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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3285-3296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812144

RESUMO

The taxonomy of Hysterothylacium genus in Mediterranean waters remains incomplete and unresolved. The aim of the current study was to investigate the morphological and molecular identification of selected species of Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fish from the Tunisian Mediterranean coasts. A total of 192 marine fish samples were examined. In total, thirty-seven third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium type V. In the present study, representatives of this type from the Mediterranean Sea were genetically characterized for the first time by sequencing the rDNA ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) regions and mtDNA cox2 gene. This study represents the first report of Hysterothylacium type V from the Mediterranean Sea. We also report Mullus barbatus, M. surmuletus, and Pagellus erythrinus as new hosts for this larval type. Based upon molecular and phylogenetic analyses considering the rDNA ITS regions, the Hysterothylacium type V described here was classified as a new genotype, named Genotype B. The valid genetic data of the described Hysterothylacium type V in the present study can be used to establish the phylogenetic relationships among Hysterothylacium species from the Mediterranean Sea and worldwide for future research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Ascaridoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/classificação , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Genótipo , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4496-4501, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628104

RESUMO

Two yeast strains representing a novel species in the basidiomycetous yeast genus Naganishia were isolated from flowers of Sorbaria sorbifolia collected in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, PR China. Results of multi-gene phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two strains were closely related to the type strains of Naganishia bhutanensis (CBS 6294T) and Naganishia antarctica (CBS 7687T). However, the new isolates differed from N. bhutanensis CBS 6294T by 1.79 % sequence divergence in the D1/D2 domain (11 nt substitutions and three indels), and 2.42 % (15 nt differences and one indel) to N. antarctica CBS 7687T. In the ITS region, the new isolates showed 1.15 % divergence (7 nt substitutions and one indel) to N. bhutanensis CBS 6294T and 0.92 % divergence (5 nt substitutions and no indels) to N. antarctica CBS 7687T. A phylogenetic analysis employing the sequences of six genes (D1/D2 domain of large subunit rDNA, ITS, small subunit rDNA, two subunits of the RNA polymerase II and elongation factor-1α) indicated that the novel species belonged to the genus Naganishia and formed a well-supported clade with N. bhutanensis, N. antarctica and N. indica. Moreover, the two strains differed from their closest relatives by the ability to grow on distinct carbon and nitrogen sources and ability to grow at 30 °C. On the basis of these findings, we propose a novel species in the genus Naganishia (Filobasidiales), Naganishia floricola sp. nov. (holotype CGMCC 2.5856).


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/classificação , Flores/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rosaceae/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4458-4469, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674752

RESUMO

Four new yeast species belonging to the genus Apiotrichum and two new yeast species belonging to Cutaneotrichosporon are described for strains isolated from guano samples from bat-inhabited caves in Japan. In 2005, we reported these isolates as Trichosporon species based on sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domain of large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes according to available basidiomycetous yeast classification criteria; however, to date, they have not been officially published as new species with descriptions. Their phylogenetic positions have been reanalysed based on comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences (including the 5.8S rRNA gene) and the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene with those of known species; we confirmed clear separation from previously described species. Physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates also suggest their distinctiveness. Therefore, we describe Apiotrichum akiyoshidainum (holotype JCM 12595T), Apiotrichum chiropterorum (JCM 12594T), Apiotrichum coprophilum (JCM 12596T), Apiotrichum otae (JCM 12593T), Cutaneotrichosporon cavernicola (JCM 12590T) and Cutaneotrichosporon middelhovenii (JCM 12592T) as new species. C. cavernicola showed particularly distinctive morphology including large inflated anomalous cells on the hyphae and germination from the cells, although clear clamp connections on the hyphae were not confirmed. Further study is needed to elucidate the morph of this species.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/classificação , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Japão , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008293, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569279

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the mainly pathologies or intestinal disorders that causes approximately 90% of reported cases of human microsporidiosis. To understand the prevalence and genotype distribution of E. bieneusi in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, 609 fecal samples were collected from children in kindergarten in Southern Xinjiang and screened for this pathogen by PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Thirty-six fecal samples (5.9%, 36/609) were positive for E. bieneusi, with the highest prevalence observed in children from Yopurga (17.5%, 11/63). Nine genotypes were identified, of which six were known (A, CHN6, D, EbpA, KB-1, and NIA1) and three were novel (CXJH1, CXJH2 and CXJH3). Genotype NIA1 was most prevalent (52.8%, 19/36), followed by genotypes D (16.7%, 6/36), A (8.3%, 3/36), and EbpA (8.3%, 3/36). The remaining five genotypes were detected in one sample each. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the E. bieneusi isolates clustered into two groups, one consisting of six genotypes (Group 1: A, CXJH1, D, EbpA, KB-1, and NIA1) and another consisting of three genotypes (Group 2: CHN6, CXJH2, and CXJH3). Our results confirmed that infection of E. bieneusi unusual dominant genotype NIA1 occurs in children in Xinjiang, China. Further epidemiological studies must be conducted to clarify potential sources of E. bieneusi infection in this area.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Variação Genética , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2405-2419, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559827

RESUMO

The morphology of two new scuticociliates, Uronema apomarinum sp. nov. and Homalogastra parasetosa sp. nov., isolated from a mangrove wetland in Shenzhen, PR China, was studied using live observation and the protargol impregnation method. Uronema apomarinum is characterized by a body size of about 20-35×10-15 µm in vivo, a partly two-rowed membranelle 1, and 12 or 13 somatic kineties. Homalogastra parasetosa is distinguished by a membranelle 1 comprising two longitudinal rows of basal bodies. Three Homalogastra setosa populations are suggested as subjective synonyms of the new species. Improved diagnoses of the genus Homalogastra Kahl, 1926 and its type species Homalogastra setosa Kahl, 1926 are provided. Results of phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rRNA gene and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region sequences indicate that U. apomarinum is most closely related to U. marinum, while the closest relative of H. parasetosa is H. setosa.


Assuntos
Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Filogenia , China , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Oligoimenóforos/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas de Prata , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2713-2717, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506253

RESUMO

Here, we provide the first mass molecular screening of medically important mosquitoes for Bartonella species using multiple genetic markers. We examined a total of 72,115 mosquito specimens, morphologically attributed to Aedes vexans (61,050 individuals), Culex pipiens (10,484 individuals) and species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (581 individuals) for Bartonella spp. The initial screening yielded 63 Bartonella-positive A. vexans mosquitoes (mean prevalence 0.1%), 34 Bartonella-positive C. pipiens mosquitoes (mean prevalence 0.3%) and 158 Bartonella-positive A. maculipennis group mosquitoes (mean prevalence 27.2%). Several different Bartonella ITS sequences were recovered. This study highlights the need for molecular screening of mosquitoes, the most important vectors of arthropod-borne pathogens, for potential bacterial agents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Culicidae/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Culicidae/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4321-4328, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579096

RESUMO

A collection of fungal isolates obtained from crop plants, specifically grapevine and blueberry, in Peru were characterised through morphological and DNA sequence analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), beta-tubulin (tub2) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef-1α) regions. Isolates produced monomorphic and dimorphic conidiophores typical of members of the genus Clonostachys. Single- and multi-locus gene phylogenies confirmed the isolates as representing members of the genus Clonostachys, more closely related to species in the subgenus Bionectria. In phylogenetic analyses the isolates grouped in two separate clades, one corresponding to the species Clonostachys pseudochroleuca and the other one distinct from all known species of the genus Clonostachys. These isolates are recognized as representing a novel species species for which the name Clonostachys viticola is proposed.


Assuntos
Hypocreales/classificação , Filogenia , Vitis/microbiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Hypocreales/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Peru , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4378-4383, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584748

RESUMO

Four isolates of two novel ascosporogenous species belonging to the clade Starmera were obtained from cactus tissues and rotting wood in Brazil. Results of analyses of the sequences of the ITS and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene indicated that the two isolates of the cactophilic species are related to Starmera caribaea and Starmera pilosocereana, yeasts that are associated with cacti and require an organic source of sulfur for growth. We propose the novel species Starmera foglemanii sp. nov. (CBS 16113T; MycoBank number: MB 834400) to accommodate these isolates. The other two isolates are phylogenetically related to Candida dendrica, Candida laemsonensis and Candida berthetii, also in the Starmera clade. The novel species name Starmera ilhagrandensis sp. nov. (CBS 16316T; MycoBank number: MB 834402) is proposed for this species.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Madeira/microbiologia , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4217-4223, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589574

RESUMO

Five yeast strains were isolated from the gut of the groundbeetle Pterostichus gebleri and rotting wood, which were collected from two different localities in China. These strains were identified as representing two novel species of the genus Blastobotrys through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Blastobotrys baotianmanensis sp. nov. produces two to three spherical ascospores per ascus, and is most closely related to the type strains of B. elegans, B. capitulata, B. arbuscula, and an undescribed species represented by strain BG02-7-20-006A-3-1. Blastobotrys baotianmanensis sp. nov. differed from these strains by 3.6-8.4 % divergence (21-46 substitutions and 0-4 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Blastobotrys xishuangbannaensis f.a., sp. nov. is closely related to B. nivea, B. elegans and B. aristata but the formation of ascospores was not observed on various sporulation media, and it differed from its relatives by 6.2-8.5 % divergence (34-43 substitutions and 2-6 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. The holotype of Blastobotrys baotianmanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 1581 and the holotype of Blastobotrys xishuangbannaensis f.a., sp. nov. is NYNU 181030.


Assuntos
Besouros/microbiologia , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Madeira/microbiologia , Animais , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Fúngicos
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1713-1728, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405803

RESUMO

In this study, we followed an integrative taxonomy approach to describe two new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832, and to identify specimens of G. breviradix Vega, Razzolini, Arbetman, and Viozzi, 2019, all three collected from ten spotted live-bearer Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842), an endemic and widespread poeciliid from the Pampean region, which is the southernmost occurring species of the Poeciliidae in the Americas. Gyrodactylids were first characterized morphologically and mophometrically, and when possible, sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) were used to delimit species. Gyrodactylus breviradix, Gyrodactylus marplatensis n. sp., and Gyrodactylus pampeanus n. sp. were found on the fins and body surface of C. decemmaculatus in La Tapera Creek, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. A phylogenetic analysis combining newly generated sequences of one of the new species, G. marplatensis n. sp., and of G. breviradix, along with those available in GenBank for a further 36 species of Gyrodactylus, revealed that G. marplatensis n. sp. is a sister taxon of Gyrodactylus decemmaculati Vega, Razzolini, Arbetman, and Viozzi, 2019. Genetic distances for the ITS and COII gene were estimated among Gyrodactylus spp. and further supported the validity of the new species. Overall, morphometric and molecular data coincided in delimiting the new taxa, thus demonstrating the value of integrative taxonomy for the erection of new species of Gyrodactylus and species identification.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Argentina , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3491-3496, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374249

RESUMO

During studies on the endophytic yeast communities associated with fruits from Vietnam, three fermenting yeast strains were isolated from fruits of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the ITS regions and D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that these strains represented a single species of the Yamadazyma clade that was distinct from the other related species. The new species represented a basal branch of the clade formed by the Yamadazyma species i.e. Y. insecticola and Y. takamatsuzukensis. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characteristics, the studied strains were assigned to a novel species of the genus Yamadazyma, for which the name Yamadazyma cocois f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The holotype is VCIM 4241, with the ex-type cultures VTCC 920004=VKM Y-3049=KBP Y-6091 code 17-68. The MycoBank number is MB 834435.


Assuntos
Cocos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Fermentação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vietnã
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3449-3454, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375951

RESUMO

Plants are important reservoirs of described and undescribed species of yeast. During a study of yeasts associated with bromeliads from the Northeast region of Brazil (collected in 2013-2017), analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region identified eleven strains of yeasts as representing an unknown species of the genus Vishniacozyma. The species may have a diverse habitat in Brazil as a strain was collected from a flowering plant (Acanthaceae) in 1994. As a consequence, we propose Vishniacozyma alagoana sp. nov. as a member of the tremellomycetes yeasts (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota). Vishniacozyma alagoana sp. nov. was found in Atlantic Forest (a tropical rainforest) and the Caatinga (a seasonally dry tropical forest) associated with bromeliads in northeast and southeastern Brazil. The proposed novel species is related to Vishniacozyma taibaiensis and distinguished by eight nucleotide substitutions in the D1/D2 domain and seventeen in the ITS region. In addition, Vishniacozyma alagoana sp. nov. differs from V. taibaiensis by the ability to assimilate ribitol. The holotype is CBS 15966T.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/classificação , Bromeliaceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3374-3378, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375978

RESUMO

Kluyveromyces osmophilus, a single-strain species isolated from Mozambique sugar, has been treated a synonym of Zygosaccharomyces mellis. Analyses of D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the species belongs to the genus Zygosaccharomyces but showed it to be distinct from strains of Z. mellis. During studies of yeasts associated with stingless bees in Brazil, nine additional isolates of the species were obtained from unripe and ripe honey and pollen of Scaptotrigona cfr. bipunctata, as well as ripe honey of Tetragonisca angustula. The D1/D2 sequences of the Brazilian isolates were identical to those of the type strain of K. osmophilus CBS 5499 (=ATCC 22027), indicating that they represent the same species. Phylogenomic analyses using 4038 orthologous genes support the reinstatement of K. osmophilus as a member of the genus Zygosaccharomyces. We, therefore, propose the name Zygosaccharomyces osmophilus comb. nov. (lectotype ATCC 22027; MycoBank no. MB 833739).


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Mel/microbiologia , Kluyveromyces/classificação , Pólen/microbiologia , Zygosaccharomyces/classificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3475-3482, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379017

RESUMO

This study describes a novel fungal species belonging to the genus Gongronella. During a previous work focusing on metalaxyl degradation by Mucorales strains, two isolates from vineyard soil samples collected in the Alentejo region, south Portugal, were identified as a putative novel species based on combined molecular and MALDI-TOF MS data. This new species is described here using a polyphasic approach that combines morphology, internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS) and 28S ribosomal DNA (LSU) sequence data analysis and proteomic profiling by MALDI-TOF MS. Phenotypic and molecular data enabled this novel species to be clearly distinguished from other Gongronella species with results of combined ITS+LSU analysis showing that the Gongronella species is related to Gongronella butleri and Gongronella brasiliensis. Therefore, from the results of morphological and molecular analyses, isolates MUM 10.262 and MUM 10.263 seem to represent a new Gongronella species and the name Gongronella eborensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the ex-type strain MUM 10.262 (=CCMI 1100=CBS 128763).


Assuntos
Mucorales/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Mucorales/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Portugal , Proteômica , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitis
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3673-3678, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416736

RESUMO

The strain DMKU-XD44, representing an anamorphic novel yeast species, was isolated from soil collected in a peat swamp forest (PSF) area in Rayong Botanical Garden in eastern Thailand. On the basis of sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, Teunia cuniculi CBS 10309T was the most closely related species. The novel species differed from the T. cuniculi type by 2.5 % (14 nucleotide substitutions) in the D1/D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and by 8.0 % (40 nucleotide substitutions) in the ITS region. The results of a phylogenetic analysis, based on the combined sequences of the ITS region and the D1/D2 region, indicated that DMKU-XD44 represents a member of the Teunia clade in the Cryptococcaceae (Tremellales, Tremellomycetes, Agaricomycotina and Basidiomycota) and is phylogenetically distinct from other species of the genus Teunia in the clade. Therefore, DMKU-XD44 represents a novel species of the genus Teunia. The name Teunia siamensis f.a., sp. nov. is proposed. The holotype is DMKU-XD44, while the MycoBank number is MB 832816.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/classificação , Florestas , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3379-3390, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375944

RESUMO

During a survey of fungi in native forests in Chile, several unidentified isolates of Diaporthe were collected from different hosts. The isolates were characterized based on DNA comparisons, morphology, culture characteristics and host affiliation, in accordance with previous descriptions. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region, combined with partial tub2 and tef1 genes, showed that the isolates formed three distinct groups representing three new taxa. The three new species of Diaporthe, Diaporthe araucanorum on Araucaria araucana, Diaporthe foikelawen on Drimys winteri and Diaporthe patagonica on Aristotelia chilensis are described and illustrated in the present study.


Assuntos
Florestas , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Chile , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes Fúngicos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2664-2676, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238230

RESUMO

This study examined over 20 fungal specimens of the Orbiliaceae (Orbiliomycetes) from different regions in China. Our analyses based on morphological traits and the ITS rDNA sequences revealed two new Orbilia species with drechslerella-like asexual morphs. These new species are able to trap nematodes with constricting rings. In addition, Orbilia cf. orientalis is reported as a new cryptic Chinese variant of European collections of O. orientalis. All three species are described and illustrated in detail in this paper. Their phylogenetic relationships with other orbiliaceous species were identified based on their ITS sequences.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/classificação , Filogenia , Árvores/microbiologia , Animais , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Florestas , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Nematoides/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 148: 106804, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247883

RESUMO

Concerted evolution of the ribosomal DNA array has been studied in numerous eukaryotic taxa, yet is still poorly understood. rDNA genes are repeated dozens to hundreds of times in the eukaryotic genome (Eickbush and Eickbush, 2007) and it is believed that these arrays are homogenized through concerted evolution (Zimmer et al., 1980; Dover, 1993) preventing the accumulation of intragenomic, and intraspecific, variation. However, numerous studies have reported rampant intragenomic and intraspecific variation in the rDNA array (Ganley and Kobayashi, 2011; Naidoo et al., 2013; Hughes and Petersen, 2001; Lindner and Banik, 2011; Li et al., 2013; Lindner et al., 2013; Hughes et al., 2018), contradicting our current understanding of concerted evolution. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA cistron are the most commonly used DNA barcoding region in Fungi (Schoch et al., 2012), and rely on concerted evolution to homogenize the rDNA array leading to a "barcode gap" (Puillandre et al., 2012). Here we show that in Boletus edulis Bull., ITS intragenomic variation persists at low allele frequencies throughout the rDNA array, this variation does not correlate with genomic relatedness between populations, and rDNA genes may not evolve in a strictly concerted fashion despite the presence of unequal recombination and gene conversion. Under normal assumptions, heterozygous positions found in ITS sequences represent hybridization between populations, yet through allelic mapping of the rDNA array we found numerous heterozygous alleles to be stochastically introgressed throughout, presenting a dishonest signal of gene flow. Moreover, despite the signal of gene flow in ITS, our organisms were highly inbred, indicating a disconnect between true gene flow and barcoding signals. In addition, we show that while the mechanisms of concerted evolution are ongoing in pseudo-heterozygous individuals, they are not fully homogenizing the ITS array. Concerted evolution of the rDNA array may insufficiently homogenize the ITS gene, allowing for misleading signals of gene flow to persist, vastly complicating the use of the ITS locus for DNA barcoding in Fungi.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Fúngico , Haplótipos/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Metagenômica , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Filogenia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1729-1742, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307582

RESUMO

Being listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, knowledge on the biology, health and diseases of the scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith) is limited; this is especially true for its parasites. In this paper, a new species, Pulchrascaris australis, is morphologically described followed by genetic characterisation based on the sequence of the ITS region. The new species can be easily differentiated from its congeners based on the morphology of the mouthpart, spicules, plectanes, eggs and vulva. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish specimens in the present study from other parasitic nematodes found in the Australasian waters and elsewhere. The sequencing data also suggest that Terranova larval type I found previously in various fish from New Caledonian and Australian (Queensland) waters also belong to Pulchrascaris australis n. sp.


Assuntos
Ascaridoidea/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Tubarões/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Austrália , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2596-2601, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134373

RESUMO

Seven yeast strains, DMKU VGT1-14T, DMKU VGT1-19T, DMKU-JMGT1-28, DMKU-JMGT1-32, DMKU VGT2-06, DMKU VGT2-19 and DMKU VGT6-14, were isolated from a grease trap in Thailand and two strains, SJ-1 and SN-102 were isolated from the sea surface microlayer in Taiwan. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, these strains represented two novel yeast species of the genus Wickerhamiella. In terms of pairwise sequence similarity, four strains, DMKU VGT1-14, DMKU-JMGT1-32, DMKU VGT6-14 and SN-102, were closely related to Wickerhamiella infanticola NRRL Y-17858T but differed by 13 nucleotide substitutions with one gap (2.46 %) in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene and 15 nucleotide substitutions with 23 gaps (4.2 %) in the ITS region. The strains DMKU VGT1-19T, DMKU-JMGT1-28, DMKU VGT2-06, DMKU VGT2-19 and SJ-1, differed from the type strain of the most closely related species, Wickerhamiella sorbophila NRRL Y-7921T, by nine nucleotide substitutions with one gap (1.66 %) in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene and nine nucleotide substitutions with 17 gaps (2.52%) in the ITS region. Hence, the names Wickerhamiella osmotolerans sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella tropicalis sp. nov. are proposed to accommodate these species in the genus Wickerhamiella. The holotypes are W. osmotolerans DMKU VGT1-14T (ex-type strain TBRC 11425=PYCC 8359=CGMCC 2.6179; Mycobank number 833394) and W. tropicalis DMKU VGT1-19T (ex-type strain TBRC 11426=PYCC 8360=CGMCC 2.6180; Mycobank number 833393).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Taiwan , Tailândia
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