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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328096

RESUMO

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by severe sensitivity of skin to sunlight and an increased risk of skin cancer. XP variant (XPV), a milder subtype, is caused by variants in the POLH gene. POLH encodes an error-prone DNA-polymerase eta (pol eta) which performs translesion synthesis past ultraviolet photoproducts. The current study documents the clinical and genetic investigations of two large consanguineous Pakistani families affected with XPV. In family 1, whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed a novel frameshift variant, c.1723dupG (p.(Val575Glyfs*4)), of POLH, which is predicted to cause frameshift and premature truncation of the encoded enzyme. Indeed, our ex vivo studies in HEK293T cells confirmed the truncation of the encoded protein due to the c.1723dupG variant. In family 2, Sanger sequencing of POLH exons, revealed a recurrent nonsense variant, c.437dupA (p.Tyr146*). POLH forms a hetero-tetrameric POLZ complex with REV3L, REV7, POLD2 and POLD3. Next, we performed in silico analysis of POLH and other POLZ complex genes expression in publicly available single cell mRNAseq datasets from adult human healthy and aging skin. We found overlapping expression of POLH, REV3L and POLD2 in multiple cell types including differentiated and undifferentiated keratinocytes, pericytes and melanocytes in healthy skin. However, in aging human skin, POLH expression is reduced in compare to its POLZ complex partners. Insights from our study will facilitate counseling regarding the molecular and phenotypic landscape of POLH-related XPV.


Assuntos
Xeroderma Pigmentoso , Adulto , Consanguinidade , Reparo do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Paquistão , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/patologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269871

RESUMO

The spontaneous depurination of genomic DNA occurs frequently and generates apurinic/pyrimidinic (AP) site damage that is mutagenic or lethal to cells. Error-prone DNA polymerases are specifically responsible for the translesion synthesis (TLS) of specific DNA damage, such as AP site damage, generally with relatively low fidelity. The Y-family DNA polymerases are the main error-prone DNA polymerases, and they employ three mechanisms to perform TLS, including template-skipping, dNTP-stabilized misalignment, and misincorporation-misalignment. The bypass mechanism of the dinB homolog (Dbh), an archaeal Y-family DNA polymerase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, is unclear and needs to be confirmed. In this study, we show that the Dbh primarily uses template skipping accompanied by dNTP-stabilized misalignment to bypass AP site analogs, and the incorporation of the first nucleotide across the AP site is the most difficult. Furthermore, based on the reported crystal structures, we confirmed that three conserved residues (Y249, R333, and I295) in the little finger (LF) domain and residue K78 in the palm subdomain of the catalytic core domain are very important for TLS. These results deepen our understanding of how archaeal Y-family DNA polymerases deal with intracellular AP site damage and provide a biochemical basis for elucidating the intracellular function of these polymerases.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase beta , Sulfolobus acidocaldarius , Dano ao DNA , DNA Polimerase beta/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Sulfolobus acidocaldarius/genética
3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(7): 3944-3957, 2022 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323942

RESUMO

Most insertions or deletions generated by CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) endonucleases are short (<25 bp), but unpredictable on-target long DNA deletions (>500 bp) can be observed. The possibility of generating long on-target DNA deletions poses safety risks to somatic genome editing and makes the outcomes of genome editing less predictable. Methods for generating refined mutations are desirable but currently unavailable. Here, we show that fusing Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I or the Klenow fragment to Cas9 greatly increases the frequencies of 1-bp deletions and decreases >1-bp deletions or insertions. Importantly, doing so also greatly decreases the generation of long deletions, including those >2 kb. In addition, templated insertions (the insertion of the nucleotide 4 nt upstream of the protospacer adjacent motif) were increased relative to other insertions. Counteracting DNA resection was one of the mechanisms perturbing deletion sizes. Targeting DNA polymerase to double-strand breaks did not increase off-targets or base substitution rates around the cleavage sites, yet increased editing efficiency in primary cells. Our strategy makes it possible to generate refined DNA mutations for improved safety without sacrificing efficiency of genome editing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos
4.
ACS Synth Biol ; 11(4): 1488-1496, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320674

RESUMO

The charge states of proteins can greatly influence their stabilities and interactions with substrates, and the addition of multiple charges (supercharging) has been shown to be a successful approach for engineering protein stability and function. The addition of a fast-folding fusion domain to the Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA polymerase improved its functionality in isothermal amplification assays, and further charge engineering of this domain has increased both protein stability and diagnostics performance. When combined with mutations that stabilize the core of the protein, the charge-engineered fusion domain leads to the ability to carry out loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) at temperatures up to 74° C or in the presence of high concentrations of urea, with detection times under 10 min. Adding both positive and negative charges to the fusion domain led to changes in the relative reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase activities of the polymerase. Overall, the development of a modular fusion domain whose charged surface can be modified at will should prove to be of use in the engineering of other polymerases and, in general, may prove useful for protein stabilization.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Bacteriol ; 204(4): e0061121, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285726

RESUMO

Translesion synthesis (TLS) by specialized DNA polymerases (Pols) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for tolerating replication-blocking DNA lesions. Using the Escherichia coli dinB-encoded Pol IV as a model to understand how TLS is coordinated with the actions of the high-fidelity Pol III replicase, we previously described a novel Pol IV mutant containing a threonine 120-to-proline mutation (Pol IV-T120P) that failed to exchange places with Pol III at the replication fork in vitro as part of a Pol III-Pol IV switch. This in vitro defect correlated with the inability of Pol IV-T120P to support TLS in vivo, suggesting Pol IV gains access to the DNA, at least in part, via a Pol III-Pol IV switch. Interaction of Pol IV with the ß sliding clamp and the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) significantly stimulates Pol IV replication and facilitates its access to the DNA. In this work, we demonstrate that Pol IV interacts physically with Pol III. We further show that Pol IV-T120P interacts normally with the ß clamp, but is impaired in interactions with the α catalytic and εθ proofreading subunits of Pol III, as well as SSB. Taken together with published work, these results provide strong support for the model in which Pol IV-Pol III and Pol IV-SSB interactions help to regulate the access of Pol IV to the DNA. Finally, we describe several additional E. coli Pol-Pol interactions, suggesting Pol-Pol interactions play fundamental roles in coordinating bacterial DNA replication, DNA repair, and TLS. IMPORTANCE Specialized DNA polymerases (Pols) capable of catalyzing translesion synthesis (TLS) generate mutations that contribute to bacterial virulence, pathoadaptation, and antimicrobial resistance. One mechanism by which the bacterial TLS Pol IV gains access to the DNA to generate mutations is by exchanging places with the bacterial Pol III replicase via a Pol III-Pol IV switch. Here, we describe multiple Pol III-Pol IV interactions and discuss evidence that these interactions are required for the Pol III-Pol IV switch. Furthermore, we describe several additional E. coli Pol-Pol interactions that may play fundamental roles in managing the actions of the different bacterial Pols in DNA replication, DNA repair, and TLS.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase III/genética , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo
6.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(3): 512-521, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239327

RESUMO

Non-enzymatic alkylation on DNA often generates N7-alkyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N7alkylG) adducts as major lesions. N7alkylG adducts significantly block replicative DNA polymerases and can be bypassed by translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases such as polymerase η (polη). To gain insights into the bypass of N7alkylG by TLS polymerases, we conducted kinetic and structural studies of polη catalyzing across N7BnG, a genotoxic lesion generated by the carcinogenic N-nitrosobenzylmethylamine. The presence of templating N7BnG in the polη catalytic site decreased the replication fidelity by ∼9-fold, highlighting the promutagenicity of N7BnG. The catalytic efficiency for dCTP incorporation opposite N7BnG decreased ∼22-fold and ∼7-fold compared to the incorporation opposite undamaged guanine in the presence of Mg2+ and Mn2+, respectively. A crystal structure of the complexes grown with polη, templating N7BnG, incoming dCTP, and Mg2+ ions showed the lack of the incoming nucleotide and metal cofactors in the polη catalytic site. Interestingly, the templating N7BnG adopted a syn conformation, which has not been observed in the published N7alkylG structures. The preferential formation of syn-N7BnG conformation at the templating site may deter the binding of an incoming dCTP, causing the inefficient bypass by polη. In contrast, the use of Mn2+ in place of Mg2+ in co-crystallization yielded a ternary complex displaying an anti-N7BnG:dCTP base pair and catalytic metal ions, which would be a close mimic of a catalytically competent state. We conclude that certain bulky N7-alkylG lesions can slow TLS polymerase-mediated bypass by adopting a catalytically unfavorable syn conformation in the replicating base pair site.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Domínio Catalítico , Adutos de DNA , Reparo do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Metais/química
7.
Science ; 375(6586): 1281-1286, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298257

