Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 28.344
Filtrar
1.
J Plant Res ; 134(1): 77-89, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387091

RESUMO

Some algae are known to grow on shellfish shells. Most of these have been reported in aquatic environments. The species specificity for substrate shells varies, and some algae grow only on the shells of a certain species of shellfish, such as Pseudocladophora conchopheria (Cladophorales, Ulvophyceae) on Lunella coreensis (Trochida, Gastropoda). There are very few reports of algae that grow on land snails. In this study, we discovered green algae growing on the shells of six species of door snails (Clausiliidae) from nine localities in Japan. These green algae formed a green mat composed of thalli embedded in the extracellular matrix. The thallus was composed of aggregated oval cells and peripheral branched filaments. The cells possessed a single parietal chloroplast with a pyrenoid surrounded by two starch sheaths and transversed by a thylakoid. Oil droplets in the cell and ring-like structures on the cell wall surface were frequently observed. The 18S rDNA sequences of all shell-attached algae on different clausiliid species from different localities were almost identical and formed a new clade in the family Kornmanniaceae (Ulvales, Ulvophyceae). No other algae forming visible colonies on the clausiliid shell were found. These findings indicate the presence of specificity between the alga and clausiliid shells. Based on the results of morphological observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis, we propose a new genus and new species of shell-attached green alga, Annulotesta cochlephila.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Animais , Clorófitas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Japão , Filogenia , Caramujos
2.
Zootaxa ; 4861(4): zootaxa.4861.4.2, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311205

RESUMO

Forty-four specimens of the millipede Narceus gordanus Chamberlin, 1943 (Spirobolida: Spirobolidae) were collected from Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, and Marion counties in peninsular Florida. Morphometric data were recorded for each. Nematodes were dissected from the intestine of each individual and sorted into morphotaxa. Heth pivari n. sp. (Oxyuridomorpha: Ransomnematoidea: Hethidae) was found in 33 (75%) of dissected N. gordanus and examined with brightfield, differential interference contrast, phase contrast and scanning electron microscopies. LSU rDNA sequences of representative males and females of H. pivari n. sp. were analyzed and compared to sequences of nematodes in the infraorder Rhigonematomorpha. Heth mauriesi, an introduced species, also was sequenced. Females of H. pivari n. sp. differ from those of other Heth spp. in having smooth, button-like somatic and cervical papillae and shallow, shield-like cervical collars. Males have slit-like or narrowed, rather than circular, stomal openings. Heth pivari n. sp. is the first species of this genus found in an indigenous millipede north of Mexico. Keys based on female cervical ornamentation are provided to differentiate the 52 known Heth spp.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Nematoides , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Feminino , Masculino , Nematoides/genética , Estados Unidos
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 829, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infection caused by anaerobic pseudofilamentous bacteria or fungi. It is commonly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. Men are more susceptible to the disease due to greater participation in agricultural works. Mycetoma commonly involves lower extremities, wherein untreated cases lead to aggressive therapeutic choices, such as amputation of the affected body organs and consequently lifelong disability. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present the rare case of a 58-year-old man, originally from Algeria with a left foot chronic tumefaction of 5 years. In the initial clinical examination, mycetoma was diagnosed based on tumefaction and the presence of multiple sinuses with the emission of white grains. The latter was observed via direct examination. The histopathological analysis demonstrated an actinomycetoma caused by bacteria, as the etiological agent. Imaging showed a bone involvement with osteolysis at the levels of 2nd to 4th metatarsal diaphysis. The mycological and bacterial cultures were both negative. For an accurate diagnosis, the obtained grains were subjected to molecular analysis, targeting the 16S-rDNA gene. Molecular identification yielded Actinomadura madurae as the causal agent, and 800/160 mg of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was prescribed twice a day for 1 year, as a treatment. CONCLUSION: Considering low information about this disease, especially in non-endemic areas, it is of high importance to enhance the knowledge and awareness of clinicians and healthcare providers, in particular in the countries with immigration issues.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Micetoma/diagnóstico , Micetoma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Argélia/etnologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Pé/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micetoma/etnologia , Micetoma/microbiologia , Paris , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Zootaxa ; 4808(3): zootaxa.4808.3.13, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055972

RESUMO

Two new species of the new genus Pseudorogneda of Polycystididae were discovered in a brackish environment from Southern China. Pseudorogneda sinensis n. gen. n. sp., is distinguished by a semicircular double-walled prostate stylet type II that tapers in diameter from proximal to distal with a proximal-to-distal fold, and an inner wall with a funnel-shaped base originating at the midpoint of the outer wall; its flattened tubular prostate stylet type IV exhibits a horn-like base and a proximal-to-distal folded structure on its wall. For Pseudorogneda shenda n. gen. n. sp., its crescent-shaped prostate stylet type II is double-walled and the inner wall has a funnel-shaped base that starts at the proximal 2/3 position of the outer stylet and is fused with the outer stylet to form a sharp distal end; its tubular and slightly-curved prostate stylet type IV exhibits a slit and a distal fold. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA sequences shows that the two novel species are clustered to form an independent clade from other genera, which is consistent with morphological comparison in the establishment of two new species in a new genus.


Assuntos
Platelmintos , Animais , China , DNA Ribossômico , Masculino , Filogenia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4789(1): zootaxa.4789.1.10, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056452

RESUMO

Helicotylenchus species were recovered from natural areas of three provinces (Mazandaran, Kerman and Guilan) in Iran, with morphological and molecular characteristics suggesting that they were Helicotylenchus minzi and Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. A phylogenetic analysis of the two Helicotylenchus species using 28S rDNA placed H. pseudrobustus and H. minzi in a clade with 1.00 posterior probability. Results suggest that the Helicotylenchus population identified using molecular characteristics as H. pseudorobustus is a paraphyletic group, with hierarchical clustering analysis indicating a close relationship between the Iranian and the Chinese populations of H. pseudorobustus. In conclusion, further molecular studies within the genus Helicotylenchus are needed, especially for morphologically similar populations that have been recognized as separate species.


Assuntos
Tylenchoidea , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4780(2): zootaxa.4780.2.6, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055747

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Chironephthya, C. sirindhornae sp. nov. and C. cornigera sp. nov., are described based on three specimens collected from the Gulf of Thailand. Both species are well distinguished from the previously described species of the genus Chironephthya by their colonies consisting of multiple stems that stand upright from a common base, and by a significantly thinner canal wall without large spindles. As a result of phylogenetic analyses using COI, mtMutS, and 28S rDNA sequences of these two species, these three specimens constituted an independent small clade within a large mixed clade of Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, with the two species slightly different from each other. The discrepancy in the morphology suggested the erection of a new genus to accommodate these species, however, as the subclade was included in a large mixed clade of Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, we place these species within genus Chironephthya. Our results further highlight the continuing confusion between Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, and demonstrate the need for taxonomic revision of these genera.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Filogenia , Tailândia
7.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(9): 1319-1324, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in diversity, relative abundance and distribution of intestinal flora in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps (CRSwNP) using high-throughput sequencing technology identify the intestinal flora significantly related to pathogenesis and progression of CRSwNP. METHODS: Ten patients with CRSwNP hospitalized in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital were selected as the case group with 10 healthy volunteers recruited in the same period as the control group. Fecal genomic DNA extraction kit was used to extract the DNA in the fecal samples, and the DNA fragment length was measured and quantified. The V3 and V4 highly variable regions of the 16S rDNA gene of prokaryotes were amplified followed by library construction, Illumina MiSeq sequencing, sequence alignment and species identification analysis. The relative abundance, diversity and distribution characteristics of the intestinal flora were analyzed, and the relevant metabolic pathways were predicted. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the patients with CRSwNP had significant changes in the overall structure of the intestinal flora, highlighted by increased abundance of Saccharopolyspora and decreased contents of Ruminococcae, Coprococcus, Collinsella and Dialister. Among the metabolic pathways predicted to be associated with CRSwNP, 9 showed significant changes in patients with CRSwNP as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CRSwNP have significant changes in the structural characteristics of intestinal flora related with multiple metabolic pathways, and these changes may play an important role in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , DNA Ribossômico , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(18): 10342-10352, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894284

RESUMO

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) consists of highly repeated sequences that are prone to incurring damage. Delays or failure of rDNA double-strand break (DSB) repair are deleterious, and can lead to rDNA transcriptional arrest, chromosomal translocations, genomic losses, and cell death. Here, we show that the zinc-finger transcription factor GLI1, a terminal effector of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is required for the repair of rDNA DSBs. We found that GLI1 is activated in triple-negative breast cancer cells in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and localizes to rDNA sequences in response to both global DSBs generated by IR and site-specific DSBs in rDNA. Inhibiting GLI1 interferes with rDNA DSB repair and impacts RNA polymerase I activity and cell viability. Our findings tie Hh signaling to rDNA repair and this heretofore unknown function may be critically important in proliferating cancer cells.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , RNA Polimerase I/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/radioterapia , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Nucléolo Celular/genética , Nucléolo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos da radiação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA/efeitos da radiação , DNA Ribossômico/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , RNA Polimerase I/efeitos da radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Transcrição Genética/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20191364, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901677

RESUMO

The species of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae) are ordered into nine sections. The assignment of genome types in this genus has been based on cross-compatibility analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies. The latter has also allowed karyotypically establishing well-defined genomes and reassigning the genome of several species. However, most of these studies have been focused mainly on the sections Arachis and Rhizomatosae. To increase the knowledge about the chromosome diversity of the whole genus, here we performed a detailed karyotype characterization of representative species of most of the sections and genomes of Arachis. This characterization included chromosome morphology, CMA/DAPI chromosome banding, and chromosome marker localization (rDNAloci and one satDNA sequence) by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Based on the data obtained and other previously published data, we established the karyotype similarities by cluster analysis and defined eleven karyotype groups. The grouping was partly coincident with the traditional genome assignment, except for some groups and some individual species. Karyotype similarities among some genomes were also found. The main characteristics of each karyotype group of Arachis were summarized. Together, our results provide information that may be beneficial for future cytogenetic and evolutionary studies, and also contribute to the identification of interspecific hybrids.


Assuntos
Arachis , Genoma de Planta , Arachis/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Indóis , Cariótipo
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 115, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigate species limits in the cyanobacterial lichen genus Rostania (Collemataceae, Peltigerales, Lecanoromycetes). Four molecular markers (mtSSU rDNA, ß-tubulin, MCM7, RPB2) were sequenced and analysed with two coalescent-based species delimitation methods: the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC) and a Bayesian species delimitation method (BPP) using a multispecies coalescence model (MSC), the latter with or without an a priori defined guide tree. RESULTS: Species delimitation analyses indicate the presence of eight strongly supported candidate species. Conclusive correlation between morphological/ecological characters and genetic delimitation could be found for six of these. Of the two additional candidate species, one is represented by a single sterile specimen and the other currently lacks morphological or ecological supporting evidence. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that Rostania includes a minimum of six species: R. ceranisca, R. multipunctata, R. occultata 1, R. occultata 2, R. occultata 3, and R. occultata 4,5,6. Three distinct Nostoc morphotypes occur in Rostania, and there is substantial correlation between these morphotypes and Rostania thallus morphology.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/classificação , Especiação Genética , Líquens/microbiologia , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Modelos Genéticos , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3763-3770, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909143

RESUMO

Balantioides coli is the only known zoonotic ciliate that can infect humans and is usually acquired from swine. It has, however, been reported in other mammals, including guinea pigs, where infection prevalence and molecular characterization are relatively unknown. In the present study, 32 guinea pigs from two different pet markets in Luoyang city of the Henan province in China were evaluated for ciliate-like trophozoites or cysts by direct fecal smear microscopy. Positive samples were further characterized using 18S rDNA and ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 sequence analysis. Microscopy indicated that ciliate-like cysts were observed in the fecal samples of several guinea pigs, were spherical in shape, and exhibited sizes of 40-65 µm in diameter. The average cyst-positive prevalence in guinea pigs was 62.5%. Sequence analysis indicated that the guinea pig-derived ciliate isolates belonged to B. coli and included two genetic variants (A and B), of which genetic variant A was more dominant among the guinea pig samples. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first molecular identification of B. coli in guinea pigs and provides some important information for investigating the molecular epidemiology of B. coli.


Assuntos
Balantidíase/veterinária , Cobaias/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Trichostomatina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Balantidíase/epidemiologia , Balantidíase/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Trichostomatina/citologia , Trichostomatina/genética
12.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(22)2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900821

RESUMO

The rRNA gene, which consists of tandem repetitive arrays (ribosomal DNA [rDNA] repeat), is one of the most unstable regions in the genome. The rDNA repeat in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to become unstable as the cell ages. However, it is unclear how the rDNA repeat changes in aging mammalian cells. Using quantitative single-cell analyses, we identified age-dependent alterations in rDNA copy number and levels of methylation in mice. The degree of methylation and copy number of rDNA from bone marrow cells of 2-year-old mice were increased by comparison to levels in 4-week-old mice in two mouse strains, BALB/cA and C57BL/6. Moreover, the level of pre-rRNA transcripts was reduced in older BALB/cA mice. We also identified many sequence variations in the rDNA. Among them, three mutations were unique to old mice, and two of them were found in the conserved region in budding yeast. We established yeast strains with the old-mouse-specific mutations and found that they shortened the life span of the cells. Our findings suggest that rDNA is also fragile in mammalian cells and that alterations within this region have a profound effect on cellular function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , DNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Sequência Conservada , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Sequência de DNA Instável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Saccharomycetales/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcrição Genética
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3651-3658, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893554

RESUMO

As an important substitute for agarwood, mountain-agarwood, belonging to the family Oleaceae, comes from the root, stem and thick branch of Syringa pinnatifolia, which has a wide range of application in Inner Mongolia, China. It has good clinical efficacy in the use of cardiovascular diseases. However, the formation speed of mountain-agarwood is extremely slow, and its cultivated seedlings have low resin content. Therefore, how to speed up the formation of mountain-agarwood and increase the resin content is a hot research topic in this field. In this work, 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing method was used to systematically analyze the bacterial communities of different samples of mountain-agarwood. Our data revealed that the samples of mountain-agarwood had more obvious species diversity than the ones of non-mountain-agarwood, especially the wild mountain-agarwood samples. By analysis of bacterial community composition and species abundance, Sphingomonas, Modestobacter and unidentified Cyanobacteria genus were three dominant bacterial genera in all samples. In addition, there are two identified genera of dominant bacteria, namely Actinoplanes and Microbacterium in both wild and cultivated mountain-agarwood, by bacterial community composition and species richness analysis. Meanwhile, Roseomonas was the dominant bacterial genus in both wild and cultivated non-mountain-agarwood samples. Our work could provides basic data for exploring the mechanism of the mountain-agarwood formation, and help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria reasonably.


Assuntos
Thymelaeaceae , Bactérias/genética , China , DNA Ribossômico , Resinas Vegetais
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 141: 39-46, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940249

RESUMO

In the present study, we provide supplementary data for Myxidium cf. rhodei Léger, 1905 based on morphological, histological and molecular characterization. M. cf. rhodei was observed in the kidneys of 918 out of 942 (97%) roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758). Myxospores of M. cf. rhodei were fusiform with pointed ends, measuring 12.7 ± 0.1 SD (11.8-13.4) µm in length and 4.6 ± 0.1 (3.8-5.4) µm in width. Two similar pear-shaped polar capsules were positioned at either ends of the longitudinal axis of the myxospore: each of these capsules measured 4.0 ± 0.1 (3.1-4.7) µm in length and 2.8 ± 0.1 (2.0-4.0) µm in width. Polar filaments were coiled into 4 to 5 turns. Approximately 18-20 longitudinal straight ridges were observed on the myxospore surface. The suture line was straight and distinctive, running near the middle of the valves. Histologically, the plasmodia of the present species were found in the Bowman's capsules, and rarely in the interstitium of the host. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that M. cf. rhodei was sister to M. anatidum in the Myxidium clade including most Myxidium species from freshwater hosts.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Rim , Filogenia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(36): 44995-45007, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772291

RESUMO

A novel method referred to as hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) coupled with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) (HRCA-LFD) here was developed for specific, sensitive, rapid, and simple detection of Prorocentrum minimum. HRCA-LFD relies on a padlock probe (PLP) consisting of a common ligation sequence, two terminal sequences that complement the target DNA, and a manually designed detection probe (LFD probe). The two terminal sequences of the PLP were designed against the species-specific sites of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) D1-D2 region of P. minimum. The optimum parameters for HRCA were as follows: PLP concentration of 20 pM, ligation time of 30 min, ligation temperature of 59 °C, enzymic digestion time of 105 min, amplification time of 45 min, and amplification temperature of 58 °C. The HRCA-LFD displaying high specificity could accurately distinguish P. minimum from other microalgae. The detection limit of HRCA-LFD was as low as 1.42 × 10-7 ng µL-1 for genomic DNA, 1.03 × 10-7 ng µL-1 (approximately 27 copies) for recombinant plasmid containing the inserted LSU rDNA D1-D2, and 0.17 cells for crude DNA extract of P. minimum, which was consistently 100 times more sensitive than regular PCR. Interfering test suggested that the performance of HRCA-LFD is stable and would not be affected by other non-target species. The HRCA-LFD results of field samples that are comparable with microscopic examination confirmed that the developed method is competent for detection of target cells in field samples. In conclusion, the developed HRCA-LFD exhibiting stable performance is specific, sensitive, and rapid, which provides a good alternative to traditional microscopic examination for the detection of P. minimum cells in field samples.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , DNA Ribossômico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3255-3283, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856113

RESUMO

Seven new species of Urocleidoides from the gills and skin of nine Neotropical fish hosts (Anostomidae, Parodontidae, and Gymnotidae) are described: Urocleidoides digitabulum n. sp. on Leporinus friderici, Leporinus octofasciatus, and Megaleporinus elongatus (Anostomidae); Urocleidoides solarivaginatus n. sp. on L. friderici, L. octofasciatus, and Leporinus striatus (Anostomidae); Urocleidoides falxus n. sp. and Urocleidoides sapucaiensis n. sp. on M. elongatus; Urocleidoides tenuis n. sp. on Apareiodon piracicabae and Apareiodon affinis (Parodontidae); Urocleidoides sinus n. sp. on L. striatus, Schizodon nasutus, and Schizodon intermedius (Anostomidae); and Urocleidoides uncinus n. sp. on Gymnotus sylvius (Gymnotidae). Urocleidoides paradoxus was also found in this study on L. friderici and included in the phylogenetic analysis. Molecular data (partial 28S rDNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I) were obtained for U. digitabulum n. sp., U. tenuis n. sp., U. sinus n. sp., and U. uncinus n. sp. The identification of Urocleidoides is amended herein to include all taxonomic modifications observed in this genus over time and add new characteristics observed in the species in the present study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Urocleidoides digitabulum n. sp. and Urocleidoides sinus n. sp. (parasites of anostomids) closely related in the tree topologies. Furthermore, the new species described herein parasitized phylogenetically distant host species (Characiformes and Gymnotiformes), suggesting the effect of the dynamic process of ecological fitting.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Gimnotiformes/parasitologia , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixes , Brânquias/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Platelmintos/classificação , Platelmintos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3617-3625, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833049

