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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 367-375, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483030

RESUMO

Renicolids are parasites that inhabit the renal tubules and ureters of molluscivorous and piscivorous birds. Puffinus puffinus is a migratory seabird that was identified as the definitive host of Renicola spp. Studies focusing on the renicolid species and the resulting renal lesions are valuable for their association with causes of stranding in seabirds. The aim of this study was to identify the renicolid trematodes and evaluate the histological findings in two P. puffinus stranded on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil. The parasites were evaluated by histologic, ultrastructural and molecular assays, while tissue changes were analyzed by histologic methods. The morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the parasites, along with polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays (ribosomal and mitochondrial regions), identified the species as Renicola sloanei. The results also suggest that this helminth can be the adult form of Cercaria pythionike. The dilation of collecting ducts was the main histological finding in the kidneys. In conclusion, R. sloanei was identified, and for the first time, P. puffinus was described as a host of this digenean inducing mild renal changes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Rim/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura
2.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 444-447, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532155

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To detect the diatom population diversity in Dianchi by constructing a 18S rDNA clone library. Methods DNA from diatoms in 6 water samples of Dianchi was amplified with diatom 18S rDNA specific primer.The 18S rDNA clone library was constructed, and clones were randomly selected for sequence. Sequence alignment was performed by BLAST. The diatom population distribution in Dianchi was analyzed and the phylogenetic tree of diatom 18S rDNA in Dianchi waters was established with the MEGA v7.0.14 software. Results Two hundred and forty clones were sequenced, with 167 diatom sequences obtained, including 11 diatom species such as Stephanodiscus, Diatoma, and Melosira. There were certain differences in diatom population distribution among the 6 samples. Conclusion The population distribution of diatom species in Dianchi shows unique features and the sequence analysis of diatom 18S rDNA has a certain reference value to the inference of forensic drowning sites.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , China , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Afogamento , Ciências Forenses , Humanos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 416-424, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365719

RESUMO

The aim of this was describe an infection by Kudoa orbicularis in freshwater catfish Trachelyopterus galeatus. A sample of 80 specimens of T. galeatus was collected in the municipality of Cachoeira do Arari, Marajó Island, in the state of Pará, Brazil. Pseudocysts were found in the muscle fibers of the epaxial and hypaxial regions of 85.0% of the specimens analyzed, reflecting a high infection rate. The pseudocysts contained spores that were pseudo-square in shape, with a mean length of 4.65 µm (range: 4.04-5.54) and mean width of 1.53 µm (1.56-1.74). Analyses on the morphology of the spores and a partial 934-bp sequence of the SSU rDNA gene confirmed that the microparasite was Kudoa orbicularis. This is the second record of this microparasite in a siluriform host in the Brazilian Amazon region.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Água Doce , Myxozoa/citologia , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
4.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180256, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The rDNA-based method is unable to distinguish between alive and dead cells. Alternatively, bacterial viability can be assessed by molecular methods based on ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Therefore, this study aimed to detect viable streptococci in root canal samples using rRNA-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), compared to an rDNA-based PCR assay. METHODOLOGY: Microbiological root canal samples were obtained from 32 teeth with primary endodontic infections before (S1) and after chemomechanical preparation (S2), and after removal of intracanal medication (S3). RNA and DNA were extracted, and complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized from RNA using RT reaction. cDNA and genomic DNA were subjected to PCR with primers complementary to the 16S rRNA sequences of Streptococcus spp. McNemar's test was used to compare the detection rate of both assays (P<0.05). RESULTS: Streptococci were detected in 28.12% (9/32) and 37.5% (12/32) of S1 samples using rRNA- and rDNA-based PCR assays, respectively. In contrast, they were detected in only 6.25% (2/32) of S2 samples using rRNA-based RT-PCR, compared to 15.62% (5/32) using rDNA-based PCR. Finally, in S3 samples, streptococci were not detected by rRNA, whereas rDNA-based PCR still detected the bacteria in 12.5% (4/32) of the samples. The total number of PCR-positive reactions in the rDNA-based PCR was higher than in the rRNA-based assay (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The rRNA-based RT-PCR showed a lower detection rate of streptococci when compared to the rDNA-based PCR, suggesting that the latter may have detected dead cells of streptococci in root canal samples.


Assuntos
DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , RNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Streptococcus/genética
5.
J Basic Microbiol ; 59(8): 792-806, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368594

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine four strains of two yeast species in relation to their capability for assimilating alkanes in the presence of heavy metals (HMs). The four strains tested were Candida pseudoglaebosa ENCB-7 and Kodamaea ohmeri ENCB-8R, ENCB-23, and ENCB-VIK. Determination was made of the expression of CYP52 genes involved in alkane hydroxylation. When exposed to Cu2+ , Zn2+ , Pb2+ , Cd2+ , and As3+ at pH 3 and 5, all four strains could assimilate several n-alkanes having at least six carbon atoms. The three K. ohmeri strains could also utilize branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, and n-octanol as sole carbon sources. Kinetic assays demonstrated greater biomass production and specific growth of the yeasts exposed to long-chain n-alkanes. Fragments of paralogous CYP52 genes of C. pseudoglaebosa ENCB-7 and K. ohmeri ENCB-23 were amplified, sequenced, and phylogenetically evaluated. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that n-nonane and n-decane induced to CpCYP52-G3, CpCYP52-G9, and CpCYP52-G10. KoCYP52-G3 was induced with n-decane and n-octanol. Also, CpCYP52-G3 and CpCYP52-G9 were induced by glucose. In conclusion, C. pseudoglaebosa and K. ohmeri were able to degrade several alkanes in the presence of HMs and under acidic conditions. These yeasts harbor paralogous alkane-induced CYP52 genes, which display different profiles of transcriptional expression.


Assuntos
Alcanos/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Alcanos/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Filogenia , Saccharomycetales/classificação , Saccharomycetales/genética , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 132, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432260

RESUMO

This paper aims to characterize halophilic bacteria inhabiting Algerian Saline Ecosystems (Sebkha and Chott) located in arid and semi-arid ecoclimate zones (Northeastern Algeria). In addition, screening of enzymatic activities, heavy metal tolerance and antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi were tested. A total of 74 bacterial isolates were screened and phylogenetically characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed a heterogeneous group of microorganisms falling within two major phyla, 52 strains belonging to Firmicutes (70.2%) and 22 strains (30.8%) of γ-Proteobacteria. In terms of main genera present, the isolates were belonging to Bacillus, Halobacillus, Lentibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Paraliobacillus, Planomicrobium, Salicola, Terribacillus, Thalassobacillus, Salibacterium, Salinicoccus, Virgibacillus, Halomonas, Halovibrio, and Idiomarina. Most of the enzymes producers were related to Bacillus, Halobacillus, and Virgibacillus genera and mainly active at 10% of growing salt concentrations. Furthermore, amylase, esterase, gelatinase, and nuclease activities ranked in the first place within the common hydrolytic enzymes. Overall, the isolates showed high minimal inhibitory concentration values (MIC) for Ni2+ and Cu2+ (0.625 to 5 mM) compared to Cd2+ (0.1 to 2 mM) and Zn2+ (0.156 to 2 mM). Moreover, ten isolated strains belonging to Bacillus, Virgibacillus and Halomonas genera, displayed high activity against the pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxyporum, F. verticillioides and Phytophthora capsici). This study on halophilic bacteria of unexplored saline niches provides potential sources of biocatalysts and novel bioactive metabolites as well as promising candidates of biocontrol agents and eco-friendly tools for heavy metal bioremediation.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biota , Microbiologia Ambiental , Salinidade , Argélia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrolases/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e37, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411267

RESUMO

Candida glabrata complex includes three species identified through molecular biology methods: C. glabrata sensu stricto , C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis . In Mexico, the phenotypic methods are still used in the diagnosis; therefore, the presence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis among clinical isolates is still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a multiplex PCR for the identification of the C. glabrata species complex. DNA samples from 92 clinical isolates that were previously identified through phenotypic characteristics as C. glabrata were amplified by four oligonucleotides (UNI-5.8S, GLA-f, BRA-f, and NIV-f) that generate amplicons of 397, 293 and 223-bp corresponding to C. glabrata sensu stricto , C. nivariensis , and C. bracarensis , respectively. The amplicon sequences were used to perform a phylogenetic analysis through the Maximum Likelihood method (MEGA6), including strains and reference sequences of species belonging to C. glabrata complex. In addition, recombination and linkage disequilibrium were estimated (DnaSP version 5.0) for C. glabrata sensu stricto isolate s . Eighty-eight isolates generated a 397-bp fragment and only in one isolate a 223-bp amplicon was observed. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences of 397-bp were grouped with C. glabrata reference sequences , and the sequence of 223-bp was grouped with C. bracarensis reference sequences, corroborating the PCR identification. The number of recombination events for the isolates of C. glabrata sensu stricto was zero, suggesting a clonal population structure. Three isolates that did not amplify any of the expected fragments were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain region within the 28S rDNA gene. The multiplex PCR is a fast, cost-effective and reliable tool that can be used in clinical laboratories to identify C. glabrata complex species.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata/genética , Candidíase/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica/métodos , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16626, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464899

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the common malignant tumors in China, with a high morbidity and mortality. With the development and application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and metagenomics, a great quantity of studies have shown that gastrointestinal microbiota is closely related to digestive system diseases. Although some studies have reported the effect of long-term follow-up after subtotal gastrectomy on intestinal flora changes in patients with GC. However, the features of gut microbiota and their shifts in patients with GC in perioperative period remain unclear.This study was designed to characterize fecal microbiota shifts of the patients with GC before and after the radical distal gastrectomy (RDG) during their hospital staying periods. Furthermore, fecal microbiota was also compared between the GC patients and healthy individuals.Patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma at distal stomach were enrolled in the study. The bacterial burden within fecal samples was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To analyze the diversity and composition of gut microbiota from fecal DNA of 20 GC patients and 22 healthy controls, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from all subjects were pyrosequenced. To study gut microbiota shifts, the fecal microbiota from 6 GC patients before and after RDG was detected and subsequently analyzed. Short-chain fatty acids were also detected by chromatography spectrometer in these 6 GC patients.RDG had a moderate effect on bacterial richness and evenness, but had pronounced effects on the composition of postoperative gut microbiota compared with preoperative group. The relative abundances of genera Akkermansia, Esherichia/Shigella, Lactobacillus, and Dialister were significant changed in perioperative period. Remarkably, higher abundances of Escherichia/Shigella, Veillonella, and Clostridium XVIII and lower abundances of Bacteroides were observed in gut microbiota of overall GC patients compared to healthy controls.This study is the first study to characterize the altered gut microbiota within fecal samples from GC patients during perioperative period, and provide a new insights on such microbial perturbations as a potential effector of perioperative period phenotype. Further research must validate these discoveries and may evaluate targeted microbiota shifts to improve outcomes in GC patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Gastrectomia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Filogenia , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia
9.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126302, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442862

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria isolated from cactus were characterized and assessed for their capability to induce drought tolerance and growth promotion in tomato. A total of 191-bacteria representing 13-genera and 18-species were isolated from wild cactus, Euphorbia trigonas. Bacillus (58), Lysinibacillus (36), Enterobacter (29), Stenotrophomonas (18), Lelliottia (12) and Pseudomonas (12) were the most represented genera. 16S rDNA sequence (>1400-bp) comparison placed the bacterial isolates with Bacillus xiamenensis; Bacillus megaterium; Bacillus cereus; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus velezensis; Brevibacillus brevis; Lysinibacillus fusiformis; Enterobacter cloacae; Lelliottia nimipressuralis; Proteus penneri; Sphingobacterium multivorum; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas putida; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Citrobacter freundii; Chryseobacterium indologenes and Paracoccus sp. Bacillus xiamenensis was identified for the first time as plant endophyte. Upon bacterization, the endophytes triggered germination and growth promotion in tomato as indicated by 118 % and 52 % more root-biomass under drought-free and drought-induced conditions, respectively. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 and B. megaterium RR10 displayed broad spectrum endophytism in tomato. Bacterization of tomato with cactus endophyte showed altered oxidative status, stomatal and photosystem II functioning, internal leaf temperature and relative water content suggestive of physiological de-stressing from moisture stress. Activity of oxidative stress enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase and catalase was also indicative of endophyte assisted de-stressing of tomato. Re-irrigation on 20-days of drought infliction showed 86.9% recovery of B. amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 primed tomato when non-primed plantlets succumbed. The cactus endophytic bacterial strain B. amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 showed promise for low-cost, efficient and environmentally friendly bio-inoculant technology to mitigate drought in arid zones of Asian and African continents.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/microbiologia , Secas , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Aclimatação , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/fisiologia , Biomassa , Camarões , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Clima Desértico , Endófitos/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
Genes Dev ; 33(17-18): 1175-1190, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395742

RESUMO

The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) represents a particularly unstable locus undergoing frequent breakage. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within rDNA induce both rDNA transcriptional repression and nucleolar segregation, but the link between the two events remains unclear. Here we found that DSBs induced on rDNA trigger transcriptional repression in a cohesin- and HUSH (human silencing hub) complex-dependent manner throughout the cell cycle. In S/G2 cells, transcriptional repression is further followed by extended resection within the interior of the nucleolus, DSB mobilization at the nucleolar periphery within nucleolar caps, and repair by homologous recombination. We showed that nuclear envelope invaginations frequently connect the nucleolus and that rDNA DSB mobilization, but not transcriptional repression, involves the nuclear envelope-associated LINC complex and the actin pathway. Altogether, our data indicate that rDNA break localization at the nucleolar periphery is not a direct consequence of transcriptional repression but rather is an active process that shares features with the mobilization of persistent DSB in active genes and heterochromatin.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 349, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Four species of Strongyloides, Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides planiceps, Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides tumefaciens, have been identified in cats based on morphology and location in the host with limited data on the prevalence and disease potential of these different species. Strongyloides tumefaciens adults are located in colonic nodules while the other three species are in the small intestine. The literature on Strongyloides in cats is scattered and has never been compiled. The aim of this article is to provide a short review of the existing literature on Strongyloides spp. in cats, to describe the pathology of colonic nodules containing Strongyloides sp. seen at necropsies of cats in St. Kitts, West Indies, and to provide the first unequivocal report of zoonotic S. stercoralis in cats based on sequencing analysis of a portion of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, and supported by phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Colonic nodules containing sections of nematodes, histologically compatible with Strongyloides sp. were seen during necropsy in six cats in St. Kitts, West Indies. Sequencing of the cox1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from colonic nodules from two of these cats matched sequences of the zoonotic strain of S. stercoralis. CONCLUSIONS: The morphological similarities between S. stercoralis-associated colonic nodules and previous reports of S. tumefaciens, together with the insufficient defining criteria for S. tumefaciens raises questions about the validity of the species. Further sampling and genetic characterization of isolates is needed to understand the species in cats and their zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Gatos/parasitologia , Colo/patologia , Hiperplasia/parasitologia , Estrongiloidíase/veterinária , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Colo/citologia , Colo/parasitologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Strongyloides stercoralis/patogenicidade , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais , Zoonoses/patologia
12.
Parasite ; 26: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259684

RESUMO

An inventory of Phlebotomine sandflies was carried out in the Ankarana tsingy located in far northern Madagascar. A total of 723 sandflies were used for morphological, morphometric, and molecular studies (sequencing of partial cytochrome B (mtDNA) and partial 28S (rDNA)). Nine species were identified: Phlebotomus fertei, Sergentomyia anka, Se. sclerosiphon, Se. goodmani, two species of the genus Grassomyia, as well as three new species described herein: Se. volfi n. sp., Se. kaltenbachi n. sp., and Se. ozbeli n. sp. The recognition of these new species is strongly supported by molecular analyses. The first two of the new species could not be classified into any existing subgenus, therefore we proposed two new subgenera (Ranavalonomyia subg. nov., and Riouxomyia subg. nov.), with combinations as: Sergentomyia (Ranavalonomyia) volfi and Sergentomyia (Riouxomyia) kaltenbachi. Our study reveals important molecular variability in Se. anka, with the recognition of a population whose taxonomic status remains below that of species. Our research confirms the need to further study the specific diversity of Malagasy sandflies, which until the start of this millennium remained mostly unknown.


Assuntos
Phlebotomus/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Madagáscar , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Parasite ; 26: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335315

RESUMO

Anacanthorus (Anacanthorinae) is one of the most speciose and common genera of neotropical monogeneans, yet there are still many gaps in our knowledge concerning their diversity and phylogeny. We performed phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequences in order to investigate the phylogenetic position within the Dactylogyridae of Anacanthorus spp. infesting serrasalmids from two Brazilian river basins. Sequences of partial 28S rDNA obtained for nine species of Anacanthorus and Mymarothecium viatorum parasitizing serrasalmids and the published sequences of other members of the Dactylogyridae were included in the phylogenetic reconstruction. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of anacanthorine monogeneans. The Anacanthorinae (represented in this study by Anacanthorus spp.) formed a monophyletic group included in a large clade together with a group of solely freshwater Ancyrocephalinae and species of the Ancylodiscoidinae. Mymarothecium viatorum (Ancyrocephalinae) was placed within the clade of freshwater Ancyrocephalinae. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that the relationships among species of Anacanthorus reflect those of their serrasalmid hosts: the first subgroup includes a species specific to hosts assigned to Piaractus, a member of the "pacus" lineage; the second subgroup includes a species parasitizing the "Myleus-like pacus" lineage; and the third subgroup includes species parasitizing the lineage of the "true piranhas". We suggest that Anacanthorus and their serrasalmid hosts can be considered a useful model to assess host-parasite biogeography and coevolution in the neotropics. However, future studies focusing on a wider spectrum of host species and their specific Anacanthorus spp. are needed in order to investigate coevolution in this highly diversified system.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 65-73, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284946

RESUMO

Bacterial communities are resilient to the environmental changes, yet the effect of long term ecological changes on bacterial communities remain poorly explored. To study the effect of prolonged environmental changes, a 25 m long sediment core was excavated from a paleo beach ridge located on the Cauvery delta, south east coast of India. Geological evidences suggested that the site has experienced multiple marine transgressions and regressions. The three paleosols from Vettaikaraniruppu (VKI) beach ridge, VKI-2 (2.8 m bgl; 3 kybp), VKI-5 (7.2 m bgl; 6 kybp) and VKI-14 (24.5 m bgl; 146 kybp) was chosen for bacterial community analysis based on their formation period. Bacterial community structure of paleosols was reconstructed using V3 hypervariable region of bacterial 16S rDNA targeted Illumina sequencing. The VKI-5 sediment layer which formed under marine environment contained highest bacterial diversity, and the community was a mix up of terrestrial and marine bacterial population. The final community VKI-2 exhibited an approximate structural pattern witnessed in the native bacterial community VKI-14 which formed during marine regression. Furthermore, marine transgression and regression experienced in VKI resulted in the formation of distinct biogeographic patterns.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Microbiota , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Ecologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Índia , Biologia Marinha , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência
15.
Eur J Protistol ; 70: 17-31, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352233

RESUMO

Two new colonial sessilid species, Opercularia miaoxinensis spec. nov. and Epistylis conica spec. nov., were isolated from the pereopods of freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii in Hubei Province, China from 2016 to 2017. Both species were investigated by living observation, protargol impregnation, and molecular methods. Opercularia miaoxinensis spec. nov. is morphologically characterized by the following characteristics: spindle-shaped zooid, zooid size of 48-74×20-35µm in vivo, contractile vacuole ventrally located above macronucleus, and dichotomously branched stalk. Epistylis conica spec. nov. is characterized by conical zooid shape, zooid size of 56-70×22-39µm in vivo, C-shaped macronucleus with transverse orientation, dorsally located contractile vacuole, and dichotomously branched stalk. To further identify both species, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences. Both results showed that E. conica spec. nov. was part of a clade consisting of the majority of Epistylis species. Surprisingly, O. miaoxinensis spec. nov. also clustered within this large clade of Epistylis species and had a distant relationship with the other Opercularia species. These findings challenged the distinguishing morphological characteristics between Epistylididae and Operculariidae.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/classificação , Filogenia , China , Cilióforos/citologia , Cilióforos/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 113, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289918

RESUMO

Camellia taliensis (W. W. Smith) Melchior is a wild tea plant endemic from the west and southwest of Yunnan province of China to the north of Myanmar and is used commonly to produce tea by the local people of its growing areas. Its chemical constituents are closely related to those of C. sinensis var. assamica, a widely cultivated tea plant. In this study, the α diversity and phylogeny of endophytic fungi in the branches of C. taliensis were explored for the first time. A total of 160 fungal strains were obtained and grouped into 42 species from 29 genera, which were identified based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. Diversity analysis showed that the endophytic fungal community of the branches of C. taliensis had high species richness S (42), Margalef index D' (8.0785), Shannon-Wiener index H' (2.8494), Simpson diversity index DS (0.8891), PIE index (0.8947) and evenness Pielou index J (0.7623) but a low dominant index λ (0.1109). By contrast, that in the branches of C. taliensis had abundant species and high species evenness. Diaporthe tectonigena, Acrocalymma sp. and Colletotrichum magnisporum were the dominant endophytic fungi. The phylogenetic tree was established by maximum parsimony analysis, and the 11 orders observed for endophytic fungi belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were grouped into 4 classes.


Assuntos
Camellia/microbiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Chá , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , China , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/genética , Mianmar , Análise de Sequência
17.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 34(4): 223-231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170015

RESUMO

Purpose: To review the value of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in identifying the pathogens which cause ocular infections, thereby facilitating prompt initiation of treatment with an optimal anti-microbial regimen. Both contemporary and futuristic approaches to identifying pathogens in ocular infections are covered in this brief overview. Methods: Review of the peer reviewed literature on conventional and advanced methods as applied to the diagnosis of infectious diseases of the eye. Conclusion: NGS is a novel technology for identifying the pathogens responsible for ocular infections with the potential to improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis and hastening the selection of the best therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 360-366, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215606

RESUMO

Mycoplasma ovis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution and can cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia, icterus, and poor weight gain in animals. Although M. ovis has been described in small ruminants worldwide, data on M. ovis in sheep in Brazil is unknown. The objective of the present study was to present the first report of hemotropic mycoplasma (HM) in sheep from Brazil. We evaluated factors associated with this infection, such age group, tick presence, and anemia. Blood samples were collected from 33 sheep from a farm in southern Brazil and screened for hemoplasmas using PCR. Out of 33 samples, 26 (78.8%) tested positive for M. ovis. The sequencing of positive samples showed 100% identity with multiple M. ovis 16S rDNA sequences. No association was observed between the presence of M. ovis and the FAMACHA© score (p = 0.620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45.4%) was the tick species found on the animals. No significant association between M. ovis infection and presence of ticks (p = 0.4134) and age group (p = 0.4221) was observed. This is the first report of M. ovis infection in sheep from Brazil and only the second report of this pathogen in sheep in Latin America.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/classificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2203-2211, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154527

RESUMO

Mitochondrial (mt) DNA has been useful in revealing the phylogenetic relationship of eukaryotic organisms including flatworms. Therefore, the use of mitogenomic data for the comparative and phylogenetic purposes is needed for those families of digenetic trematodes for which the mitogenomic data are still missing. Molecular data with sufficiently rich informative characters that can better resolve species identification, discrimination, and membership in different genera is also required for members of some morphologically difficult families of trematodes bearing few autapomorphic characters among its members. Here, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the complete mt genome of the trematode Uvitellina sp. (Cyclocoelidae: Haematotrephinae) was determined and annotated. The mt genome of this avian trematode is 14,217 bp in length, containing 36 genes plus a single non-coding region. The ITS rDNA sequences were used for the pairwise sequence comparison of Uvitellina sp. with European cyclocoelid species, and the mitochondrial 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and two ribosomal RNA genes were used to evaluate the position of the family within selected trematodes. The ITS rDNA analysis of Uvitellina sp. showed less nucleotide differences with Hyptiasmus oculeus (16.77%) than with other European cyclocoelids (18.63-23.58%). The Bayesian inference (BI) analysis using the 12 mt PCGs and two rRNA genes supported the placement of the family Cyclocoelidae within the superfamily Echinostomatoidea (Plagiorchiida: Echinostmata). The availability of the mt genome sequences of Uvitellina sp. provides a novel resource of molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of Cyclocoelidae and other trematodes.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Echinostomatidae/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Aves/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Echinostomatidae/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2149-2157, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165238

RESUMO

There is uncertainty in the identification of Myxobolus drjagini, the causative agent of silver carp twist disease, in the literature. An investigation of fish parasites in Lake Taihu, China, revealed several Myxobolus drjagini-like myxosporeans infecting the subcutaneous tissue of the head skin, the olfactory and oculomotor nerves in the cranial cavity, and the intrafilamental epithelium of the gills of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844). Myxospores from the head skin and the nerves were identified as conspecific to M. drjagini based on morphological and molecular data; although the spores from each of the two organs presented morphological variations. SSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the sequence of M. drjagini previously deposited in GenBank (AF085179) was invalid. Myxospores from the gills were identified as Myxobolus paratypicus n. sp. The spores were oval, asymmetric in frontal view, 13.8 (12.9-14.9) µm long, 9.9 (9.2-11.1) µm wide, and 7.0 µm thick. Two pyriform polar capsules were unequal in size (ratio above 4:1) with slightly converging anterior ends, and the posterior end of the large polar capsule extended beyond the middle of the spore. The large polar capsule was 7.5 (6.2-8.2) µm long and 5.0 (4.2-5.6) µm wide; the small polar capsule was 2.7 (2.1-3.6) µm long and 1.4 (1.1-1.9) µm wide. Polar filaments were coiled with 7-8 turns in the large polar capsule. The SSU rDNA sequence of M. paratypicus n. sp. was not identical to that of any myxozoan available in GenBank and showed highest similarity with M. drjagini (96%) and Myxobolus pavlovskii (95%) collected from bighead carp and silver carp, respectively.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/parasitologia , Carpas/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Myxobolus/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Esporos de Protozoários/classificação , Animais , China , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxobolus/genética , Myxobolus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Esporos , Esporos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação
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