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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193962

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2-a new single-stranded RNA virus with respiratory system proclivity and epithelial cell- is a novel infectious disease that originated in Wuhan, China in December, 2019 and has spread to many countries with the total number of confirmed cases put at 20,259,579 cases as of 12th August, 2020. It is transmitted from human-to-human via droplets. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, these droplets find their way into the mouth or nostrils of another person that is within a close range. Alternatively it can be contracted by touching infected hard surfaces and using the same hands to touch the mouth, nose and eye(s). COVID-19 has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March, 2020. There is currently no therapeutic substance accepted as a panacea for the prophylaxis of this infectious disease. As a result of this back drop, many nations have instituted fourteen (14) days quarantine for suspected cases, social distancing and border closure in an attempt to curb the spread of COVID-19. There has been several conspirary theories that emanated since the disease was declared a pandemic. This paper provides useful information to serve as reference to those who seek proper understanding of COVID-19 and its deleterious effects in the body, by distiguishing between the factsand the conspiracy theoriesof coronavirus disease.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Delusões , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Bioterrorismo , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Decepção , Fômites , Genocídio , Órgãos Governamentais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Política , Quarentena , Pesquisadores , Mídias Sociais
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4201-4210, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027357

RESUMO

This paper aims to present an analysis of the most widespread fake news about the New Coronavirus (Sars-CoV-2) on social networks and how it can harm public health. This is a quantitative empirical study, based on the notifications received by the Eu Fiscalizo Brazilian application. The conclusions show that WhatsApp is the primary channel for sharing fake news, followed by Instagram and Facebook. We can conclude that the dissemination of malicious content related to Covid-19 contributes to the discrediting of science and global health institutions, and the solution to this problem is to increase the level of adequate information for Brazilian society.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Decepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023103

RESUMO

Health rumors often mislead people and cause adverse health behaviors. Especially during a public health emergency, health rumors may result in severe consequences for people's health and risk governance. Insight into how these rumors form and harm people's health behavior is critical for assisting people in establishing scientific health cognition and to enhance public health emergency responses. Using the case study with interview data of a salient purchase craze led by a health rumor during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, this article aimed to illustrate the process of how a piece of information becomes a health rumor. Furthermore, we identify factors that cause people to believe rumors and conduct behavior that leads to a purchase craze. Results show that a public misunderstanding of the unique psychology of uncertainty, cultural and social cognition, and conformity behavior jointly informs people's beliefs in rumors and further causes purchase craze behavior. We developed a simplified model to demonstrate how an ordinary news report can lead to a rumor. Based on this model, some implications of effective health communication are suggested for managing rumors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Decepção , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052967

RESUMO

We examine how information from trusted social media sources can shape knowledge and behavior when misinformation and mistrust are widespread. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Zimbabwe, we partnered with a trusted civil society organization to randomize the timing of the dissemination of messages aimed at targeting misinformation about the virus to 27,000 newsletter WhatsApp subscribers. We examine how exposure to these messages affects individuals' beliefs about how to deal with the virus and preventative behavior. In a survey of 864 survey respondents, we find a 0.26σ increase in knowledge about COVID-19 as measured by responses to factual questions. Through a list experiment embedded in the survey, we further find that potentially harmful behavior-not abiding by lockdown guidelines-decreased by 30 percentage points. The results show that social media messaging from trusted sources may have substantively large effects not only on individuals' knowledge but also ultimately on related behavior.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Decepção , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pandemias , Zimbábue
12.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S3): S294-S299, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001729

RESUMO

Objectives. To use crowdfunding campaigns to better understand how cannabidiol (CBD) is represented (and misrepresented) as cancer-related care.Methods. We analyzed CBD-related crowdfunding campaigns (n = 155) created between January 2017 and May 2019 in multiple countries on GoFundme.com.Results. More than 81.9% of campaigns fundraised CBD for curative or life-prolonging reasons, and 25.2% fundraised for pain management.Conclusions. Most campaigns seeking funds for CBD for cancer-related care on GoFundMe are for curative or life-prolonging purposes and present CBD definitively as an effective treatment option. In general, campaigners supported their funding requests with anecdotal claims of efficacy and referenced sources of information that were either not evidence-based or that misrepresented existing evidence.Public Health Implications. Misinformation around CBD for cancer is widespread on medical crowdfunding campaigns. Given the potential adverse impact, crowdfunding platforms, like GoFundMe, must take steps to address their role in enabling and spreading this misinformation.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/administração & dosagem , Comunicação , Crowdsourcing/tendências , Financiamento Pessoal , Neoplasias/terapia , Decepção , Saúde Global , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade
15.
Health Educ Res ; 35(5): 490-503, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090215

RESUMO

We proposed a conceptual model combining three theories: uses and gratification theory, social networking sites (SNS) dependency theory and social impact theory to understand the factors that predict fake news sharing related to COVID-19. We also tested the moderating role of fake news knowledge in reducing the tendency to share fake news. Data were drawn from social media users (n = 650) in Nigeria, and partial least squares was used to analyse the data. Our results suggest that tie strength was the strongest predictor of fake news sharing related to COVID-19 pandemic. We also found perceived herd, SNS dependency, information-seeking and parasocial interaction to be significant predictors of fake news sharing. The effect of status-seeking on fake news sharing, however, was not significant. Our results also established that fake news knowledge significantly moderated the effect of perceived herd, SNS dependency, information-seeking, parasocial interaction on fake news sharing related to COVID-19. However, tie strength and status-seeking effects were not moderated.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Sistemas On-Line , Mídias Sociais , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22374, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of conspiracy theories have emerged. A popular theory posits that the pandemic is a hoax and suggests that certain hospitals are "empty." Research has shown that accepting conspiracy theories increases the likelihood that an individual may ignore government advice about social distancing and other public health interventions. Due to the possibility of a second wave and future pandemics, it is important to gain an understanding of the drivers of misinformation and strategies to mitigate it. OBJECTIVE: This study set out to evaluate the #FilmYourHospital conspiracy theory on Twitter, attempting to understand the drivers behind it. More specifically, the objectives were to determine which online sources of information were used as evidence to support the theory, the ratio of automated to organic accounts in the network, and what lessons can be learned to mitigate the spread of such a conspiracy theory in the future. METHODS: Twitter data related to the #FilmYourHospital hashtag were retrieved and analyzed using social network analysis across a 7-day period from April 13-20, 2020. The data set consisted of 22,785 tweets and 11,333 Twitter users. The Botometer tool was used to identify accounts with a higher probability of being bots. RESULTS: The most important drivers of the conspiracy theory are ordinary citizens; one of the most influential accounts is a Brexit supporter. We found that YouTube was the information source most linked to by users. The most retweeted post belonged to a verified Twitter user, indicating that the user may have had more influence on the platform. There was a small number of automated accounts (bots) and deleted accounts within the network. CONCLUSIONS: Hashtags using and sharing conspiracy theories can be targeted in an effort to delegitimize content containing misinformation. Social media organizations need to bolster their efforts to label or remove content that contains misinformation. Public health authorities could enlist the assistance of influencers in spreading antinarrative content.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Decepção , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Betacoronavirus , União Europeia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Mídias Sociais , Software , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911826

RESUMO

Due to discrimination and media literacy, middle-aged and elderly individuals have been easily reduced to marginalized groups in the identification of rumours during a public health crisis and can easily spread rumours repeatedly, which has a negative impact on pandemic prevention and social psychology. To further clarify the factors influencing their behaviours, this study used a questionnaire to survey a sample of 556 individuals in China and used multiple linear regression and analysis of variance to explore influencing factors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We found that, first, in the COVID-19 pandemic, middle-aged and elderly adults' willingness to re-spread rumours is positively related to their degree of believing rumours and to personal anxiety and is negatively related to their rumour-discrimination ability and to their perception of serious consequences to rumour spreading. Second, the degree of believing rumours plays an intermediary role in the willingness to re-spread rumours. It plays a partial mediating role in the path of anxiety's influence on behaviour, suggesting that an anxious person will spread a rumour even if he or she does not have a strong belief in the rumour. Third, interpersonal communication has a greater credibility and a greater willingness to re-spread than does mass communication. This suggests the importance of increasing public knowledge expertise and of reducing public panic. This also has important implications for the future design of public health policies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Decepção , Disseminação de Informação , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Propaganda , Saúde Pública
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866171

RESUMO

Academic dishonesty is a common problem at universities around the world, leading to undesirable consequences for both students and the education system. To effectively address this problem, it is necessary to identify specific predispositions that promote cheating. In Polish undergraduate students (N = 390), we examined the role of psychopathy, achievement goals, and self-efficacy as predictors of academic dishonesty. We found that the disinhibition aspect of psychopathy and mastery-goal orientation predicted the frequency of students' academic dishonesty and mastery-goal orientation mediated the relationship between the disinhibition and meanness aspects of psychopathy and dishonesty. Furthermore, general self-efficacy moderated the indirect effect of disinhibition on academic dishonesty through mastery-goal orientation. The practical implications of the study include the identification of risk factors and potential mechanisms leading to students' dishonest behavior that can be used to plan personalized interventions to prevent or deal with academic dishonesty.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Má Conduta Profissional/psicologia , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/ética , Polônia , Má Conduta Profissional/ética , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/ética , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238892, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913369

RESUMO

Counterproductive academic behaviors (CAB) is a problem that has plagued academic institutions for centuries. However, research has mostly been focused on higher learning institutes in North America. For this reason, literature on CAB must be expanded to other geographical areas and academic levels. The present research analyses the prevalence and correlates of CAB in a sample of Spanish high school students. The results indicate that CAB is a common phenomenon, cheating and low effort behaviors being the most prevalent forms. Correlational analyses revealed that conscientiousness (ρ = -.55, p < .01), emotional stability (ρ = .28, p < .01), and agreeableness (ρ = -.26, p < .05) are predictors of CAB. Multiple regression analyses showed that conscientiousness is the dimension exerting the strongest impact on CAB (ß = -.64, p < .01), followed by agreeableness, and emotional stability. These three dimensions accounted for 51% of CAB variance. Last, implications for theory and practice are described.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Decepção , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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