment of 10 mg/kg was very low. Pupation and eclosion in this group peaked later than that of the control and low sulfonamide concentration treatment groups (0.1 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg). Larvae from the sulfonamides group showed lower antioxidase activities than that of the control. In sulfonamide groups, the activity of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethazine were not detected in the harvested prepupae. Only sulfadiazine was discovered in the sulfonamide treatments of 1 and 10 mg/kg. In conclusion, BSFs can tolerate certain concentrations of sulfonamide contamination.


Assuntos
Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterco/parasitologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Animais , Dípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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