RESUMO

The tail of replication-dependent histone H3.1 varies from that of replication-independent H3.3 at the amino acid located at position 31 in plants and animals, but no function has been assigned to this residue to demonstrate a unique and conserved role for H3.1 during replication. We found that TONSOKU (TSK/TONSL), which rescues broken replication forks, specifically interacts with H3.1 via recognition of alanine 31 by its tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Our results indicate that genomic instability in the absence of ATXR5/ATXR6-catalyzed histone H3 lysine 27 monomethylation in plants depends on H3.1, TSK, and DNA polymerase theta (Pol θ). This work reveals an H3.1-specific function during replication and a common strategy used in multicellular eukaryotes for regulating post-replicative chromatin maturation and TSK, which relies on histone monomethyltransferases and reading of the H3.1 variant.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Instabilidade Genômica , Histonas/química , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Metiltransferases/genética , Mutação , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163266

RESUMO

DNA helicase and polymerase work cooperatively at the replication fork to perform leading-strand DNA synthesis. It was believed that the helicase migrates to the forefront of the replication fork where it unwinds the duplex to provide templates for DNA polymerases. However, the molecular basis of the helicase-polymerase coupling is not fully understood. The recently elucidated T7 replisome structure suggests that the helicase and polymerase sandwich parental DNA and each enzyme pulls a daughter strand in opposite directions. Interestingly, the T7 polymerase, but not the helicase, carries the parental DNA with a positively charged cleft and stacks at the fork opening using a ß-hairpin loop. Here, we created and characterized T7 polymerases each with a perturbed ß-hairpin loop and positively charged cleft. Mutations on both structural elements significantly reduced the strand-displacement synthesis by T7 polymerase but had only a minor effect on DNA synthesis performed against a linear DNA substrate. Moreover, the aforementioned mutations eliminated synergistic helicase-polymerase binding and unwinding at the DNA fork and processive fork progressions. Thus, our data suggested that T7 polymerase plays a dominant role in helicase-polymerase coupling and replisome progression.


Assuntos
DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Bacteriófago T7/enzimologia , Bacteriófago T7/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/fisiologia , Replicação do DNA/fisiologia , DNA Viral/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1050, 2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217661

RESUMO

The B-family multi-subunit DNA polymerase ζ (Polζ) is important for translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) during replication, due to its ability to extend synthesis past nucleotides opposite DNA lesions and mismatched base pairs. We present a cryo-EM structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Polζ with an A:C mismatch at the primer terminus. The structure shows how the Polζ active site responds to the mismatched duplex DNA distortion, including the loosening of key protein-DNA interactions and a fingers domain in an "open" conformation, while the incoming dCTP is still able to bind for the extension reaction. The structure of the mismatched DNA-Polζ ternary complex reveals insights into mechanisms that either stall or favor continued DNA synthesis in eukaryotes.


