Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 542
Filtrar
1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180447, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576913

RESUMO

In this study effects of ultrasonic pretreatment with different sonication sources on drying behavior of carrot slices were evaluated. Fresh carrot slices were pretreated with ultrasonic probe at 65, 75 and 85 W or ultrasonic bath at 10, 20 and 30°C for 3, 5 and 10 min before air drying. Water gain % and solid loss % of pretreated samples were calculated and color values, ß-carotene content and rehydration ratios of dried samples were determined. Drying behavior of the pretreated samples was evaluated and the drying data were fitted to thin layer drying models. Constant drying rate period was not observed for the carrot slices; however two definite falling-rate periods having different slopes were obtained. Drying time was significantly reduced (up to 20%) depending on the type of pretreatment. The redness value, total color difference and Chroma values of pretreated and control samples were in the same group (p>0.05). ß-carotene content of ultrasonic bath pretreated samples were significantly higher than the samples pretreated with ultrasonic probe and the sample dried without any pretreatment as well (p<0.05). Also rehydration ratios of control samples were found lower than the ultrasound pretreated samples.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/efeitos da radiação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Algoritmos , Análise de Variância , Cor , Daucus carota/química , Cinética , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sonicação/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/efeitos da radiação
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1078: 182-188, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358218

RESUMO

Early detection of toxic proteases in food matrices plays a major role in preventing the occurrence of diseases as well as outbreaks. However, on-site detection of proteases, for instance, botulinum, anthrax and cholera in food matrices remains challenging due to their extremely low lethal dose levels. Here, we report a lateral flow assay (LFA) in a dipstick format for on-site visual detection of proteases in food matrices. The light chain of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A LC) is used as a model system for validation of the proposed assay using magnetic beads conjugated to a synthetic peptide that provide a specific cleavage site for BoNT/A LC. Magnetic beads serve as both reporters for visual detection and as facilitators for sample clean-up, owing to the efficient magnetic separation protocol adopted. Digestion of the peptide substrate by BoNT/A LC for 5 h followed by the dipstick assay yields a reduction in color intensity of the test line on the dipstick compared to the control line obtained using an un-cleaved peptide substrate. Concentration dependent responses for the assay in carrot juice were obtained with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 nM/2.5 nM (with/without amplification), also supported by RGB (ΔE) analysis, indicating the potential of the proposed methodology for on-site assaying of proteases in food matrices. Unlike typical affinity-based assays that yield a collective response for the active and inactive forms of the proteases, the proposed functional LFA targets only the active form, thereby enabling a more precise analysis for preventing potential false-positives. The proposed approach could be extended for detection of BoNT serotypes and other proteases in food matrices, upon utilizing appropriate substrates with specific cleavage sites.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos/imunologia , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/química , Daucus carota/química , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Peptídeos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estreptavidina/química
3.
Food Chem ; 300: 125202, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330374

RESUMO

The aim of a three-year study was to assess the effect of combined biofortification with I and Se in carrot. Four cultivars ('Askona' F1, 'Samba' F1, 'Kazan' F1 and 'White Satin') were grown in soil fertilized with KI (4 kg I ha-1) and Na2SeO4 (0.25 kg Se ha-1). The I + Se fertilization did not affect yield but the plants of all cultivars accumulated both elements in leaves and roots. On average, the I and Se contents in roots increased 7.7-times for I and 4.9-times for Se as well as the average I:Se molar ratio was 0.28:1. The contents of both elements in roots remained well below the hazard threshold thus the intake of 100 g of biofortified carrot would substantially cover the RDA for I and Se. The changes in chemical composition of roots (nitrates, phenolic compounds, sugars, carotenoids, macro-, microelements and cadmium) were rather year-dependent than affected by the applied I + Se fertilization.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Daucus carota/química , Iodo/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Selênio/farmacologia , Cádmio/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Daucus carota/efeitos dos fármacos , Daucus carota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Iodo/análise , Iodo/farmacocinética , Polônia , Selênio/análise , Selênio/farmacocinética , Solo/química
4.
Food Chem ; 299: 125112, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299521

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to assess the impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the carotenoid profile, colour as well as the microbial and enzymatic stability of cloudy carrot juice. The predominant carotenoids in the fresh juices were by far the provitamin A carotenoids ß-carotene and α-carotene. Others were ζ-carotene, phytofluene, phytoene and lutein. HPP at 300 MPa in three cycles caused the highest carotenoids degradation (41%) whereas the lowest degradation (26%) was achieved at 600 MPa. The highest inactivation of POD (31%) and PPO (57%) was achieved with 600 MPa and 300 MPa applied in three cycles, respectively what indicates that POD is more responsible for carotenoids degradation. The colour differences (ΔE*ab) between fresh juice and HPP-treated juices ranged from 3.02 to 4.15 CIELAB units. As far as the impact on microorganism was concerned, there was a clear trend between the applied pressure and the microbial reduction achieved.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Daucus carota/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Carotenoides/análise , Catecol Oxidase/química , Cor , Estabilidade Enzimática , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Pressão
5.
Food Chem ; 298: 125040, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261008

RESUMO

The effects of co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot, baby spinach and/or cherry tomato on the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins and carotenoids such as α-carotene, ß-carotene, lutein and lycopene were examined using a simulated in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion model. The individual vegetables and their mixtures were digested with and without added a standardised salad dressing. Bioaccessibility of total anthocyanins was enhanced by 10-15% (p < 0.05) when red cabbage was co-digested with the carotenoid-rich vegetables, except with carrot. In contrast, the co-digestion of red cabbage with carrot decreased bioaccessibility of total carotenoids by 21-33% (p < 0.05), and with cherry tomato by 42-56% (p < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of a given carotenoid varied depending on the vegetable matrix. Among the tested vegetable mixtures, red cabbage and baby spinach when co-digested demonstrated that anthocyanins and carotenoids were equally bioaccessible (total anthocyanin bioaccessibility of 62-66% and total carotenoid bioaccessibility of 66%).


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Brassica/química , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Verduras/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Brassica/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Digestão , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Saliva , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/metabolismo
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6248-6257, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osmotic pretreatment is an effective processing unit for improving the textural quality of dried fruit and vegetable snacks, whereas nutrition loss and high calorie after impregnation is still a noteworthy shortcoming of sugar-immersed products. Therefore, the use of apple juice concentrate as a clean label solution to improve the qualities of instant controlled pressure drop (DIC)-dried carrot chips was investigated. RESULTS: Apple juice concentrate impregnation substantially enhanced the physical properties of the carrot chips, including hardness (38.28 N), crispness (2.01 mm), porosity (66.72%) and homogeneous microstructure, comparable to chips obtained using sucrose and maltiltol based osmotic solutions. Additionally, compared to the sucrose and maltiltol impregnated chips, a higher retention of carotenoids (302.81 µg g-1 , dry basis), a higher multiplicity of phenolic compounds, stronger antioxidant activities and a superior sensory score were observed in the chips pretreated with apple juice concentrate. CONCLUSION: Apple juice concentrate could be used as a clean label osmotic solution to enhance the organoleptic attributes and fortify the nutritional properties of DIC-dried carrot snacks. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Carotenoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Osmose , Fenóis/análise , Pressão , Lanches , Paladar
7.
Food Chem ; 293: 57-65, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151649

RESUMO

The bioavailability of drugs can be improved by regulating the structural properties, particularly lipoid systems, such as niosomes, can increase cellular uptake. Herein, we optimized double emulsion and niosomal formulations for encapsulating anthocyanin-rich black carrot extract. Nanoparticles obtained by selected formulation were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release and cytotoxicity. The optimum conditions for niosomal formulation were elicited as 30 mg of cholesterol, 150 mg of Tween 20 and feeding time of 1 min at a stirring rate of 900 rpm yielding the lowest average particle size of 130 nm. In vitro release data showed the majority of the encapsulated anthocyanins were released at the end of 10 h. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the absorption of anthocyanins released from niosomes and cytotoxicity was assessed against neuroblastoma. Overall, these findings suggest that niosomal vesicles might be suitable delivery systems for anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Lipossomos/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/química , Daucus carota/química , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipossomos/toxicidade , Modelos Teóricos , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissorbatos/química
8.
Food Chem ; 293: 358-367, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151623

RESUMO

To better understanding the role of cell wall pectic polysaccharides (CWPs) on the formation of textural properties of carrot chips dried by instant controlled pressure drop technology (French for Détente Instantanée Contrôlée, DIC), the characteristics of CWPs from ground tissue (GT), junction of ground and vascular tissue (JT), and vascular tissue (VT) of carrot were investigated. Larger expansion volume was obtained in the carrot chips derived from GT, which accompanied with superior textural qualities compared with the chips derived from JT and VT. Remarkable differences were obtained in the amount of pectic fractions, galacturonic acid content, degree of methoxylation, sugar composition and linearity of CWPs that fractionated from different tissue zones of raw carrots. The characteristics of CWPs was confirmed to be a substantial factor that significantly affected the expansion ratio and textural properties of the DIC-dried carrot chips, which providing a mechanistic insight of the relationship between variation in CWPs and the expanding behaviors of DIC-dried fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Parede Celular/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Ácidos Hexurônicos/análise , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Pressão , Açúcares/análise
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5457-5474, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of variety (Nantes and Imperator), soil fertility status (high and low) and agronomic treatments on yield and quality traits of carrot composition and sensory factors. The treatments compared synthetic nitrogen at conventionally recommended amounts with compost-sourced nitrogen (high and low rates) and a range of amendments (compost, compost tea, micronutrients and foliar treatments). Additionally, we intended to identify factors affecting polyacetylene accumulation in carrots, owing to the growing interest in their health effects and paucity of agronomic information on their bioaccumulation in carrots. RESULTS: Imperator accumulated more minerals, produced more phytochemicals and had higher antioxidant capacity than Nantes, which had more carotenoids. However, consumers preferred the flavor of Nantes over Imperator. High-fertility soil produced carrots of superior nutritional quality than did low-fertility soil, regardless of year-of-application amendments, the effects of which were often variety-dependent. High soil biological activity was able to overcome low fertility status and stimulate greater yield. Carrot phosphorus was correlated with falcarindiol biosynthesis. Chlorogenic acid and falcarindiol were correlated with antioxidant capacity, but not falcarinol or total phenolic compounds. CONCLUSION: Carrots were not strongly affected by agronomic treatments in terms of yield or phytochemical status; however, soil biological activity overcame a soil nutrient deficit in terms of yield. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant status were generally higher in the high-fertility site, whereas polyacetylenes were variety-dependent. Chlorogenic acid and falcarindiol were associated with antioxidant capacity, but not total phenolic compounds and carotenoids. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/química , Aromatizantes/química , Minerais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Solo/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Daucus carota/classificação , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Paladar
10.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 56: 150-159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101250

RESUMO

The ultrasound treatment of vegetables can damage their tissue structure and release water and soluble solids altering the dielectric properties of the material. Changes in the dielectric properties will influence the microwave processing of ultrasound pretreated material. In order to investigate the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on dielectric properties, carrots were ultrasonicated in simulated water and oil systems. Microwave heating and microwave-assisted vacuum frying of carrot slices were also completed to explore the relation between dielectric properties of microwave pretreated samples and microwave absorption. Ultrasound of carrots in water simulated system showed that ε' and ε″ of carrots tended to decrease with the increase of ultrasonic power (from 480 W to 640 W) and time (from 10 min to 30 min). Ultrasound treatment of carrots in salt solutions increased ε' and ε″ of carrots. The combined pretreatment of microwave blanching with ultrasound in salt solutions increased ε″ (from 19.72 to 29.90). Conversely, in oil simulated system, the ε' and ε″ of carrots also decreased as the ultrasonication power and time increased. Besides, the dielectric properties decreased as the temperature of oil medium increased from 35 °C to 75 °C. With improved dielectric properties, the dehydration rate during frying of carrot increased due to the enhanced microwave absorption. Therefore, the combined pretreatment of microwave blanching with ultrasound in salt solutions largely improved the dielectric properties of carrots, and reducing the required time of microwave vacuum frying.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/química , Óleos/química , Sonicação , Água/química , Impedância Elétrica , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(6): 467-474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131696

RESUMO

The use of isotope-labeled internal standards is the most widely accepted approach to overcome the matrix effects on quantification of pesticides in food by LC/MS. We evaluated the impact of the matrix effects on quantification of six neonicotinoid pesticides, acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam, in food by using deuterated internal standards. The calibration curves for each pesticide were obtained by using matrix-free and matrix-matched calibration solutions with blank brown rice, carrot, and green onion extracts. For brown rice and carrot, the matrix effects were not observed. In contrast, the slopes of calibration curves for each pesticide were influenced by presence of green onion extracts in calibration solutions (variability of the slopes was 4-9%), because the ratios of peak area for native pesticide to those for internal standards were influenced by matrix. The spike-and-recovery test with green onion was also performed. The analytical values obtained by using matrix-free calibration solution were biased from the spiked concentration, whereas those obtained by using matrix-matched calibration solution were comparable to the spiked concentration. These results indicate that matrix-matched calibration solution should be used for accurate quantification of neonicotinoid pesticides in food by LC/MS using deuterated internal standards.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Calibragem , Daucus carota/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Limite de Detecção , Cebolas/química , Oryza/química , Técnica de Diluição de Radioisótopos
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(19): 5647-5660, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026157

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are natural dyes widely used in the food industry, but their chemical stability in beverages can be affected by the presence of additives. In the present paper, the interaction between anthocyanins and ascorbic acid (AA) is more particularly investigated. Ascorbic acid is an ubiquitous component in food products. In this study, the thermal stability at 43 °C and the photolysis stability in air and in an inert atmosphere (N2) of anthocyanins extracted from black carrot (BC), grape juice (GJ), and purple sweet potato (SP) were studied in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (in citrate buffer at pH 3). Discriminating the main environmental factors (i.e., heat and light) affecting anthocyanin stability is a key point for better understanding the degradation pathways. The stability of the anthocyanins was followed by UV-vis spectrometry. Moreover, to understand the degradation mechanisms in both the presence and absence of ascorbic acid, various techniques such as fluorescence quenching, cyclic voltammetry, and electron-spin-resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were also used to furnish a full coherent picture of the chemical mechanisms associated with the anthocyanin degradation. In addition, molecular orbitals and bond-dissociation energies (BDE) were calculated to extend the investigation. Moreover, the effects of some supplementary stabilizers (chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, tannic acid, fumaric acid, ß-carotene, isoquercitrin, myricitrin, green coffee bean extract, and rosemary extract) and sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose) on anthocyanins stability in the presence of ascorbic acid were examined.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Daucus carota/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ipomoea batatas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitis/química , Cor , Daucus carota/efeitos da radiação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Alta , Ipomoea batatas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotoquímica
13.
Food Chem ; 289: 453-460, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955636

RESUMO

Carrot residues were upgraded as pectin-enriched fractions (PEFs) useful for functional food formulation due to co-extracted antioxidants (α- and ß-carotenes, lutein, α-tocopherol), and gelling effect. High power ultrasound (US)-enzyme assisted extraction was applied for efficiency and sustainability. Carrot powder (CP) in citrate-buffer (pH 5.20) was submitted to US-pretreatment (12.27 W/cm2: 20 kHz, 80% amplitude, 20 min) and a subsequent digestion (5 h-40 °C) without or with hemicellulase or cellulase. US-hemicellulase led to the highest PEF yield (27.1%), and extracted almost the whole pectin content of CP. US-pretreatment increased the extraction yield of all PEFs, but the existence of an additional positive effect of the following step depended on the enzyme used. PEFs contained 40-47% of UA with low DM (24-49.9%), and co-extracted antioxidants. US decreased the antioxidant contents, DM, and molecular weight, but allowed obtaining calcium crosslinked true gels, also with higher elastic modulus than non-US-extracted PEFs, being promising as food additives.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Daucus carota/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Celulase/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Luteína/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ultrassom , alfa-Tocoferol/isolamento & purificação
14.
Food Chem ; 291: 59-67, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006471

RESUMO

Analytical methods for authenticity testing of organically grown vegetables are urgently needed. Here we present a novel method for organic authentication based on stable isotope ratio analysis of oxygen in plant-derived sulphate. We combined this method with stable isotope ratio analysis of bulk plant tissue and plant-derived nitrate to discriminate organic and conventional potato, carrot, and cabbage from rigidly controlled long-term field trials and from a case study using retail potatoes. It was shown that oxygen isotope ratios of sulphate from organic vegetables were significantly lower compared to their conventional counterparts and the values were directly linked to the fertilisation strategy. The classification power of sulphate isotope analysis was superior compared to known bulk tissue isotope markers and nitrate isotope values. In conclusion, oxygen isotope analysis of plant-derived sulphate represents a promising new method for authentication of organic vegetables.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Daucus carota/química , Oxigênio/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Sulfatos/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Marcação por Isótopo , Espectrometria de Massas , Isótopos de Oxigênio/química , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 289: 250-258, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955609

RESUMO

Preparation of selenium-enriched probiotics and Se-enrichment of probiotic-fermented blended juices were performed and optimized using orthogonal test. Se content had a significant 13.0-fold increase by the addition of 1% Se-enriched Streptococcus thermophilus starters in juice fermentation. Chemical properties of fermented blended juices were determined. Reducing sugar content decreased significantly after fermentation, and the same downtrend was observed for free amino acids and organic acids, with lactic acid being an exception. Meanwhile, dynamic variation analysis of flavor components during the fermentation, and characteristic aroma-active compounds before and after fermentation were demonstrated by GC-MS and GC-O. Eleven aroma-active substances were identified from juices without fermentation, while 7 characteristic compounds were detected in fermented juices. Furthermore, potential correlations between chemical and flavor characteristics were explored based on multivariate statistical analysis. These results indicate that a potential Se-enriched fermented beverage was established, and the fermentation process led to differences in the chemical substrates and impact odorants.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Selênio/química , Streptococcus thermophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aminoácidos/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Ziziphus/química , Ziziphus/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 10(3): 1726-1735, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848260

RESUMO

Acylated anthocyanins are more stable than monomeric anthocyanins, but little is known about their physiological effects. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects of single intragastric doses of purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) anthocyanin (PCA) and two monomeric anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glycoside (C3G) and delphinidin 3-O-ruthenoside (D3R). PCA, C3G, or D3R was administered orally to rat and blood flow in the cremaster artery was measured for 60 min using a laser Doppler blood flow meter. After measurements, the aorta of the animal was removed and the extent of phosphorylation of aortic epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Akt were determined by western blotting. PCA (10 mg kg-1) or C3G (1 mg kg-1) significantly increased rat cremaster arteriole blood flow and phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt; D3G (1 mg kg-1) only slightly altered cremaster arteriole blood flow and did not affect the phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt in the aorta. These results suggest that hemodynamic alterations depend more on the chemical structure of anthocyanins, particularly the aglycon, than on the glycoside. In addition, increase of blood flow by a single oral dose of PCA was practically reduced with treatment of carvedilol (CR), a non-specific adrenaline blocker. Blood concentrations of cyanidin or its glycoside 15, 30, or 60 min after the administration of 10 mg kg-1 PCA were below the limit of detection. These hemodynamic changes may have been associated with an indirect adrenergic action induced following a single dose of PCA.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/irrigação sanguínea , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Daucus carota/química , Animais , Fator 2 de Liberação do Nucleotídeo Guanina/farmacologia , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/classificação , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 210: 186-195, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732753

RESUMO

Cellulose is the major polysaccharide of cell walls in every plant, making it one of the most abundant natural polymers on Earth. However, despite many decades of investigations, the supramolecular structure of cellulose and especially its variation in the cell walls of different plants have still not been fully revealed. In the present study, cellulose from the parenchymatic tissue of apple fruits and carrot roots was isolated, and nanocellulose was further prepared by high-intensity ultrasonication. AFM revealed that the obtained nanocellulose differed in dimension between the two plant species. Compared with carrot cellulose, whose nanocellulose was obtained in the form of whiskers, apple cellulose had longer and thinner nanofibrils. Both nanocellulose types also differed in terms of their crystalline structure. XRD data indicated that, compared with the apple cellulose, the carrot cellulose had a higher degree of crystallinity and larger crystallites. Moreover, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed differences between the cellulose types in terms of their methine environment, hydroxymethyl conformations and skeletal vibrations. Additionally, with respect to their mechanical properties, the less crystalline apple cellulose and nanocellulose films were more elastic than the stiffer carrot cellulose and nanocellulose films. The possible reason for such differences between the two cellulose types is related to differences in plant tissue morphology and function. During development, apple fruit cell walls must withstand increasing turgor, probably higher that in the case of carrot tissue; therefore, the cellulose scaffolding must be elastic and strong. On the other hand, carrot, a root vegetable, also has to be strong enough to penetrate the soil as well as for its own growth; thus, the cell wall and cellulose scaffold have to be stiff and tough. Thus the structure of nanocellulose depends not only on the treatment but also on the cellulose source.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Daucus carota/química , Malus/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Parede Celular/química , Daucus carota/citologia , Frutas/química , Malus/citologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Sonicação
18.
Food Funct ; 10(1): 458-468, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629074

RESUMO

Food processing and dietary lipids are considered as important factors for carotenoid bioaccessibility. The effects of high pressure homogenization (HPH) combined with oil or emulsion on carotenoid retention and bioaccessibility during digestion were investigated. The results illustrated that HPH decreased the area-based diameter (D[3,2]), and negative correlations were found between the total carotenoid bioaccessibility (TCB) and D[3,2] of carrot juice. The bioaccessibility of total carotenoids, ß-carotene and α-carotene of the homogenized samples was below 6%, while the addition of 2% oil, 10% oil or emulsion increased the carotenoid bioaccessibility (up to 14.08% for α-carotene). The carotenoid retention rate (CRR) of the homogenized samples was higher than that of the homogenized samples with oil or emulsion in each digestion phase. The CRR in the small intestine phase had a significant negative correlation with TCB, and therefore, a high TCB could be achieved despite a low CRR in the small intestine. Oil added as an emulsion had a slightly higher volume of free fatty acids released compared with oil added as such.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/química , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Zea mays/química
19.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(1): e1800546, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632261

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from the green tops of Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang. plants producing yellow roots (DcsYR) and those producing orange roots (DcsOR) and from two varieties of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare cultivated in Tunisia. Analyses revealed that the EOs from the two D. carota varieties were rich in constituents belonging to sesquiterpenes. Phenylpropanoids and non-terpene derivatives were the most abundant classes of compounds in the EOs from the two varieties of F. vulgare, of which compositions were predominated by (E)-anethole and p-acetonylanisole. All the tested EOs were significantly more effective against Gram-negative bacteria, and that obtained from var. azoricum was more active against the yeast Candida albicans than the reference drug. The EOs obtained from these by-products showed indeed interesting potential to be promoted as natural antimicrobials in food preservation systems, as well as the possibility to be used in flavor industries.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Daucus carota/química , Foeniculum/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Tubérculos/química , Tunísia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(3): 895-904, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608159

RESUMO

It has been found that probiotic-fermented carrot pulp has a beneficial effect in reducing blood glucose, more so than unfermented pulp. This paper explores the reason for this by looking at fermentation-induced changes in nutritional components and hypoglycemic effects of its polysaccharides. Micronutrient content showed minor changes, except for titratable acidity. Fat and protein decreased, while total carbohydrates increased. These polysaccharides are pectinic, and the number of total polysaccharides rose after fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology changed from filamentous solid to spiral. The molecular weight of water-soluble polysaccharide (WSP) diminished after fermentation, while those of acid- and alkali-soluble polysaccharides increased. WSP had stronger hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in vitro, and WSP from probiotic-fermented carrot pulps showed better hypoglycemic effects than WSP from non-fermented carrot pulps in animal experiments. Thus, the fermentation-induced improvement in diabetes control from fermented carrot pulp probably arises from its WSP.


Assuntos
Daucus carota/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Daucus carota/química , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fermentação , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Probióticos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA