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1.
Nature ; 613(7944): 588-594, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599979

RESUMO

Bacterial abortive-infection systems limit the spread of foreign invaders by shutting down or killing infected cells before the invaders can replicate1,2. Several RNA-targeting CRISPR-Cas systems (that is, types III and VI) cause abortive-infection phenotypes by activating indiscriminate nucleases3-5. However, a CRISPR-mediated abortive mechanism that leverages indiscriminate DNase activity of an RNA-guided single-effector nuclease has yet to be observed. Here we report that RNA targeting by the type V single-effector nuclease Cas12a2 drives abortive infection through non-specific cleavage of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). After recognizing an RNA target with an activating protospacer-flanking sequence, Cas12a2 efficiently degrades single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and dsDNA. Within cells, the activation of Cas12a2 induces an SOS DNA-damage response and impairs growth, preventing the dissemination of the invader. Finally, we harnessed the collateral activity of Cas12a2 for direct RNA detection, demonstrating that Cas12a2 can be repurposed as an RNA-guided RNA-targeting tool. These findings expand the known defensive abilities of CRISPR-Cas systems and create additional opportunities for CRISPR technologies.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR , RNA , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/metabolismo , DNA/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Endonucleases/metabolismo
2.
Nature ; 613(7944): 582-587, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599980

RESUMO

Cas12a2 is a CRISPR-associated nuclease that performs RNA-guided, sequence-nonspecific degradation of single-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA following recognition of a complementary RNA target, culminating in abortive infection1. Here we report structures of Cas12a2 in binary, ternary and quaternary complexes to reveal a complete activation pathway. Our structures reveal that Cas12a2 is autoinhibited until binding a cognate RNA target, which exposes the RuvC active site within a large, positively charged cleft. Double-stranded DNA substrates are captured through duplex distortion and local melting, stabilized by pairs of 'aromatic clamp' residues that are crucial for double-stranded DNA degradation and in vivo immune system function. Our work provides a structural basis for this mechanism of abortive infection to achieve population-level immunity, which can be leveraged to create rational mutants that degrade a spectrum of collateral substrates.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , RNA/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/metabolismo , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278396, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656834

RESUMO

Human Replication Protein A (hRPA) is a multidomain protein that interacts with ssDNA intermediates to provide the latter much-needed stability during DNA metabolism and maintain genomic integrity. Although the ssDNA organization with hRPA was studied recently through experimental means, characterizing the underlying mechanism at the atomic level remains challenging because of the dynamic domain architecture of hRPA and poorly understood heterogeneity of ssDNA-protein interactions. Here, we used a computational framework, precisely tailored to capture protein-ssDNA interactions, and investigated the binding of hRPA with a 60 nt ssDNA. Two distinct binding mechanisms are realized based on the hRPA domain flexibility. For a rigid domain architecture of hRPA, ssDNA binds sequentially with hRPA domains, resulting in slow association kinetics. The binding pathway involves the formation of stable and distinct intermediate states. On contrary, for a flexible domain architecture of hRPA, ssDNA binds synergistically to the A and B domains followed by the rest of hRPA. The domain dynamics in hRPA alleviates the free energy cost of domain orientation necessary for specific binding with ssDNA, leading to fast association kinetics along a downhill binding free energy landscape. An ensemble of free energetically degenerate intermediate states is encountered that makes it arduous to characterize them structurally. An excellent match between our results with the available experimental observations provides new insights into the rich dynamics of hRPA binding to ssDNA and in general paves the way to investigate intricate details of ssDNA-protein interactions, crucial for cellular functioning.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples , Proteína de Replicação A , Humanos , Proteína de Replicação A/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Cinética
4.
J Chem Phys ; 158(3): 035101, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681650

RESUMO

DNA is a re-configurable, biological information-storage unit, and much remains to be learned about its heterogeneous structural dynamics. For example, while it is known that molecular dyes templated onto DNA exhibit increased photostability, the mechanism by which the structural dynamics of DNA affect the dye photophysics remains unknown. Here, we use femtosecond, two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of a cyanine dye, Cy5, to probe local conformations in samples of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA-Cy5), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA-Cy5), and Holliday junction DNA (HJ-DNA-Cy5). A line shape analysis of the 2D spectra reveals a strong excitation-emission correlation present in only the dsDNA-Cy5 complex, which is a signature of inhomogeneous broadening. Molecular dynamics simulations support the conclusion that this inhomogeneous broadening arises from a nearly degenerate conformer found only in the dsDNA-Cy5 complex. These insights will support future studies on DNA's structural heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Quinolinas , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , DNA/química , Carbocianinas/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples
5.
Arch Virol ; 168(1): 23, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593430

RESUMO

Viruses in the family Circoviridae have small circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes. Circoviruses are known to infect a wide variety of animals, with notable disease pathology in psittacine (psittacine beak and feather disease) and porcine (postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome) species. There is still a dearth of research investigating circoviruses associated with felid species. In six fecal samples collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in California from 2010 to 2011, we identified six viruses belonging to the genera Circovirus (n = 1) and Cyclovirus (n = 5), using a high-throughput-sequencing-based approach. Of these, the virus in the genus Circovirus represents a new species, as it shares only 54-60% genome-wide sequence identity with the other members of this genus. The five viruses in the genus Cyclovirus represent three new species, sharing <73% genome-wide sequence identity with all other cycloviruses. Three of the cycloviruses belong to a single putative species and were obtained from the feces of three individual bobcats, sharing 95.7-99.9% sequence identity, whereas the other two unique cycloviruses were identified in a single fecal sample. At present, it is unknown whether the identified viruses infect bobcats, their prey, or their gut parasites.


Assuntos
Circoviridae , Circovirus , Lynx , Animais , Suínos , Circoviridae/genética , Circovirus/genética , California , Fezes , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Filogenia , Genoma Viral
6.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 294, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653393

RESUMO

Conjugation is a contact-dependent mechanism for the transfer of plasmid DNA between bacterial cells, which contributes to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Here, we use live-cell microscopy to visualise the intracellular dynamics of conjugative transfer of F-plasmid in E. coli, in real time. We show that the transfer of plasmid in single-stranded form (ssDNA) and its subsequent conversion into double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) are fast and efficient processes that occur with specific timing and subcellular localisation. Notably, the ssDNA-to-dsDNA conversion determines the timing of plasmid-encoded protein production. The leading region that first enters the recipient cell carries single-stranded promoters that allow the early and transient synthesis of leading proteins immediately upon entry of the ssDNA plasmid. The subsequent conversion into dsDNA turns off leading gene expression, and activates the expression of other plasmid genes under the control of conventional double-stranded promoters. This molecular strategy allows for the timely production of factors sequentially involved in establishing, maintaining and disseminating the plasmid.


Assuntos
Conjugação Genética , Escherichia coli , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , DNA , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(1)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671957

RESUMO

The accurate, simple, and efficient measurement of the concentration of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is important for many analytical applications, such as DNA adsorption, biosensor design, and disease diagnosis, but it is still a challenge. Herein, we studied a cationic conjugated polymer (CCP)-based ssDNA assay taking advantage of the obvious fluorescence change of CCPs upon binding ssDNA. Poly(3-(3'-N,N,N-triethylamino-1'-propyloxy)-4-methyl-2,5-thiophene hydrochloride) (PMNT) achieved an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 57 ± 4 nM for ssDNA, indicating a very high binding affinity between PMNT and ssDNA. This allowed us to develop a CCP-based ssDNA biosensor with a detection limit of 0.6 nM, similar to the fluorescence-dye-based method using SYBR Green I and SYBR Gold. Our CCP-based biosensor produced smaller differences among ssDNA samples with different base compositions. In addition, the existence of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) at different concentrations did not interfere with the fluorescence of PMNT, indicating that our CCP-based biosensor was more suitable for the measurement of ssDNA. Compared with fluorescence-intensity-based quantification, our CCP system allowed ratiometric quantification, which made the calibration easier and more robust. We then applied our method to the quantification of ssDNA on AuNPs using both unmodified and thiolated ssDNA, and the accurate quantification of ssDNA was achieved without any fluorophore modification. This method provides an alternative approach for the measurement of ssDNA.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Polímeros/química , Ouro , DNA/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Cátions/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674944

RESUMO

DciA is the ancestral bacterial replicative helicase loader, punctually replaced during evolution by the DnaC/I loaders of phage origin. DnaC helps the helicase to load onto DNA by cracking open the hexameric ring, but the mechanism of loading by DciA remains unknown. We demonstrate by electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and biochemistry experiments that DciA, which folds into a KH-like domain, interacts with not only single-stranded but also double-stranded DNA, in an atypical mode. Some point mutations of the long α-helix 1 demonstrate its importance in the interaction of DciA for various DNA substrates mimicking single-stranded, double-stranded, and forked DNA. Some of these mutations also affect the loading of the helicase by DciA. We come to the hypothesis that DciA could be a DNA chaperone by intercalating itself between the two DNA strands to stabilize it. This work allows us to propose that the direct interaction of DciA with DNA could play a role in the loading mechanism of the helicase.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , DNA , Replicação do DNA , Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/química
9.
Talanta ; 255: 124247, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603443

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a crisis for global health. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer globally. In the perusal, a novel electrochemical biosensor amplified with hierarchical flower-like gold, poly (n-butyl acrylate), and MXene (AuHFGNs/PnBA-MXene) nanocomposite and activated by highly special antisense ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) provide a promising alternative for miRNA-122 detection as a biomarker of breast cancer. The biosensor presented a detection limit of 0.0035 aM (S/N = 3) with a linear range from 0.01 aM to 10 nM. The platform was tried on 20 breast cancer miRNAs extracted from actual serum specimens (10 positives and 10 negatives). Founded on the quantitatively obtained outcomes and statistic analysis (t-test, box-graph, receiver performance characteristic curve, and cut-off amount), the biosensor showed a meaningful discrepancy between the native and positive groups with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. While, RT-qPCR showed less specificity and sensitivity (70% specificity, 100% sensitivity) than the proposed biosensor. To assess the quantitative capacity and biosensor detection limit for clinical tests, the biosensor diagnosis performance for continually diluted miRNA extracted from patients was compared to that gained by RT-qPCR results, indicating that the biosensor detection limit was lower than RT-qPCR. ssDNA/AuHFGN/PnBA-MXene/GCE displayed little cross-reaction with other sequences and also showed desirable stability, reproducibility, and specificity and stayed stable until 32 days. As a result, the designed biosensor can perform as a hopeful method for diagnosis applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Neoplasias da Mama , MicroRNAs , Nanocompostos , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Biomarcadores , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ouro , Limite de Detecção
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 51(1): 218-235, 2023 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610794

RESUMO

Mycobacterium smegmatis Lhr exemplifies a novel clade of helicases composed of an N-terminal ATPase/helicase domain (Lhr-Core) and a large C-terminal domain (Lhr-CTD) that nucleates a unique homo-tetrameric quaternary structure. Expression of Lhr, and its operonic neighbor Nei2, is induced in mycobacteria exposed to mitomycin C (MMC). Here we report that lhr deletion sensitizes M. smegmatis to killing by DNA crosslinkers MMC and cisplatin but not to killing by monoadduct-forming alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate or UV irradiation. Testing complementation of MMC and cisplatin sensitivity by expression of Lhr mutants in Δlhr cells established that: (i) Lhr-CTD is essential for DNA repair activity, such that Lhr-Core does not suffice; (ii) ATPase-defective mutant D170A/E171A fails to complement; (iii) ATPase-active, helicase-defective mutant W597A fails to complement and (iv) alanine mutations at the CTD-CTD interface that interdict homo-tetramer formation result in failure to complement. Our results instate Lhr's ATP-driven motor as an agent of inter-strand crosslink repair in vivo, contingent on Lhr's tetrameric quaternary structure. We characterize M. smegmatis Nei2 as a monomeric enzyme with AP ß-lyase activity on single-stranded DNA. Counter to previous reports, we find Nei2 is inactive as a lyase at a THF abasic site and has feeble uracil glycosylase activity.


Assuntos
Mitomicina , Mycobacterium , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples
11.
Nat Chem ; 15(1): 70-82, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604607

RESUMO

The discovery of the DNA double helix has revolutionized our understanding of data processing in living systems, with the complementarity of the two DNA strands providing a reliable mechanism for the storage of hereditary information. Here I reveal the 'strand commutation' phenomenon-a fundamentally different mechanism of information storage and processing by DNA/RNA based on the reversible low-affinity interactions of essentially non-complementary nucleic acids. I demonstrate this mechanism by constructing a memory circuit, a 5-min square-root circuit for 4-bit inputs comprising only nine processing ssDNAs, simulating a 572-input AND gate (surpassing the bitness of current electronic computers), and elementary algebra systems with continuously changing variables. Most importantly, I show potential pathways of gene regulation with strands of maximum non-complementarity to the gene sequence that may be key to the reduction of off-target therapeutic effects. This Article uncovers the information-processing power of the low-affinity interactions that may underlie major processes in an organism-from short-term memory to cancer, ageing and evolution.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples , DNA , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , RNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(1): 216-223, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541447

RESUMO

Protein nanocages are of increasing interest for use as drug capsules, but the encapsulation and release of drug molecules at appropriate times require the reversible association and dissociation of the nanocages. One promising approach to addressing this challenge is the design of metal-dependent associating proteins. Such designed proteins typically have Cys or His residues at the protein surface for connecting the associating proteins through metal-ion coordination. However, Cys and His residues favor interactions with soft and borderline metal ions, such as Au+ and Zn2+, classified by the hard and soft acids and bases concept, restricting the types of metal ions available to drive association. Here, we show the alkaline earth (AE) metal-dependent association of the recently designed artificial protein nanocage TIP60, which is composed of 60-mer fusion proteins. The introduction of a Glu (hard base) mutation to the fusion protein (K67E mutant) prevented the formation of the 60-mer but formed the expected cage structure in the presence of Ca, Sr, or Ba ions (hard acids). Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) analysis indicated a Ba ion at the interface of the subunits. Furthermore, we demonstrated the encapsulation and release of single-stranded DNA molecules using this system. Our results provide insights into the design of AE metal-dependent association and dissociation mechanisms for proteins.


Assuntos
Metais Alcalinoterrosos , Metais , Metais Alcalinoterrosos/química , Metais/química , Íons , DNA de Cadeia Simples
13.
J Biol Chem ; 299(1): 102786, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509145

RESUMO

Escherichia coli YoaA aids in the resolution of DNA damage that halts DNA synthesis in vivo in conjunction with χ, an accessory subunit of DNA polymerase III. YoaA and χ form a discrete complex separate from the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, but little is known about how YoaA and χ work together to help the replication fork overcome damage. Although YoaA is predicted to be an iron-sulfur helicase in the XPD/Rad3 helicase family based on sequence analysis, the biochemical activities of YoaA have not been described. Here, we characterize YoaA and show that purified YoaA contains iron. YoaA and χ form a complex that is stable through three chromatographic steps, including gel filtration chromatography. When overexpressed in the absence of χ, YoaA is mostly insoluble. In addition, we show the YoaA-χ complex has DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Our measurement of the YoaA-χ helicase activity illustrates for the first time YoaA-χ translocates on ssDNA in the 5' to 3' direction and requires a 5' single-stranded overhang, or ssDNA gap, for DNA/DNA unwinding. Furthermore, YoaA-χ preferentially unwinds forked duplex DNA that contains both 3' and 5' single-stranded overhangs versus duplex DNA with only a 5' overhang. Finally, we demonstrate YoaA-χ can unwind damaged DNA that contains an abasic site or damage on 3' ends that stall replication extension. These results are the first biochemical evidence demonstrating YoaA is a bona fide iron-sulfur helicase, and we further propose the physiologically relevant form of the helicase is YoaA-χ.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase III , Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase III/genética , Ferro , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , DNA , DNA de Cadeia Simples
14.
Talanta ; 255: 124210, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566557

RESUMO

We successfully constructed several molecular logic gates using heavy metal ions as inputs based on catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) and CRISPR-Cas12a. The corresponding DNAzymes were used to recognize heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Mn2+). The specific cleavage between heavy metal ions and DNAzymes leads to the release of the trigger DNA, which can be used to activate CHA through logic computation. The CHA-generated DNA duplexes contain the protospacer adjacent motifs (PAM) sequence, which can be distinguished by CRISPR-Cas12a. The hybridization interactions between the duplexes and gRNA will activate the trans-cleavage capability of Cas12a, which can cleave the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) reporter. The separation of the fluorescence group and quench group in ssDNA will generate a high fluorescence signal for readout. Using Hg2+ and Cd2+ as the two inputs, several basic logic gates were constructed, including OR, AND, and INHIBT. Using Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Mn2+ as the four inputs, cascaded logic gates were further fabricated. With the advantages of scalability, versatility, and logic computing capability, our proposed molecular logic gates can provide an intelligent sensing system for heavy metal ions monitoring.


Assuntos
DNA Catalítico , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cádmio , Chumbo , DNA , Íons , DNA de Cadeia Simples
15.
Talanta ; 253: 123980, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201954

RESUMO

As a major threat to food safety due to their pathogenicity, foodborne bacteria have received much attention. In this paper, we present a one-step and wash-free microfluidic biosensor platform by smartphone for simultaneous multiple foodborne bacteria target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) detection. This technology is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the graphene oxide (GO) and fluorescence molecules modified capture ssDNA of the target bacteria ssDNA (ctDNA) which were coated on the microfluidic chips. The fluorescence recovery was recorded by a smartphone fluorescent detector. With an optimal analytical performance, the platform realized the detection of four kinds of bacteria ssDNA simultaneously within 5 min, with the limits of detection (LODs) of 0.17, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.17 nM, respectively. And the throughput analysis of trace amounts of foodborne bacteria ssDNA in milk and water samples were successfully detected. This one-step and wash-free microfluidic biosensor can be used as a tool for food safety analysis.


Assuntos
DNA de Cadeia Simples , Microfluídica , Bactérias
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(1): 300-310, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542094

RESUMO

F-specific filamentous phages, elongated particles with circular single-stranded DNA encased in a symmetric protein capsid, undergo an intermediate step, where thousands of homodimers of a non-structural protein, gVp, bind to newly synthesized strands of DNA, preventing further DNA replication and preparing the circular genome in an elongated conformation for assembly of a new virion structure at the membrane. While the structure of the free homodimer is known, the ssDNA-bound conformation has yet to be determined. We report an atomic-resolution structure of the gVp monomer bound to ssDNA of fd phage in the nucleoprotein complex elucidated via magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR. The model presents significant conformational changes with respect to the free form. These modifications facilitate the binding mechanism and possibly promote cooperative binding in the assembly of the gVp-ssDNA complex.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago M13 , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Bacteriófago M13/química , Bacteriófago M13/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , DNA Viral/genética
17.
Mikrochim Acta ; 190(1): 6, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471087

RESUMO

A nanozyme sensor array based on the ssDNA-distensible C3N4 nanosheet sensor elements for discriminating multiple mycotoxins commonly existing in contaminated cereals has been explored. The sensor array exploited (a) three DNA nonspecific sequences (A40, T40, C40) absorbed on the C3N4 nanosheets as sensor elements catalyzing the oxidation of TMB; (b) the presence of five mycotoxins affected the catalytic activity of three nanozymes with various degrees. The parameter (A0-A) was employed as the signal output to obtain the response patterns for different mycotoxins with the same concentration where A0 and A were the absorption peak values at 650 nm of oxTMB in the absence and presence of target mycotoxins, respectively. After the raw data was subjected to principal component analysis, 3D canonical score plots were obtained. The sensor array was capable of separating five mycotoxins from each other with 100% accuracy even if the concentration of the mycotoxins was as low as 1 nM. Moreover, the array performed well in discriminating the mycotoxin mixtures with different ratios. Importantly, the practicality of this sensor array was demonstrated by discriminating the five mycotoxins spiking in corn-free samples in 3D canonical score plots, validating that the sensor array can act as a flexible detection tool for food safety. A nanozyme sensor array was developed based on the ssDNA-distensible C3N4 NSs sensor elements for discriminating muitiple mycotoxins.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas , Micotoxinas/análise , Grão Comestível/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Zea mays
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7478, 2022 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463224

RESUMO

The origin of viruses remains an open question. While lack of detectable sequence similarity hampers the analysis of distantly related viruses, structural biology investigations of conserved capsid protein structures facilitate the study of distant evolutionary relationships. Here we characterize the lipid-containing ssDNA temperate bacteriophage ΦCjT23, which infects Flavobacterium sp. (Bacteroidetes). We report ΦCjT23-like sequences in the genome of strains belonging to several Flavobacterium species. The virion structure determined by cryogenic electron microscopy reveals similarities to members of the viral kingdom Bamfordvirae that currently consists solely of dsDNA viruses with a major capsid protein composed of two upright ß-sandwiches. The minimalistic structure of ΦCjT23 suggests that this phage serves as a model for the last common ancestor between ssDNA and dsDNA viruses in the Bamfordvirae. Both ΦCjT23 and the related phage FLiP infect Flavobacterium species found in several environments, suggesting that these types of viruses have a global distribution and a shared evolutionary origin. Detailed comparisons to related, more complex viruses not only expand our knowledge about this group of viruses but also provide a rare glimpse into early virus evolution.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Bacteriófagos/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Flavobacterium/genética
19.
Curr Protoc ; 2(12): e605, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36546891

RESUMO

The technology of recombineering, in vivo genetic engineering, was initially developed in Escherichia coli and uses bacteriophage-encoded homologous recombination proteins to efficiently recombine DNA at short homologies (35 to 50 nt). Because the technology is homology driven, genomic DNA can be modified precisely and independently of restriction site location. Recombineering uses linear DNA substrates that are introduced into the cell by electroporation; these can be PCR products, synthetic double-strand DNA (dsDNA), or single-strand DNA (ssDNA). Here we describe the applications, challenges, and factors affecting ssDNA and dsDNA recombineering in a variety of non-model bacteria, both Gram-negative and -positive, and recent breakthroughs in the field. We list different microbes in which the widely used phage λ Red and Rac RecET recombination systems have been used for in vivo genetic engineering. New homologous ssDNA and dsDNA recombineering systems isolated from non-model bacteria are also described. The Basic Protocol outlines a method for ssDNA recombineering in the non-model species of Shewanella. The Alternate Protocol describes the use of CRISPR/Cas as a counter-selection system in conjunction with recombineering to enhance recovery of recombinants. We provide additional background information, pertinent considerations for experimental design, and parameters critical for success. The design of ssDNA oligonucleotides (oligos) and various internet-based tools for oligo selection from genome sequences are also described, as is the use of oligo-mediated recombination. This simple form of genome editing uses only ssDNA oligo(s) and does not require an exogenous recombination system. The information presented here should help researchers identify a recombineering system suitable for their microbe(s) of interest. If no system has been characterized for a specific microbe, researchers can find guidance in developing a recombineering system from scratch. We provide a flowchart of decision-making paths for strategically applying annealase-dependent or oligo-mediated recombination in non-model and undomesticated bacteria. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Basic Protocol: ssDNA recombineering in Shewanella species Alternate Protocol: ssDNA recombineering coupled to CRISPR/Cas9 in Shewanella species.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Bactérias/genética , Recombinação Homóloga , Sequência de Bases , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7855, 2022 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543802

RESUMO

Some bacteriophage encode a recombinase that catalyzes single-stranded DNA annealing (SSA). These proteins are apparently related to RAD52, the primary human SSA protein. The best studied protein, Redß from bacteriophage λ, binds weakly to ssDNA, not at all to dsDNA, but tightly to a duplex intermediate of annealing formed when two complementary DNA strands are added to the protein sequentially. We used single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine a 3.4 Å structure of a Redß homolog from a prophage of Listeria innocua in complex with two complementary 83mer oligonucleotides. The structure reveals a helical protein filament bound to a DNA duplex that is highly extended and unwound. Native mass spectrometry confirms that the complex seen by cryo-EM is the predominant species in solution. The protein shares a common core fold with RAD52 and a similar mode of ssDNA-binding. These data provide insights into the mechanism of protein-catalyzed SSA.


Assuntos
DNA , Recombinases , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Prófagos/genética , Prófagos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/genética , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/metabolismo , Recombinases/metabolismo
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