Assuntos
Pareamento Incorreto de Bases , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA , Dano ao DNA , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205211

RESUMO

DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) are extremely bulky adducts that interfere with replication. In human cells, they are processed by SPRTN, a protease activated by DNA polymerases stuck at DPCs. We have recently proposed the mechanism of the interaction of DNA polymerases with DPCs, involving a clash of protein surfaces followed by the distortion of the cross-linked protein. Here, we used a model DPC, located in the single-stranded template, the template strand of double-stranded DNA, or the displaced strand, to study the eukaryotic translesion DNA polymerases ζ (POLζ), ι (POLι) and η (POLη). POLι demonstrated poor synthesis on the DPC-containing substrates. POLζ and POLη paused at sites dictated by the footprints of the polymerase and the cross-linked protein. Beyond that, POLζ was able to elongate the primer to the cross-link site when a DPC was in the template. Surprisingly, POLη was not only able to reach the cross-link site but also incorporated 1-2 nucleotides past it, which makes POLη the most efficient DNA polymerase on DPC-containing substrates. However, a DPC in the displaced strand was an insurmountable obstacle for all polymerases, which stalled several nucleotides before the cross-link site. Overall, the behavior of translesion polymerases agrees with the model of protein clash and distortion described above.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , Eucariotos , DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Eucariotos/genética , Nucleotídeos , Proteínas/genética
11.
PLoS Genet ; 18(2): e1010051, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130276

RESUMO

Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a fundamental damage bypass pathway that utilises specialised polymerases with relaxed template specificity to achieve replication through damaged DNA. Misinsertions by low fidelity TLS polymerases may introduce additional mutations on undamaged DNA near the original lesion site, which we termed collateral mutations. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing datasets of chicken DT40 and several human cell lines to obtain evidence for collateral mutagenesis in higher eukaryotes. We found that cisplatin and UVC radiation frequently induce close mutation pairs within 25 base pairs that consist of an adduct-associated primary and a downstream collateral mutation, and genetically linked their formation to TLS activity involving PCNA ubiquitylation and polymerase κ. PCNA ubiquitylation was also indispensable for close mutation pairs observed amongst spontaneously arising base substitutions in cell lines with disrupted homologous recombination. Collateral mutation pairs were also found in melanoma genomes with evidence of UV exposure. We showed that collateral mutations frequently copy the upstream base, and extracted a base substitution signature that describes collateral mutagenesis in the presented dataset regardless of the primary mutagenic process. Using this mutation signature, we showed that collateral mutagenesis creates approximately 10-20% of non-paired substitutions as well, underscoring the importance of the process.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Mutação , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 322(3): E319-E329, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156394

RESUMO

DNA damage responses compete for cellular resources with metabolic pathways, but little is known about the metabolic consequences of impaired DNA replication, a process called replication stress. Here we characterized the metabolic consequences of DNA replication stress at endogenous DNA lesions by using mice with a disruption of Rev1, a translesion DNA polymerase specialized in the mutagenic replication of damaged DNA. Male and female Rev1 knockout (KO) mice were compared with wild-type (WT) mice and followed over time to study the natural course of body weight gain and glucose tolerance. Follow-up measurements were performed in female mice for in-depth metabolic characterization. Body weight and fat mass were only increased in female KO mice versus WT mice, whereas glucose intolerance and a reduction in lean mass were observed in both sexes. Female KO mice showed reduced locomotor activity while male KO mice showed increased activity as compared with their WT littermates. Further characterization of female mice revealed that lipid handling was unaffected by Rev1 deletion. An increased respiratory exchange ratio, combined with elevated plasma lactate levels and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis indicated problems with aerobic oxidation and increased reliance on anaerobic glycolysis. Supplementation with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside to stimulate aerobic respiration failed to restore the metabolic phenotype. In conclusion, replication stress at endogenous DNA lesions induces a complex metabolic phenotype, most likely initiated by muscular metabolic dysfunction and increased dependence on anaerobic glycolysis. Nicotinamide riboside supplementation after the onset of the metabolic impairment did not rescue this phenotype.NEW & NOTEWORTHY An increasing number of DNA lesions interferes with cellular replication leading to metabolic inflexibility. We utilized Rev1 knockout mice as a model for replication stress, and show a sex-dependent metabolic phenotype, with a pronounced reduction of lean mass and glucose tolerance. These data indicate that in obesity, we may end up in an infinite loop where metabolic disturbance promotes the formation of DNA lesions, which in turn interferes with cellular replication causing further metabolic disturbances.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Intolerância à Glucose , Animais , Peso Corporal , DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
13.
Elife ; 112022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179493

RESUMO

Sliding clamps are ring-shaped protein complexes that are integral to the DNA replication machinery of all life. Sliding clamps are opened and installed onto DNA by clamp loader AAA+ ATPase complexes. However, how a clamp loader opens and closes the sliding clamp around DNA is still unknown. Here, we describe structures of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader Replication Factor C (RFC) bound to its cognate sliding clamp Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) en route to successful loading. RFC first binds to PCNA in a dynamic, closed conformation that blocks both ATPase activity and DNA binding. RFC then opens the PCNA ring through a large-scale 'crab-claw' expansion of both RFC and PCNA that explains how RFC prefers initial binding of PCNA over DNA. Next, the open RFC:PCNA complex binds DNA and interrogates the primer-template junction using a surprising base-flipping mechanism. Our structures indicate that initial PCNA opening and subsequent closure around DNA do not require ATP hydrolysis, but are driven by binding energy. ATP hydrolysis, which is necessary for RFC release, is triggered by interactions with both PCNA and DNA, explaining RFC's switch-like ATPase activity. Our work reveals how a AAA+ machine undergoes dramatic conformational changes for achieving binding preference and substrate remodeling.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Proteína de Replicação C/química , Proteína de Replicação C/genética , Proteína de Replicação C/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
14.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215892

RESUMO

Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is a popular method for detecting RNA viruses in plants. RT-PCR is usually performed in a classical two-step procedure: in the first step, cDNA is synthesized by reverse transcriptase (RT), followed by PCR amplification by a thermostable polymerase in a separate tube in the second step. However, one-step kits containing multiple enzymes optimized for RT and PCR amplification in a single tube can also be used. Here, we describe an RT-PCR single-enzyme assay based on an RTX DNA polymerase that has both RT and polymerase activities. The expression plasmid pET_RTX_(exo-) was transferred to various E. coli genotypes that either compensated for codon bias (Rosetta-gami 2) or contained additional chaperones to promote solubility (BL21 (DE3) with plasmids pKJE8 or pTf2). The RTX enzyme was then purified and used for the RT-PCR assay. Several purified plant viruses (TMV, PVX, and PVY) were used to determine the efficiency of the assay compared to a commercial one-step RT-PCR kit. The RT-PCR assay with the RTX enzyme was validated for the detection of viruses from different genera using both total RNA and crude sap from infected plants. The detection endpoint of RTX-PCR for purified TMV was estimated to be approximately 0.01 pg of the whole virus per 25 µL reaction, corresponding to 6 virus particles/µL. Interestingly, the endpoint for detection of TMV from crude sap was also 0.01 pg per reaction in simulated crude plant extracts. The longest RNA fragment that could be amplified in a one-tube arrangement was 2379 bp long. The longest DNA fragment that could be amplified during a 10s extension was 6899 bp long. In total, we were able to detect 13 viruses from 11 genera using RTX-PCR. For each virus, two to three specific fragments were amplified. The RT-PCR assay using the RTX enzyme described here is a very robust, inexpensive, rapid, easy to perform, and sensitive single-enzyme assay for the detection of plant viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Filogenia , Vírus de Plantas/classificação , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215961

RESUMO

A modified SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) pr,otocol (referred to as PT SELEX) was used to select primer-template (P/T) sequences that bound to the vaccinia virus polymerase catalytic subunit (E9) with enhanced affinity. A single selected P/T sequence (referred to as E9-R5-12) bound in physiological salt conditions with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (KD,app) of 93 ± 7 nM. The dissociation rate constant (koff) and binding half-life (t1/2) for E9-R5-12 were 0.083 ± 0.019 min-1 and 8.6 ± 2.0 min, respectively. The values indicated a several-fold greater binding ability compared to controls, which bound too weakly to be accurately measured under the conditions employed. Loop-back DNA constructs with 3'-recessed termini derived from E9-R5-12 also showed enhanced binding when the hybrid region was 21 nucleotides or more. Although the sequence of E9-R5-12 matched perfectly over a 12-base-pair segment in the coding region of the virus B20 protein, there was no clear indication that this sequence plays any role in vaccinia virus biology, or a clear reason why it promotes stronger binding to E9. In addition to E9, five other polymerases (HIV-1, Moloney murine leukemia virus, and avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptases (RTs), and Taq and Klenow DNA polymerases) have demonstrated strong sequence binding preferences for P/Ts and, in those cases, there was biological or potential evolutionary relevance. For the HIV-1 RT, sequence preferences were used to aid crystallization and study viral inhibitors. The results suggest that several other DNA polymerases may have P/T sequence preferences that could potentially be exploited in various protocols.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/biossíntese , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Vírus Vaccinia/enzimologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da Mieloblastose Aviária/genética , Vírus da Mieloblastose Aviária/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Vírus da Leucemia Murina de Moloney/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Murina de Moloney/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Replicação Viral
16.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163901

RESUMO

DNA-damaging chemotherapy agents such as cisplatin have been the first line of treatment for cancer for decades. While chemotherapy can be very effective, its long-term success is often reduced by intrinsic and acquired drug resistance, accompanied by chemotherapy-resistant secondary malignancies. Although the mechanisms causing drug resistance are quite distinct, they are directly connected to mutagenic translesion synthesis (TLS). The TLS pathway promotes DNA damage tolerance by supporting both replication opposite to a lesion and inaccurate single-strand gap filling. Interestingly, inhibiting TLS reduces both cisplatin resistance and secondary tumor formation. Therefore, TLS targeting is a promising strategy for improving chemotherapy. MAD2L2 (i.e., Rev7) is a central protein in TLS. It is an essential component of the TLS polymerase zeta (ζ), and it forms a regulatory complex with Rev1 polymerase. Here we present the discovery of two small molecules, c#2 and c#3, that directly bind both in vitro and in vivo to MAD2L2 and influence its activity. Both molecules sensitize lung cancer cell lines to cisplatin, disrupt the formation of the MAD2L2-Rev1 complex and increase DNA damage, hence underlining their potential as lead compounds for developing novel TLS inhibitors for improving chemotherapy treatments.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Morte Celular , Reparo do DNA , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo
17.
J Biol Chem ; 298(3): 101627, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074426

RESUMO

Faithful replication of genomic DNA by high-fidelity DNA polymerases is crucial for the survival of most living organisms. While high-fidelity DNA polymerases favor canonical base pairs over mismatches by a factor of ∼1 × 105, fidelity is further enhanced several orders of magnitude by a 3'-5' proofreading exonuclease that selectively removes mispaired bases in the primer strand. Despite the importance of proofreading to maintaining genome stability, it remains much less studied than the fidelity mechanisms employed at the polymerase active site. Here we characterize the substrate specificity for the proofreading exonuclease of a high-fidelity DNA polymerase by investigating the proofreading kinetics on various DNA substrates. The contribution of the exonuclease to net fidelity is a function of the kinetic partitioning between extension and excision. We show that while proofreading of a terminal mismatch is efficient, proofreading a mismatch buried by one or two correct bases is even more efficient. Because the polymerase stalls after incorporation of a mismatch and after incorporation of one or two correct bases on top of a mismatch, the net contribution of the exonuclease is a function of multiple opportunities to correct mistakes. We also characterize the exonuclease stereospecificity using phosphorothioate-modified DNA, provide a homology model for the DNA primer strand in the exonuclease active site, and propose a dynamic structural model for the transfer of DNA from the polymerase to the exonuclease active site based on MD simulations.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA , Exonucleases , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 144: 106171, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093572

RESUMO

B-family DNA polymerases, which are found in eukaryotes, archaea, viruses, and some bacteria, participate in DNA replication and repair. Starting from the N-terminus of archaeal and bacterial B-family DNA polymerases, three domains include the N-terminal, exonuclease, and polymerase domains. The N-terminal domain of the archaeal B-family DNA polymerase has a conserved deoxyuracil-binding pocket for specially binding the deoxyuracil base on DNA. The exonuclease domain is responsible for removing the mismatched base pair. The polymerase domain is the core functional domain and takes a highly conserved structure composed of fingers, palm and thumb subdomains. Previous studies have demonstrated that the thumb subdomain mainly functions as a DNA-binding element and has coordination with the exonuclease domain and palm subdomain. To further elucidate the possible functions of the thumb subdomain of archaeal B-family DNA polymerases, the thumb subdomain of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase was mutated, and the effects on three activities were characterized. Our results demonstrate that the thumb subdomain participates in the three activities of archaeal B-family DNA polymerases as a common structural element. Both the N-terminal deoxyuracil-binding pocket and thumb subdomain are critical for deoxyuracil binding. Moreover, the thumb subdomain assists DNA polymerization and hydrolysis reactions, but it does not contribute to the fidelity of DNA polymerization.


Assuntos
Pyrococcus furiosus , Sequência de Aminoácidos , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase I/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Exonucleases/química , Exonucleases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Modelos Moleculares , Nucleotídeos , Polimerização , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Pyrococcus furiosus/genética , Pyrococcus furiosus/metabolismo , Polegar
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35054821

RESUMO

DNA polymerases are enzymes capable of synthesizing DNA. They are involved in replication of genomes of all cellular organisms as well as in processes of DNA repair and genetic recombination. However, DNA polymerases can also be encoded by viruses, including bacteriophages, and such enzymes are involved in viral DNA replication. DNA synthesizing enzymes are grouped in several families according to their structures and functions. Nevertheless, there are examples of bacteriophage-encoded DNA polymerases which are significantly different from other known enzymes capable of catalyzing synthesis of DNA. These differences are both structural and functional, indicating a huge biodiversity of bacteriophages and specific properties of their enzymes which had to evolve under certain conditions, selecting unusual properties of the enzymes which are nonetheless crucial for survival of these viruses, propagating as special kinds of obligatory parasites. In this review, we present a brief overview on DNA polymerases, and then we discuss unusual properties of different bacteriophage-encoded enzymes, such as those able to initiate DNA synthesis using the protein-priming mechanisms or even start this process without any primer, as well as able to incorporate untypical nucleotides. Apart from being extremely interesting examples of biochemical biodiversity, bacteriophage-encoded DNA polymerases can also be useful tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Bacteriófagos/enzimologia , Engenharia Genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
20.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 35(2): 303-314, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089032

RESUMO

Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites appear in DNA spontaneously and as intermediates of base excision DNA repair. AP sites are noninstructive lesions: they strongly block DNA polymerases, and if bypassed, the nature of the incorporated dNMP is mostly guided by the interactions within the polymerase-DNA active site. Many DNA polymerases follow the "A-rule", preferentially incorporating dAMP opposite to natural AP sites. Methoxyamine (MX), a small molecule, efficiently reacts with the aldehyde moiety of natural AP sites, thereby preventing their cleavage by APEX1, the major human AP endonuclease. MX is currently regarded as a possible sensitizer of cancer cells toward DNA-damaging drugs. To evaluate the mutagenic potential of MX, we have studied the utilization of various dNTPs by five DNA polymerases of different families encountering MX-AP adducts in the template in comparison with the natural aldehydic AP site. The Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I strictly followed the A-rule with both natural AP and MX-adducted AP sites. Phage RB69 DNA polymerase, a close relative of human DNA polymerases δ and ε, efficiently incorporated both dAMP and dGMP. DNA polymerase ß mostly incorporated dAMP and dCMP, preferring dCMP opposite to the natural AP site and dAMP opposite to the MX-AP site, while DNA polymerase λ was selective for dGMP, apparently via the primer misalignment mechanism. Finally, translesion DNA polymerase κ also followed the A-rule for MX-AP and additionally incorporated dCMP opposite to a natural AP site. Overall, the MX-AP site, despite structural differences, was similar to the natural AP site in terms of the dNMP misincorporation preference but was bypassed less efficiently by all polymerases except for Pol κ.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Hidroxilaminas/metabolismo , DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/metabolismo , Humanos
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