RESUMO

Two myxosporean species of the genus Sphaeromyxa were isolated from the gallbladders of marine fish in the South China Sea. Sphaeromyxa scorpaena n. sp. was collected from Scorpaenodes albaiensis Evermann and Seale, 1907. The mature myxospores were arcuate-shaped with tapered to pointed ends, and a length of 14.1 ± 0.7 (13.8-15.1) µm and a width of 5.2 ± 0.3 (4.9-5.8) µm. The polar capsules (PCs) were pyriform with a length of 3.2 ± 0.2 (3.1-3.5) µm and a width of 1.6 ± 0.1 (1.4-1.8) µm, and containing ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded 1.5-2.5 turns. Molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA as well as morphological comparison confirmed that S. scorpaena n. sp. was a previously undescribed species. Sphaeromyxa theraponi, isolated from Terapon jarbua Forsskål, 1775, was reported for the first time from the South China Sea. The mature myxospores were slightly arched, tapering to bluntly rounded ends, with a length of 17.3 ± 0.9 (15.5-19.4) µm and a width of 4.8 ± 0.3 (4.1-5.3) µm. A sporoplasm was situated in the space between PCs in the myxospore. The PCs were pyriform, which contained ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded by 2-3 turns, with a length of 7.0 ± 0.5 (5.8-8.1) µm and a width of 2.6 ± 0.2 (2.2-3.0) µm. Our morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pointed ends of S. scorpaena n. sp. might be a secondarily acquired characteristic rather than an ancestral trait.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , China , DNA Ribossômico , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Percas , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3627-3637, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852620

RESUMO

This study increases the known biodiversity of cnidarian parasites in neotropical bryconid fishes. Two novel Myxobolus species are described based on morphology, ultrastructure and small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) sequencing: Myxobolus vetuschicanus n. sp. infecting fins of Salminus franciscanus and Myxobolus mineirus n. sp. infecting the mesentery of Brycon orthotaenia from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ultrastructural analysis of the two species revealed an asynchronous sporogenesis process, with germinative cells and young developmental stages of myxospores in the periphery of the plasmodia. In M. vetuschicanus n. sp., the plasmodia were surrounded by a layer of fibroblasts and in M. mineirus n. sp., the plasmodial membrane had direct contact with the host tissue. The phylogenetic analysis based on the ssrDNA of Henneguya/Myxobolus species showed that the two novel Myxobolus species grouped in subclades together with other parasite species of bryconid fishes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxobolus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA Ribossômico , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Filogenia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos , Rios/parasitologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3469-3479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827104

RESUMO

Amphibians are among the most threatened vertebrate groups in the world, and the main causes include climate change, habitat destruction, and emerging diseases. Herein, we investigated the occurrence and characterized molecularly Apicomplexa in anurans from southeastern Brazil. Forty individuals from seven anuran species were sampled in São Paulo state. In the molecular analyses, one Leptodactylus latrans and one Rhinella diptycha were positive in PCR assays for species of Hepatozoon. Two L. latrans were also positive for coccidian infections (Lankesterella sp. and an unidentified coccidian species). Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA clustered the sequences detected in anurans from the present study with Hepatozoon spp. detected in reptiles and other anurans from Brazil, albeit they were separate from Hepatozoon haplotypes detected in frogs from Africa and North America. Our study showed, for the first time, the molecular detection of Lankesterella sp. and another coccidian in L. latrans. Additionally, co-infection by different species of Hepatozoon haplotypes and an unidentified coccidian in anurans from Brazil was documented.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Apicomplexa/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
20.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e7, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787420

RESUMO

Chickens have been implicated in most Salmonella disease outbreaks because they act as carriers of the pathogen in their gut. There are over 2500 serotypes of Salmonella that have been reported worldwide and 2000 of these serovars can be found in chickens. The main objective of this study was to determine the Salmonella serotypes found in poultry farms around Mafikeng district, South Africa. Salmonella was identified according to the guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (ISO 6579:2002) standard techniques. Faecal samples were collected and analysed for Salmonella using conventional cultural methods and polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S Ribosomal Deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) gene for Salmonella identification. Out of 130 presumptive Salmonella isolates determined by urease and triple sugar iron tests, only 46 isolates were identified as Salmonella serotypes of which S. Typhimurium was the most frequent with 18 (39.1%), followed by S. Heidelberg with 9 (19.6%), S. bongori with 7 (15.2%), S. Enteritidis with 6 (13.0%) and both S. Paratyphi B and S. Newport with 3 (6.5%) each. Seven virulence genes including invA 100%, spy 39%, hilA 9%, misL 30%, sdfI 13%, orfL 11% and spiC 9% were detected from these Salmonella isolates in this study. The presence of these virulence genes indicates high pathogenicity potential of these isolates which is a serious public health concern because of zoonotic potential of Salmonella.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Virulência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA