Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.193
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4486, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900989

RESUMO

Centromeres are epigenetically determined nuclear domains strictly required for chromosome segregation and genome stability. However, the mechanisms regulating centromere and kinetochore chromatin modifications are not known. Here, we demonstrate that LSH is enriched at meiotic kinetochores and its targeted deletion induces centromere instability and abnormal chromosome segregation. Superresolution chromatin analysis resolves LSH at the inner centromere and kinetochores during oocyte meiosis. LSH knockout pachytene oocytes exhibit reduced HDAC2 and DNMT-1. Notably, mutant oocytes show a striking increase in histone H3 phosphorylation at threonine 3 (H3T3ph) and accumulation of major satellite transcripts in both prophase-I and metaphase-I chromosomes. Moreover, knockout oocytes exhibit centromere fusions, ectopic kinetochore formation and abnormal exchange of chromatin fibers between paired bivalents and asynapsed chromosomes. Our results indicate that loss of LSH affects the levels and chromosomal localization of H3T3ph and provide evidence that, by maintaining transcriptionally repressive heterochromatin, LSH may be essential to prevent deleterious meiotic recombination events at repetitive centromeric sequences.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Meiose/fisiologia , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Centrômero/genética , Centrômero/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/deficiência , DNA Helicases/genética , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação , Transcrição Genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4287, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855419

RESUMO

Warsaw Breakage Syndrome (WABS) is a rare disorder related to cohesinopathies and Fanconi anemia, caused by bi-allelic mutations in DDX11. Here, we report multiple compound heterozygous WABS cases, each displaying destabilized DDX11 protein and residual DDX11 function at the cellular level. Patient-derived cell lines exhibit sensitivity to topoisomerase and PARP inhibitors, defective sister chromatid cohesion and reduced DNA replication fork speed. Deleting DDX11 in RPE1-TERT cells inhibits proliferation and survival in a TP53-dependent manner and causes chromosome breaks and cohesion defects, independent of the expressed pseudogene DDX12p. Importantly, G-quadruplex (G4) stabilizing compounds induce chromosome breaks and cohesion defects which are strongly aggravated by inactivation of DDX11 but not FANCJ. The DNA helicase domain of DDX11 is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and resistance to G4 stabilizers. We propose that DDX11 is a DNA helicase protecting against G4 induced double-stranded breaks and concomitant loss of cohesion, possibly at DNA replication forks.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Troca de Cromátide Irmã , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Proliferação de Células , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/química , DNA Helicases/química , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Estabilidade Proteica , Pseudogenes , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Síndrome , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008965, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760058

RESUMO

The mobilizable resistance island Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is specifically mobilized by IncA and IncC conjugative plasmids. SGI1, its variants and IncC plasmids propagate multidrug resistance in pathogenic enterobacteria such as Salmonella enterica serovars and Proteus mirabilis. SGI1 modifies and uses the conjugation apparatus encoded by the helper IncC plasmid, thus enhancing its own propagation. Remarkably, although SGI1 needs a coresident IncC plasmid to excise from the chromosome and transfer to a new host, these elements have been reported to be incompatible. Here, the stability of SGI1 and its helper IncC plasmid, each expressing a different fluorescent reporter protein, was monitored using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Without selective pressure, 95% of the cells segregated into two subpopulations containing either SGI1 or the helper plasmid. Furthermore, FACS analysis revealed a high level of SGI1-specific fluorescence in IncC+ cells, suggesting that SGI1 undergoes active replication in the presence of the helper plasmid. SGI1 replication was confirmed by quantitative PCR assays, and extraction and restriction of its plasmid form. Deletion of genes involved in SGI1 excision from the chromosome allowed a stable coexistence of SGI1 with its helper plasmid without selective pressure. In addition, deletion of S003 (rep) or of a downstream putative iteron-based origin of replication, while allowing SGI1 excision, abolished its replication, alleviated the incompatibility with the helper plasmid and enabled its cotransfer to a new host. Like SGI1 excision functions, rep expression was found to be controlled by AcaCD, the master activator of IncC plasmid transfer. Transient SGI1 replication seems to be a key feature of the life cycle of this family of genomic islands. Sequence database analysis revealed that SGI1 variants encode either a replication initiator protein with a RepA_C domain, or an alternative replication protein with N-terminal replicase and primase C terminal 1 domains.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Conjugação Genética/genética , Ilhas Genômicas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Plasmídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteus mirabilis/genética , Salmonella enterica/genética , Transativadores/genética
4.
Mol Cell ; 79(4): 645-659.e9, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692974

RESUMO

Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less ribonucleoprotein condensates that form in response to various stress stimuli via phase separation. SGs act as a protective mechanism to cope with acute stress, but persistent SGs have cytotoxic effects that are associated with several age-related diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the testis-specific protein, MAGE-B2, increases cellular stress tolerance by suppressing SG formation through translational inhibition of the key SG nucleator G3BP. MAGE-B2 reduces G3BP protein levels below the critical concentration for phase separation and suppresses SG initiation. Knockout of the MAGE-B2 mouse ortholog or overexpression of G3BP1 confers hypersensitivity of the male germline to heat stress in vivo. Thus, MAGE-B2 provides cytoprotection to maintain mammalian spermatogenesis, a highly thermosensitive process that must be preserved throughout reproductive life. These results demonstrate a mechanism that allows for tissue-specific resistance against stress and could aid in the development of male fertility therapies.


Assuntos
Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas com Motivo de Reconhecimento de RNA/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/patologia , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo de Reconhecimento de RNA/metabolismo , Espermatogônias/citologia , Espermatogônias/patologia , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/metabolismo
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20100-20108, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727902

RESUMO

Mutation of HELLS (Helicase, Lymphoid-Specific)/Lsh in human DNA causes a severe immunodeficiency syndrome, but the nature of the defect remains unknown. We assessed here the role of Lsh in hematopoiesis using conditional Lsh knockout mice with expression of Mx1 or Vav Cre-recombinase. Bone marrow transplantation studies revealed that Lsh depletion in hematopoietic stem cells severely reduced B cell numbers and impaired B cell development in a hematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. Lsh-deficient mice without bone marrow transplantation exhibited lower Ig levels in vivo compared to controls despite normal peripheral B cell numbers. Purified B lymphocytes proliferated normally but produced less immunoglobulins in response to in vitro stimulation, indicating a reduced capacity to undergo class switch recombination (CSR). Analysis of germline transcripts, examination of double-stranded breaks using biotin-labeling DNA break assay, and End-seq analysis indicated that the initiation of the recombination process was unscathed. In contrast, digestion-circularization PCR analysis and high-throughput sequencing analyses of CSR junctions and a chromosomal break repair assay indicated an impaired ability of the canonical end-joining pathway in Lsh-deficient B cells. Our data suggest a hematopoietic cell-intrinsic role of Lsh in B cell development and in CSR providing a potential target for immunodeficiency therapy.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , DNA Helicases/genética , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação
6.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 936-941, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the expression of HELQ and RAD51C in normal endometrial and endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and analyze their correlation with the clinical features of the patients. METHODS: The expressions of HELQ and RAD51C proteins were detected by immunohistochemical staining in normal endometrial tissues (14 cases) and tumor tissues from patients with ESS (37 cases) treated in Hunan Provincial Cancer Hospital from January, 2013 to December, 2016. The correlations of the expressions of the two proteins with the patients'age, FIGO staging, tissue type, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis were analyzed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expressions of HELQ and RAD51C were both decreased in ESS patients compared with the normal group, and there was a positive correlation between HELQ and RAD51C expression (P < 0.05). HELQ expression in ESS was correlated with the tumor size and type. The expressions of HELQ and RAD51C were not correlated with the patients' age, FIGO stage and status of lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Homologous recombination- directed DNA repair involving HELQ and RAD51C may participate in the occurrence and progression of ESS.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Sarcoma do Estroma Endometrial , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/fisiopatologia , Sarcoma do Estroma Endometrial/fisiopatologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3419, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647123

RESUMO

The development and function of the brain require tight control of gene expression. Genome architecture is thought to play a critical regulatory role in gene expression, but the mechanisms governing genome architecture in the brain in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we report that conditional knockout of the chromatin remodeling enzyme Chd4 in granule neurons of the mouse cerebellum increases accessibility of gene regulatory sites genome-wide in vivo. Conditional knockout of Chd4 promotes recruitment of the architectural protein complex cohesin preferentially to gene enhancers in granule neurons in vivo. Importantly, in vivo profiling of genome architecture reveals that conditional knockout of Chd4 strengthens interactions among developmentally repressed contact domains as well as genomic loops in a manner that tightly correlates with increased accessibility, enhancer activity, and cohesin occupancy at these sites. Collectively, our findings define a role for chromatin remodeling in the control of genome architecture organization in the mammalian brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Genoma , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Genéticos , Ligação Proteica
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649682

RESUMO

Mutations of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex occur in 20% of all human cancers, including ovarian cancer. Approximately half of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC) carry mutations in the SWI/SNF subunit ARID1A, while small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) presents with inactivating mutations of the SWI/SNF ATPase SMARCA4 alongside epigenetic silencing of the ATPase SMARCA2. Loss of these ATPases disrupts SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling activity and may also interfere with the function of other histone-modifying enzymes that associate with or are dependent on SWI/SNF activity. One such enzyme is lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), which regulates the chromatin landscape and gene expression by demethylating proteins such as histone H3. Cross-cancer analysis of the TCGA database shows that LSD1 is highly expressed in SWI/SNF-mutated tumors. SCCOHT and OCCC cell lines have shown sensitivity to the reversible LSD1 inhibitor SP-2577 (Seclidemstat), suggesting that SWI/SNF-deficient ovarian cancers are dependent on LSD1 activity. Moreover, it has been shown that inhibition of LSD1 stimulates interferon (IFN)-dependent anti-tumor immunity through induction of endogenous retroviral elements and may thereby overcome resistance to checkpoint blockade. In this study, we investigated the ability of SP-2577 to promote anti-tumor immunity and T-cell infiltration in SCCOHT and OCCC cell lines. We found that SP-2577 stimulated IFN-dependent anti-tumor immunity in SCCOHT and promoted the expression of PD-L1 in both SCCOHT and OCCC. Together, these findings suggest that the combination therapy of SP-2577 with checkpoint inhibitors may induce or augment immunogenic responses of SWI/SNF-mutated ovarian cancers and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/farmacologia , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Mol Cell ; 79(4): 603-614.e8, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579943

RESUMO

Translating ribosomes that slow excessively incur collisions with trailing ribosomes. Persistent collisions are detected by ZNF598, a ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates sites on the ribosomal 40S subunit to initiate pathways of mRNA and protein quality control. The collided ribosome complex must be disassembled to initiate downstream quality control, but the mechanistic basis of disassembly is unclear. Here, we reconstitute the disassembly of a collided polysome in a mammalian cell-free system. The widely conserved ASC-1 complex (ASCC) containing the ASCC3 helicase disassembles the leading ribosome in an ATP-dependent reaction. Disassembly, but not ribosome association, requires 40S ubiquitination by ZNF598, but not GTP-dependent factors, including the Pelo-Hbs1L ribosome rescue complex. Trailing ribosomes can elongate once the roadblock has been removed and only become targets if they subsequently stall and incur collisions. These findings define the specific role of ASCC during ribosome-associated quality control and identify the molecular target of its activity.


Assuntos
Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Sistema Livre de Células , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Terminação de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Polirribossomos/genética , Polirribossomos/metabolismo , Coelhos , Subunidades Ribossômicas/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Ubiquitinação
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7483-7501, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510132

RESUMO

The MLE DExH helicase and the roX lncRNAs are essential components of the chromatin modifying Dosage Compensation Complex (DCC) in Drosophila. To explore the mechanism of ribonucleoprotein complex assembly, we developed vitRIP, an unbiased, transcriptome-wide in vitro assay that reveals RNA binding specificity. We found that MLE has intrinsic specificity for U-/A-rich sequences and tandem stem-loop structures and binds many RNAs beyond roX in vitro. The selectivity of the helicase for physiological substrates is further enhanced by the core DCC. Unwinding of roX2 by MLE induces a highly selective RNA binding surface in the unstructured C-terminus of the MSL2 subunit and triggers-specific association of MLE and roX2 with the core DCC. The exquisite selectivity of roX2 incorporation into the DCC thus originates from intimate cooperation between the helicase and the core DCC involving two distinct RNA selection principles and their mutual refinement.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Ligação Proteica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Esophageal atresia with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) occurs approximately 1 in 3.500 live births representing the most common malformation of the upper digestive tract. Only half a century ago, EA/TEF was fatal among affected newborns suggesting that the steady birth prevalence might in parts be due to mutational de novo events in genes involved in foregut development. METHODS: To identify mutational de novo events in EA/TEF patients, we surveyed the exome of 30 case-parent trios. Identified and confirmed de novo variants were prioritized using in silico prediction tools. To investigate the embryonic role of genes harboring prioritized de novo variants we performed targeted analysis of mouse transcriptome data of esophageal tissue obtained at the embryonic day (E) E8.5, E12.5, and postnatal. RESULTS: In total we prioritized 14 novel de novo variants in 14 different genes (APOL2, EEF1D, CHD7, FANCB, GGT6, KIAA0556, NFX1, NPR2, PIGC, SLC5A2, TANC2, TRPS1, UBA3, and ZFHX3) and eight rare de novo variants in eight additional genes (CELSR1, CLP1, GPR133, HPS3, MTA3, PLEC, STAB1, and PPIP5K2). Through personal communication during the project, we identified an additional EA/TEF case-parent trio with a rare de novo variant in ZFHX3. In silico prediction analysis of the identified variants and comparative analysis of mouse transcriptome data of esophageal tissue obtained at E8.5, E12.5, and postnatal prioritized CHD7, TRPS1, and ZFHX3 as EA/TEF candidate genes. Re-sequencing of ZFHX3 in additional 192 EA/TEF patients did not identify further putative EA/TEF-associated variants. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that rare mutational de novo events in genes involved in foregut development contribute to the development of EA/TEF.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Atresia Esofágica/genética , Exoma/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/genética , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
12.
Life Sci ; 256: 117820, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512012

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common malignant tumors in children. Chemotherapy resistance is one of the significant challenges in the treatment of high-risk NB patients, and it is necessary to search for new valid targets for NB treatment. This study aims to explore the possible role of PIF1 in NB by using bioinformatic analysis and downregulation of PIF1 with specific siRNA. Kyoto genome encyclopedia and R language based gene ontology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (including PIF1) when MYCN expression was silenced in NB cells. Analysis based on the R2 database showed a lower expression of PIF1 correlated with good prognosis in NB patients. Downregulation of MYCN expression by transfecting MYCN siRNA (#1, #2) into NB cells decreased the PIF1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, while upregulation of MYCN expression by transfecting MYCN overexpressed plasmid increased the PIF1 expression. We further found that downregulation of PIF1 expression by transfecting PIF1 siRNA (#1, #2) into NB cells, increased the number of apoptotic cells, inhibited the cell survival, decreased the ability of cell migration and induced a cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. These data indicated that PIF1, as a potential new target of MYCN, maybe a novel target for NB treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Biologia Computacional , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Regulação para Cima
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7239-7251, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542379

RESUMO

Telomeres cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and distinguish them from broken DNA ends to suppress DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and genomic instability. Telomeres are elongated by telomerase to compensate for incomplete replication and nuclease degradation and to extend the proliferation potential of germ and stem cells and most cancers. However, telomeres in somatic cells gradually shorten with age, ultimately leading to cellular senescence. Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is characterized by accelerated telomere shortening and diverse symptoms including bone marrow failure, immunodeficiency, and neurodevelopmental defects. HHS is caused by germline mutations in telomerase subunits, factors essential for its biogenesis and recruitment to telomeres, and in the helicase RTEL1. While diverse phenotypes were associated with RTEL1 deficiency, the telomeric role of RTEL1 affected in HHS is yet unknown. Inducible ectopic expression of wild-type RTEL1 in patient fibroblasts rescued the cells, enabled telomerase-dependent telomere elongation and suppressed the abnormal cellular phenotypes, while silencing its expression resulted in gradual telomere shortening. Our observations reveal an essential role of the RTEL1 C-terminus in facilitating telomerase action at the telomeric 3' overhang. Thus, the common etiology for HHS is the compromised telomerase action, resulting in telomere shortening and reduced lifespan of telomerase positive cells.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Homeostase do Telômero , Células Cultivadas , DNA Helicases/química , DNA Helicases/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Encurtamento do Telômero
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7265-7278, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544229

RESUMO

DNA2 is an essential nuclease-helicase implicated in DNA repair, lagging-strand DNA synthesis, and the recovery of stalled DNA replication forks (RFs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, dna2Δ inviability is reversed by deletion of the conserved helicase PIF1 and/or DNA damage checkpoint-mediator RAD9. It has been suggested that Pif1 drives the formation of long 5'-flaps during Okazaki fragment maturation, and that the essential function of Dna2 is to remove these intermediates. In the absence of Dna2, 5'-flaps are thought to accumulate on the lagging strand, resulting in DNA damage-checkpoint arrest and cell death. In line with Dna2's role in RF recovery, we find that the loss of Dna2 results in severe chromosome under-replication downstream of endogenous and exogenous RF-stalling. Importantly, unfaithful chromosome replication in Dna2-mutant cells is exacerbated by Pif1, which triggers the DNA damage checkpoint along a pathway involving Pif1's ability to promote homologous recombination-coupled replication. We propose that Dna2 fulfils its essential function by promoting RF recovery, facilitating replication completion while suppressing excessive RF restart by recombination-dependent replication (RDR) and checkpoint activation. The critical nature of Dna2's role in controlling the fate of stalled RFs provides a framework to rationalize the involvement of DNA2 in Seckel syndrome and cancer.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , DNA , Dano ao DNA , DNA Helicases/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
15.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(17)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541066

RESUMO

Rad3 is the orthologue of ATR and the sensor kinase of the DNA replication checkpoint in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Under replication stress, it initiates checkpoint signaling at the forks necessary for maintaining genome stability and cell survival. To better understand the checkpoint initiation process, we have carried out a genetic screen in fission yeast by random mutation of the genome, looking for mutants defective in response to the replication stress induced by hydroxyurea. In addition to the previously reported mutant with a C-to-Y change at position 307 encoded by tel2 (tel2-C307Y mutant) (Y.-J. Xu, S. Khan, A. C. Didier, M. Wozniak, et al., Mol Cell Biol 39:e00175-19, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00175-19), this screen has identified six mutations in rqh1 encoding a RecQ DNA helicase. Surprisingly, these rqh1 mutations, except for a start codon mutation, are all in the helicase domain, indicating that the helicase activity of Rqh1 plays an important role in the replication checkpoint. In support of this notion, integration of two helicase-inactive mutations or deletion of rqh1 generated a similar Rad3 signaling defect, and heterologous expression of human RECQ1, BLM, and RECQ4 restored the Rad3 signaling and partially rescued a rqh1 helicase mutant. Therefore, the replication checkpoint function of Rqh1 is highly conserved, and mutations in the helicase domain of these human enzymes may cause the checkpoint defect and contribute to the cancer predisposition syndromes.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , DNA Fúngico/biossíntese , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Instabilidade Genômica , Hidroxiureia/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , RecQ Helicases/genética , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(7): 466-472, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536663

RESUMO

The patient was a 29-year-old male. He took his first steps at two-and-a-half years old, but his physical strength deteriorated and he became non-ambulatory at 12 years old. He had respiratory failure at the age of 20, and finally underwent tracheostomy with invasive positive-pressure ventilation (TPPV). He showed distal dominant muscle weakness and atrophy, including the face. Spinal scoliosis was recognized. He had peripheral predominance of sensory disorders. Nerve conduction studies showed a decrease of compound muscle action potential and a reduction of motor nerve conduction velocity. Sensory nerve action potential was not evoked. In genetic analysis, c.23 C> T (p. T8M) heterozygous mutation was found in the senataxin gene (SETX). Although SETX is a causative gene of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4), this case suggests that SETX mutation can also cause motor and sensory polyneuropathy.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , Heterozigoto , Enzimas Multifuncionais/genética , Mutação , Polineuropatias/etiologia , Polineuropatias/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/genética , Adulto , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Neurônios Motores , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais
17.
Mol Cell ; 78(5): 926-940.e13, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369734

RESUMO

The eukaryotic replisome, organized around the Cdc45-MCM-GINS (CMG) helicase, orchestrates chromosome replication. Multiple factors associate directly with CMG, including Ctf4 and the heterotrimeric fork protection complex (Csm3/Tof1 and Mrc1), which has important roles including aiding normal replication rates and stabilizing stalled forks. How these proteins interface with CMG to execute these functions is poorly understood. Here we present 3 to 3.5 Å resolution electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) structures comprising CMG, Ctf4, and the fork protection complex at a replication fork. The structures provide high-resolution views of CMG-DNA interactions, revealing a mechanism for strand separation, and show Csm3/Tof1 "grip" duplex DNA ahead of CMG via a network of interactions important for efficient replication fork pausing. Although Mrc1 was not resolved in our structures, we determine its topology in the replisome by cross-linking mass spectrometry. Collectively, our work reveals how four highly conserved replisome components collaborate with CMG to facilitate replisome progression and maintain genome stability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Nucleares/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , DNA Helicases/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/fisiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
18.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 27, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distinct domestication events, adaptation to different climatic zones, and divergent selection in productive traits have shaped the genomic differences between taurine and indicine cattle. In this study, we assessed the impact of artificial selection and environmental adaptation by comparing whole-genome sequences from European taurine and Asian indicine breeds and from African cattle. Next, we studied the impact of divergent selection by exploiting predicted and experimental functional annotation of the bovine genome. RESULTS: We identified selective sweeps in beef cattle taurine and indicine populations, including a 430-kb selective sweep on indicine cattle chromosome 5 that is located between 47,670,001 and 48,100,000 bp and spans five genes, i.e. HELB, IRAK3, ENSBTAG00000026993, GRIP1 and part of HMGA2. Regions under selection in indicine cattle display significant enrichment for promoters and coding genes. At the nucleotide level, sites that show a strong divergence in allele frequency between European taurine and Asian indicine are enriched for the same functional categories. We identified nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions that are fixed for different alleles between subspecies, eight of which were located within the DNA helicase B (HELB) gene. By mining information from the 1000 Bull Genomes Project, we found that HELB carries mutations that are specific to indicine cattle but also found in taurine cattle, which are known to have been subject to indicine introgression from breeds, such as N'Dama, Anatolian Red, Marchigiana, Chianina, and Piedmontese. Based on in-house genome sequences, we proved that mutations in HELB segregate independently of the copy number variation HMGA2-CNV, which is located in the same region. CONCLUSIONS: Major genomic sequence differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus are enriched for promoter and coding regions. We identified a 430-kb selective sweep in Asian indicine cattle located on chromosome 5, which carries SNPs that are fixed in indicine populations and located in the coding sequences of the HELB gene. HELB is involved in the response to DNA damage including exposure to ultra-violet light and is associated with reproductive traits and yearling weight in tropical cattle. Thus, HELB likely contributed to the adaptation of tropical cattle to their harsh environment.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Alelos , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , Cruzamento , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Domesticação , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(5): 424-437, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398827

RESUMO

Oncogene activation during tumorigenesis generates DNA replication stress, a known driver of genome rearrangements. In response to replication stress, certain loci, such as common fragile sites and telomeres, remain under-replicated during interphase and subsequently complete locus duplication in mitosis in a process known as 'MiDAS'. Here, we demonstrate that RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1) has a genome-wide role in MiDAS at loci prone to form G-quadruplex-associated R-loops, in a process that is dependent on its helicase function. We reveal that SLX4 is required for the timely recruitment of RTEL1 to the affected loci, which in turn facilitates recruitment of other proteins required for MiDAS, including RAD52 and POLD3. Our findings demonstrate that RTEL1 is required for MiDAS and suggest that RTEL1 maintains genome stability by resolving conflicts that can arise between the replication and transcription machineries.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Genoma Humano/genética , Mitose , Animais , Linhagem Celular , DNA Helicases/química , DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA Polimerase III/metabolismo , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Camundongos , Enzimas Multifuncionais/genética , Enzimas Multifuncionais/metabolismo , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/genética , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo , Recombinases/genética , Recombinases/metabolismo , Ribonuclease H/genética , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo
20.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(5): 438-449, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398829

RESUMO

The SLX4 tumor suppressor is a scaffold that plays a pivotal role in several aspects of genome protection, including homologous recombination, interstrand DNA crosslink repair and the maintenance of common fragile sites and telomeres. Here, we unravel an unexpected direct interaction between SLX4 and the DNA helicase RTEL1, which, until now, were viewed as having independent and antagonistic functions. We identify cancer and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome-associated mutations in SLX4 and RTEL1, respectively, that abolish SLX4-RTEL1 complex formation. We show that both proteins are recruited to nascent DNA, tightly co-localize with active RNA pol II, and that SLX4, in complex with RTEL1, promotes FANCD2/RNA pol II co-localization. Importantly, disrupting the SLX4-RTEL1 interaction leads to DNA replication defects in unstressed cells, which are rescued by inhibiting transcription. Our data demonstrate that SLX4 and RTEL1 interact to prevent replication-transcription conflicts and provide evidence that this is independent of the nuclease scaffold function of SLX4.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , Recombinases/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação D2 da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Células HeLa , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Recombinases/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA