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1.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(5 Suppl. 1): 79-85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630719

RESUMO

Obesity in children has been recognized as a major underlying factor of the pathogenesis of several diseases and a reduced life expectancy. This study aims to verify if clinical parameters, such as waist circumference and/or body mass index and biohumoral and inflammatory parameters can help predict cardiac structural and functional alterations, through an echocardiogram test in obese children and adolescents. Children were prospectively enrolled at the AUOC outpatients' department of Emergency Paediatrics, University Hospital, Messina, from June to December 2017. Clinical, metabolic parameters and an inflammation marker (HMGB1) were evaluated and a transthoracic echocardiogram was carried out. Twenty-two obese subjects were prospectively enrolled.HMGB1 values were 12.6 ± 2ng/ml, significantly higher compared to a previously studied healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was found both between total cholesterol levels and HMGB1 values (r=0.846, p=0.000) and between LDL cholesterol and HMBG1 values (r=0.663, p=0.001). No correlation was found between clinical, biohumoral and echocardiograph parameters. In obese children cardiac parameters obtained from echocardiogram tests may be in the normal range. However, other parameters may be altered in the early phase, showing that infantile obesity can compromise myocardial functions, even in the absence of comorbidities. Furthermore, the evaluation of concentrations of HMBG1 could explain how an initial inflammation can trigger the condition of meta-inflammation.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Humanos , Dados Preliminares , Estudos Prospectivos , Circunferência da Cintura
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(11): 104343, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the Western world, and leads to impaired balance and mobility. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of using a Virtual Reality-based dual task of an upper extremity while treadmill walking, to improve gait and functional balance performance of chronic poststroke survivors. METHODS: Twenty-two individuals chronic poststroke participated in the study, and were divided into 2 groups (each group performing an 8-session exercise program): 11 participated in dual-task walking (DTW), and the other 11 participated in single-task treadmill walking (TMW). The study was a randomized controlled trial, with assessors blinded to the participants' allocated group. Measurements were conducted at pretest, post-test, and follow-up. Outcome measures included: the 10-m walking test (10 mW), Timed Up and Go (TUG), the Functional Reach Test (FRT), the Lateral Reach Test Left/Right (LRT-L/R); the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale, and the Berg Balance Scale(BBS). RESULTS: Improvements were observed in balance variables: BBS, FRT, LRT-L/R, (P < .01) favoring the DTW group; in gait variables: 10 mW time, also favoring the DTW group (P < .05); and the ABC scale (P < .01). No changes for interaction were observed in the TUG. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate the potential of VR-based DTW to improve walking and balance in people after stroke; thus, it is suggested to combine training sessions that require the performance of multiple tasks at the same time.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Equilíbrio Postural , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Realidade Virtual , Caminhada , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 501-508, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483196

RESUMO

Objectives: Aiginition Longitudinal Biomarker Investigation Of Neurodegeneration (ALBION) is a longitudinal ongoing study initiated in 2018 that takes place in the Cognitive Disorders Clinic of Aiginition Hospital of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Its aim is to address several research questions concerning the preclinical and prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease and explore potential markers for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of dementia. Methods: We here present the design and the preliminary baseline characteristics of ALBION. The sample of our study consists of people aged over 50 who are concerned about their memory but are cognitively normal (CN) or have mild cognitive deficits. Each participant undergoes an extensive assessment including several demographic, medical, social, environmental, clinical, nutritional, neuropsychological determinants and lifestyle activities. Furthermore, we are collecting data from portable devices, neuroimaging techniques and biological samples (blood, stools, CSF). All participants are assessed annually for a period of 10 years. Results: In total, 47 participants have completed the initial evaluation up to date and are divided in two groups, CN individuals (N = 26) and MCI patients (N = 21), based on their cognitive status. The participants are, on average, 64 years old, 46.3% of the sample is male with an average of 12.73 years of education. MCI patients report more comorbidities and have a lower score in the MMSE test. Regarding APOE status, 2 participants are ε4 homozygotes and 10 ε4 heterozygotes. CSF analyses (Aß42, Τ-tau, P-tau) revealed no differences between the two groups. Conclusion: The ALBION study offers an opportunity to explore preclinical dementia and identify new and tailored markers, particularly relating to lifestyle. Further investigation of these populations may provide a wider profile of the changes taking place in the preclinical phase of dementia, leading to potentially effective therapeutic and preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Prevenção Primária , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Grécia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Dados Preliminares , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
4.
Mar Drugs ; 17(9)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470537

RESUMO

Astaxanthin is a carotenoid extracted from several seaweeds with ascertained therapeutic activity. With specific reference, astaxanthin is widely used in clinical practice to improve ocular tissue health and skin protection from UV ray damages. Despite its well-documented pleiotropic actions and demonstrated clinical efficacy, its bioavailability in humans is low and limited because of its hydrophobicity and poor dissolution in enteric fluids. Furthermore, astaxanthin is very unstable molecule and very sensitive to light exposure and thermal stress. Taken together, these pharmacological and chemical-physical features strongly limit pharmaceutical and nutraceutical development of astaxanthin-based products and as a consequence its full clinical usage. This work describes the preliminary in vitro investigation of sublingual absorption of astaxanthin through a novel ascorbyl palmitate (ASP) based nanoemulsion.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Palmitatos/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Dados Preliminares , Alga Marinha/química , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Xantofilas/química
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(10): 104311, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary embolism (SE) during mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the main reason for incomplete recanalization, while its risk factors are largely unknown. This study addresses a potential relationship between thrombus density on preinterventional computed tomography (CT) and the occurrence of SE. METHODS: We reviewed anterior circulation AIS patients who underwent MT from July 2015 to January 2019 in our center. Thrombus density was measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) on 1-mm and 5-mm preinterventional nonenhanced CT (NECT). Thrombus density, baseline characteristics, procedural, and clinical outcomes were compared between patients with SE and those without SE. Logistic regression was conducted to identified potential risk factors of SE. RESULTS: Sixty-four consecutively patients were included, of whom SE was identified in 16 (25.0%) patients. Compared with those without SE, patients with SE showed a higher thrombus density on both 1-mm (72.85 versus 64.28, P = .005) and 5-mm NECT (60.31 versus 49.71, P < .001), a higher proportion of atrial fibrillation (75.0% versus 45.8%, P = .043), a lower clot burden score (.5 versus 6.0, P = .029), and a higher proportion of front-line contact aspiration strategy (50.0% versus 16.7%, P = .020). Multivariate regression analysis showed that only thrombus density was the independent predictor of SE (for the model including HU values on 1-mm NECT, OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.01-1.23, P = .029; for the model including HU values on 5-mm NECT, OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.02-1.17, P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: Higher thrombus density was the independent predictor for SE. Further studies are needed to investigate its role in the optimization of thrombectomy strategy.


Assuntos
Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Embolia Intracraniana/terapia , Trombose Intracraniana/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dados Preliminares , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(8): e8671, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389492

RESUMO

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a neural tube defect that often causes spinal cord injury at the thoracolumbar region, as well as sensory and motor paralysis in the lower limbs. This leads to continuous use of a wheelchair and, consequently, a sedentary lifestyle, predisposition to muscle weakness, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, obesity, and structural alterations in the spine. We assessed the respiratory function and shoulder strength of MMC participants who were wheelchair-users and had no respiratory complaints and compared them to healthy children and adolescents. MMC (n=10) and healthy (n=25) participants of both genders with a mean age of 12.45 years (SD=2.1) were assessed for weight, height, respiratory performance, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors, extensors, abductors, and adductors, using an isokinetic dynamometer. Medullary lesion, functional levels, and abnormal curvatures of the spine were assessed for MMC participants. The level of spinal cord injury for the majority of the MMC participants was high lumbar and they had scoliosis. MMC showed lower values for forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at the first second, forced expiratory flow (25-75%), maximal voluntary ventilation, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors and adductors compared to healthy participants. This indicated a decreased vital capacity, respiratory muscle endurance, and shoulder muscle strength.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Meningomielocele/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Cadeiras de Rodas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dados Preliminares , Testes de Função Respiratória
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16065, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apatinib is an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Some clinical trials have demonstrated that apatinib is efficacious against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to probe efficacy and safety of apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, single arm study. SETTING: Three teaching hospitals centers in the Sichuan. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen patients with stage IVA/B nonsquamous NSCLC had previously received at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. INTERVENTION: Patients who were enrolled between November 2016 and January 2018 were given docetaxel (75 mg/m, i.v., d1) plus oral apatinib (250 mg/d), 4 weeks as one cycle, until disease progression or intolerance to adverse events (AE). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints comprised objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and AE incidence rate. RESULTS: All patients carried adenocarcinoma by pathological type. The median follow-up duration was 9.76 months. Out of 14 cases, 12 were evaluable, showing ORR of 33.33%, DCR of 66.67%, DCR of 50% in cases with brain metastasis, median PFS of 2.92 months (95% CI: 1.38-4.48), and 6-month OS of 80%. Primary AEs encompassed: leukopenia in 7 cases (58.33%), hand-foot skin reaction in 5 cases (41.67%), and diarrhea in 4 cases (33.33%). Among them, grade 3 AEs were: leukopenia in 4 cases (33.33%), and hand-foot skin reaction in 1 case (8.33%). No grade 4/5 AEs were reported. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted respectively for PFS and OS. These factors encompassed: gender, age, gene mutations, clinical stage, ECOG scores, quantity of metastatic foci, brain metastasis, and hand-foot skin reaction. Results demonstrated zero risk factors for PFS or OS. CONCLUSION: Apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, is effective and safe against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, with good tolerance profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03416231.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Retratamento , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Moduladores de Tubulina/efeitos adversos , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16126, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261532

RESUMO

Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization may cause lethal mechanical complications intraoperatively. We developed a novel device to prevent such complications. It works as a needle guide to supplement the operator's skill. We evaluated the utility of this device in terms of the success rate and visualization of the needle tip while penetrating the target vessel using a simulator.This study was approved by the local ethics committee. The new device - an optical skill-assist device - has a slit and a mirror in the center. The operator can see the needle's reflection in the mirror through the slit and can thus ensure that the needle is directed in line with the ultrasound beam. Participants were recruited by placing an advertisement for a hands-on seminar on ultrasound-guided vascular access. They received hands-on training on the in-plane approach for 2 hours. Pre-test and post-test without the device and an additional test using the device were performed to evaluate the proficiency of ultrasound-guided vascular access. An endoscope inserted into the simulated vessel was used to detect the precise location of the needle tip in the vessel.The primary outcomes were the success rate of the procedure. The secondary outcome was visualization of the needle tip while penetrating the simulated vessel. The chi-squared test was used for comparing the success rate and needle tip visualization between the different tests. P < .05 was considered to indicate significant differences.Forty-two participants were enrolled in this study. The success rate did not increase after the simulation training (P = .1). Using the optical skill-assist device, the rate improved to 100%. There was a significant difference in success rate between the pre-test and additional test using the optical skill-assist device (P = .003). Needle tip visualization significantly improved with the use of the optical skill-assist device compared to the pre-test (P < .001) and post-test (P = .001).Simulation training improved participants' skill for ultrasound-guided vascular access, but the improvement depended on each participant. However, further, improvement was achieved with the use of the optical skill-assist device.The optical skill-assist device is useful for supplementing the operator's skill for ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/instrumentação , Cateterismo Venoso Central/métodos , Competência Clínica , Educação Médica , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Aprendizagem , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Médicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Dados Preliminares , Treinamento por Simulação , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
9.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 60(5): 582-588, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A geometrical understanding of the individual patient's disease morphology is crucial in aortic surgery. The aim of our study was to validate a questionnaire addressing understanding of aortic disease and use this questionnaire to investigate the value of 3D printing as a teaching tool for surgical trainees. METHODS: Anonymized CT-angiography images of six different patients were selected as didactic cases of aortic disease and made into 3D models of transparent rigid resin with the Vat-photopolymerization technique. The 3D aortic models, which could be disassembled and reassembled, were displayed to 37 surgical trainees, immediately after a seminar on aortic disease. A questionnaire was developed to compare the trainees' understanding before (T0) and after (T1) demonstration of the 3D printed models. RESULTS: A panel of 15 experts participated in evaluating face and content validity of the questionnaire. The questionnaire validity was established and therefore the information investigated by the questionnaire could be synthetized using the mean of the items to indicate the understanding. The participants (mean age 28 years, range 26-34, male 59%) showed a significant improvement in understanding from T0 (median=7.25; IQR=1.50) to T1 (median=8.00; IQR=1.50; P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data suggest that the use of 3D-printed aortic models as a teaching tool was feasible and improved the understanding of aortic disease among surgical trainees.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aortografia/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Cirurgiões/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Adulto , Aorta/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Compreensão , Escolaridade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dados Preliminares , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 3159-3165, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with sarcoma are particularly vulnerable to psychosocial distress. The aim of this study was to collect preliminary data on the prevalence of psychosocial distress in such patients during follow-up care and identify risk factors associated with higher psycho-oncological stress levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study retrospectively enrolled 202 patients with bone or soft-tissue sarcomas who underwent routine psychosocial distress screening during their follow-up care. All patients were screened using an electronic cancer-specific questionnaire. RESULTS: Females and patients who underwent radiotherapy were more distressed. Psychosocial distress levels were markedly higher in the early postoperative phase, but approximately one-third of patients showed high psychosocial distress levels even more than 2 years postoperatively. CONCLUSION: The results underscore the importance of routine psychosocial distress screenings in patients with sarcoma, which should be performed throughout the follow-up period.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/psicologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Saúde Mental , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Sarcoma/terapia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/psicologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dados Preliminares , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/psicologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(1): 15-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050249

RESUMO

Interferon gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) are extensively used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infections. Comparing to tuberculin skin test (TST) they lack false positive results in the populations vaccinated with BCG, and in most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. Nevertheless, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium szulgai may induce positive IGRAs due to RD1 homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible influence of NTM respiratory isolates on the results of IGRAs. 39 patients (23 females and 16 males) of median age 61 years, with negative medical history concerning tuberculosis, entered the study. Identification of NTM was performed using the niacin test and molecular method GenoType CM test (Hain Lifescience). QFT-Plus was performed in 17 patients, T-SPOT-Tb - in 23 patients. Chest X-rays and a high-resolution computed tomography of the chest have been reviewed by the experienced radiologist blinded to the results of IGRAs, in search of past tuberculosis signs. Positive IGRAs results were obtained in three out of 39 patients (8%): 22% of patients with M. kansasii isolates and 18% of patients with radiological signs on HRCT that might be suggestive of past tuberculosis. Positive IGRAs correlated with radiological signs suggestive of past tuberculosis (r = 0.32, p = 0.04), and on the borderline with isolation of M. kansasii (r = 0.29, p = 0.06). These findings may suggest that a positive IGRAs result, in our material, could depend mostly on asymptomatic past Tb infection. The cross-reactivity of M. kansasii isolates with IGRAs was less probable; nevertheless, it requires further investigations.Interferon gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) are extensively used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infections. Comparing to tuberculin skin test (TST) they lack false positive results in the populations vaccinated with BCG, and in most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. Nevertheless, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium szulgai may induce positive IGRAs due to RD1 homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible influence of NTM respiratory isolates on the results of IGRAs. 39 patients (23 females and 16 males) of median age 61 years, with negative medical history concerning tuberculosis, entered the study. Identification of NTM was performed using the niacin test and molecular method GenoType CM test (Hain Lifescience). QFT-Plus was performed in 17 patients, T-SPOT-Tb ­ in 23 patients. Chest X-rays and a high-resolution computed tomography of the chest have been reviewed by the experienced radiologist blinded to the results of IGRAs, in search of past tuberculosis signs. Positive IGRAs results were obtained in three out of 39 patients (8%): 22% of patients with M. kansasii isolates and 18% of patients with radiological signs on HRCT that might be suggestive of past tuberculosis. Positive IGRAs correlated with radiological signs suggestive of past tuberculosis (r = 0.32, p = 0.04), and on the borderline with isolation of M. kansasii (r = 0.29, p = 0.06). These findings may suggest that a positive IGRAs result, in our material, could depend mostly on asymptomatic past Tb infection. The cross-reactivity of M. kansasii isolates with IGRAs was less probable; nevertheless, it requires further investigations.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium marinum , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Dados Preliminares , Escarro/microbiologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(9): 1627-1636, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041633

RESUMO

Intraventricular velocity distribution reflects left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and can be measured non-invasively by flow mapping technologies. We designed our study to compare intraventricular velocities and gradients, obtained by vector flow mapping (VFM) technology during early diastole in consecutive patients diagnosed with mild and advanced diastolic dysfunction at echocardiography and a control group with a purpose to validate the hypothesis of relationship between new parameters and severity of diastolic dysfunction and conventional markers of elevated LV filling pressure. Two-dimensional streamline fields were obtained using VFM technology in 121 subjects (57 with normal diastolic function, 38 with mild diastolic dysfunction and 26 with advanced diastolic dysfunction). We measured several velocities and calculated a gradient along the selected streamline, which we compared between groups and correlated them with conventional echocardiographic parameters. Apical intraventricular velocity gradient (GrIV) was the lowest in control group, followed by mild and advanced diastolic dysfunction groups (5.3 ± 1.9 vs. 6.8 ± 2.5 vs. 13.6 ± 5.0/s, p < 0.001) and showed good correlation with E/e' (r = 0.751, p < 000.1). GrIV/e' ratio was the strongest single predictor of severity of diastolic dysfunction. Different degrees of diastolic dysfunction affect the Intraventricular velocity behavior during early diastole obtained by VFM. GrIV could discriminate between groups with different levels of diastolic dysfunction and was closely associated with classical echocardiographic indices of elevated LV filling pressure. GrIV/e' ratio has a potential to become a single parameter needed to assess left ventricular diastolic function.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diástole , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dados Preliminares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
14.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(9): 609-614, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110050

RESUMO

AIM: The rapid and fully automated Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay has been specifically designed to process formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections without requiring preliminary DNA extraction. This study evaluates whether this approach can also process archival smears from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by scraping the stained cellular material directly into the cartridge. METHODS: The study was divided into two parts. In the first part, we carried out Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay on archival stained smears from 39 patients with NSCLC. Among these, 14 cases harboured a mutation in either exon 19 (n=11) or exon 21 (n=3), previously detected on DNA extracts by fragment length and TaqMan assays. In the second part, we evaluated whether de-staining of the smears could reduce background fluorescence. RESULTS: The Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay confirmed the presence of EGFR mutation in 11 instances (78.6%). However, concordance was higher for exon 19 deletions (10/11) than for exon 21 p.L858R assessments. Raw data showed a high background fluorescence in channel 2, where the EGFR exon 21 p.L858R mutation was detected. This interference, due to dye residues from the original staining, was partially reduced by de-staining the cytological material. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, although preliminary, show that the Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay can reliably process most archival smears without requiring preliminary DNA extraction. Results may be further improved by de-staining the cellular material before insertion into the cartridge.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Automação Laboratorial , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Éxons , Estudos de Viabilidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fenótipo , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dados Preliminares , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
15.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 498, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected extramural vascular invasion (mrEMVI) status is associated with quantitative perfusion parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in rectal cancer. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent curative surgery alone within 2 weeks following rectal MRI were enrolled in this retrospective study. mrEMVI status was determined based on high-resolution MRI. The quantitative perfusion parameters (Ktrans, kep and ve) derived from DCE-MRI were calculated from all sections containing tumours. DCE-MRI parameters and clinicopathological variables in patients with different mrEMVI statuses were compared. RESULTS: For patients who were mrEMVI positive, the tumours demonstrated significantly lower kep values (P = 0.012) and higher ve values (P = 0.021) than tumours of patients who were mrEMVI negative, while the Ktrans value displayed no significant difference (P = 0.390). The patients who were mrEMVI positive had larger tumour size, higher pathological tumour stage and increased regional nodal metastases compared to those who were mrEMVI negative (2.9 cm vs. 3.5 cm, P = 0.011; 63.8% vs. 92.0%, P = 0.010; 36.2% vs. 76.0%, P = 0.001; respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated for the first time that tumour microcirculation is altered in mrEMVI-positive patients with rectal adenocarcinoma, as evidenced by significantly lower kep and higher ve values. In addition, these patients were more likely to have a larger tumour size, a higher pathological tumour stage and regional nodal metastases than mrEMVI-negative patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Microcirculação , Invasividade Neoplásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dados Preliminares , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico por imagem , Neovascularização Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Prognóstico , Radiologistas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2221-2227, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thickened intracranial aneurysm wall with atherosclerotic remodeling is a part of its degenerative scenario. Current magnetic resonance (MR)-vessel wall imaging enables the detection of atherosclerotic wall thickening as aneurysm wall enhancement. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between identified atherosclerotic remodeling in vessel wall imaging, and systemic atherosclerosis-related risk factors. METHODS: A total of 39 aneurysms in 38 consecutive patients scheduled to undergo microsurgical clipping or endovascular coiling of intracranial aneurysms were prospectively evaluated. All patients underwent aneurysm MR-vessel wall imaging and the presence of aneurysm wall enhancement on contrast-enhanced vessel wall imaging was evaluated. The relationship between aneurysm wall enhancement and patient demographic data, aneurysm morphology and atherosclerosis-related risk factors including blood laboratory data were assessed. RESULTS: Aneurysm wall enhancement was detected in 19 of 39 intracranial aneurysms (48.7%). The maximum diameter of the intracranial aneurysm (P < .01), apolipoprotein A2 (P < .01) and apolipoprotein C2 (P = .01) was significantly associated with the presence of aneurysm wall enhancement. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the maximum diameter of the intracranial aneurysm (odds ratio: 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.05) and decreased apolipoprotein A2 (odds ratio: 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.97) was significantly correlated with aneurysm wall enhancement. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than atherosclerotic factors, antiatherogenic proteins reduction was associated with aneurysm wall enhancement in vessel wall imaging. To elucidate antiatherogenic factors might to help find out promoting factor of unruptured intracranial aneurysms instability.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-II/sangue , Apolipoproteína C-II/sangue , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/sangue , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/sangue , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Artérias Cerebrais/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Dados Preliminares , Estudos Prospectivos , Remodelação Vascular
17.
J Dent Educ ; 83(9): 1000-1011, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133618

RESUMO

Maldistribution of the dental workforce contributes to poor access to oral health care. Community-based dental education (CBDE) may help to address this problem by using experiential learning to encourage new dentists to practice in underserved areas. The East Carolina University School of Dental Medicine (East Carolina University SoDM) employs a multifaceted strategy, including CBDE, to increase the number of dentists practicing in underserved areas of North Carolina. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of CBDE and other factors on practice choice among East Carolina University SoDM graduates. This cross-sectional study assessed practice intentions before and after a senior-year CBDE experience. Data were obtained for students in three graduating years from written student reflections and self-reported practice plans solicited at graduation. Of the total 156 students between 2015 and 2017 (52 each year), all students participated in at least one component of this evaluation: all students (100%) completed required student reflections, and 148 (95%) provided pre-graduation practice plans. Data were also obtained on alumni practice characteristics via a survey of recent graduates; 72 alumni (46% response rate) participated in the alumni survey. The assessments found positive attitudes towards the CBDE program before and after participation, although areas for improvement relating to business management and financial viability were reported. The majority of alumni respondents (67%) remained in the state to practice after graduation, with half reporting practicing in rural areas. For most alumni respondents (>75%), debt, salary, benefits, type of patient population, and desire to own/run a business were important factors other than the CBDE program influencing their practice choice. Nearly half of them (45.8%) rated desire to work in a public health setting as an important factor. This study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of this educational model in retaining new dentists within the state to address the critical shortage of dentists in North Carolina.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Odontologia Comunitária/educação , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Dados Preliminares , Universidades , Escolha da Profissão , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Assistência Odontológica , Serviços de Saúde Bucal , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , North Carolina , Administração da Prática Odontológica , Saúde Pública , Faculdades de Odontologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 35(6): 403-409, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131740

RESUMO

The technologically interesting properties of palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) allowed their widespread industrial application, although concerns emerged on increasing general and occupational levels of exposure. In this context, to assess the toxicological behavior of Pd-NPs, and particularly their endocrine disruptive potential, has become a public health priority. Therefore, we evaluated Pd-NP impact on the female endocrine reproductive system of Wistar rats sub-chronically treated for 90 days with increasing doses of this xenobiotic (0.12, 1.2, and 12 µg/kg, administered at days 1, 30, and 60 for cumulative doses of 0.36, 3.6, and 36 µg/kg) via the intravenous route. In this regard, we investigated potential alterations in different sex hormone, for example, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, progesterone, and testosterone, serum concentrations. All treated groups showed significantly greater levels of FSH compared to controls, suggesting a possible impact of Pd-NPs on the regulatory system that controls the normal physiology of female reproductive function. Although relevant, since obtained under sub-chronic, low-dose conditions of exposure resembling those encountered in real-world scenarios, the present results are preliminary and require confirmation as well as identification of the possible underlining molecular mechanisms. From a public and occupational health perspective, implications for the reproductive health of exposed subjects and the next generations of women exposed during their childbearing age or pregnancy should be elucidated. This information is essential to elaborate adequate preventive strategies for assessing and controlling possible Pd-NPs adverse effects on the endocrine system.


Assuntos
Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Paládio/sangue , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Feminino , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Paládio/toxicidade , Dados Preliminares , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the recommended method of pasteurization for donor human milk (DHM). The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional and microbiological impact on DHM of a new technique of pasteurization based on technical changes of HoP. METHODS: We analyzed milk samples from 25 donors. Each sample, derived from one breast milk expression, was subdivided into three aliquots according to pasteurization: The first was not pasteurized, the second pasteurized by HoP, and the third was pasteurized by modified HoP (MHoP). Each aliquot was assessed as to its microbiological and nutritional profile. Nutritional profile included calcium and triglycerides concentrations detected by spectrophotometry and amino acid levels assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Triglycerides were significantly lower in pasteurized, by both methods, than in not pasteurized aliquots, while calcium and amino acids concentration were similar. Microbiological profile did not differ between HoP and MHoP aliquots. CONCLUSIONS: HoP and MHoP seem to have similar efficacy in preserving some nutritional characteristics of DHM and to confer similar microbiological safety. MHoP is time-saving and potentially costs-effective when compared to HoP, and it is; therefore, potentially of more interest from a practical point of view. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Pasteurização/métodos , Doadores de Tecidos , Aminoácidos/análise , Cálcio/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Bancos de Leite , Dados Preliminares , Triglicerídeos/análise
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 2819-2834, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The present study aimed to evaluate the difference in microbiota diversity in the oral cavity and fluid bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) of patients with lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Buccal (saliva) and lower respiratory tract BALF samples were collected from 51 patients with primary bronchogenic carcinoma and 15 healthy controls, and bacterial genomic DNA was extracted. High-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing was performed, and microbial diversity, composition, and functions of microbiota were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. RESULTS Patients with lung cancer have lower microbial diversity than healthy controls in both saliva and BALF samples. Significant segregation was observed between the different pathological types of lung cancer groups and the control group regardless of the sampling site. Treponema and Filifactor were identified as potential bacterial biomarkers in BALF samples, while Filifactor was ideal to distinguish healthy controls from lung cancer patients. Moreover, the predictive variation analysis of the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathway showed that the metabolic differences in microbiota varied by sampling site. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer patients carry a different and less diverse microorganism community than healthy controls. Certain bacterial taxa might be associated with lung cancer, but the exact species depends on the sampling site and the pathological type. This study provides basic data on the microbiota diversity in BALF and saliva samples from lung cancer patients. Further investigation with a larger sample size should help validate the enriched species in different pathological types of lung cancers.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Carcinoma Broncogênico/microbiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/microbiologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares
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