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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46981

RESUMO

Quando novas doenças surgem, começam também os boatos sobre elas. E com o novo coronavírus não está sendo diferente. Diante deste cenário, temos todos os dias, novas notícias e informações sobre o novo coronavírus, uma doença respiratória grave, que surgiu na China há algumas semanas. E no meio de tantas notícias, temos aquelas que são verdadeiras e as que são falsas, as famosas Fake News que possuem uma força de propagação enorme, por meio das redes sociais e de aplicativos de mensagens.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Decepção
3.
Br Dent J ; 227(3): 176, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399652

Assuntos
Decepção
4.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395622

RESUMO

A 530-g girl born at 22 weeks and 6 days' gestation (determined by an ultrasound at 11 weeks) was admitted to the NICU. Her mother had received prenatal steroids. At 12 hours of age, she was stable on low ventilator settings. Her blood pressure was fine. Her urine output was good. After counseling, her parents voiced understanding of the risks and wanted all available life-supporting measures. Many nurses were distressed that doctors were trying to save a "22-weeker." In the past, 4 infants born at 22 weeks' gestation had been admitted to that NICU, and all had died. The attending physician on call had to deal with many sick infants and the nurses' moral distress.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Cuidado do Lactente/ética , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/ética , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/ética , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Futilidade Médica/ética , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico , Confiança
5.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4698-4706, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446524

RESUMO

This study examines how the awareness of social situation affects rule learning in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using computer-based distrust and deception games. Twenty-eight 4- to 7-year-old children with ASD and 28 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) peers learned the distrusting and deceptive rules in a non-social condition, in which they were playing with a computer, or a social condition with another person pretending to interact via a computer. Results showed intact rule-learning ability in the ASDs in the non-social condition, but poorer overall performance and slower learning process than TD children when they thought that they interacted with a human opponent. Rule learning in ASD was affected by their beliefs about the social context.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Decepção , Meio Social , Habilidades Sociais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Grupo Associado
6.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 981-991, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352190

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), including petroleum biomarkers, were studied in four sediment cores collected around Deception and Penguin Islands, Antarctica. Total PAHs in Deception Island (DCP) samples ranged from 2.0 to 26.8 ng g-1, and in Penguin Island (PGI) varied between 13.2 and 60.3 ng g-1. Multiple sources of PAHs were verified in DCP, with petrogenic-derived compounds being predominant over the last 10 years. In PGI, PAHs related to natural contributions from the erosion of coal deposits were reported. Total AHs in DCP ranged from 4.5 to 19 µg g-1 and in PGI varied between 5.3 and 21.9 µg g-1. In DCP, the n-alkanes distribution pattern showed the presence of petroleum residues in the top sections and both terpanes and hopanes were detected, related to the use of fossil fuels for power generation and in different types of vessels. In PGI, the main source of n-alkanes was marine inputs and only terpanes were detected. The slight increase in hydrocarbon levels observed from 1980 onward in DCP was assumed to be due to the development of tourism in the region and to the scientific station activities. In PGI, anthropogenic-related hydrocarbons were detected in the recent sections and were linked to the development of tourism near the island, scientific activities and the increase in vessel traffic. In general, the concentrations of hydrocarbons found around both islands were comparable to those found in uncontaminated Antarctic regions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Alcanos/análise , Regiões Antárticas , Decepção , Ilhas , Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
7.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 77: 101184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326326

RESUMO

I develop a rate-distortion analysis of signaling games with imperfect common interest. Sender and receiver should be seen as jointly managing a communication channel with the objective of minimizing two independent distortion measures. I use this analysis to identify a problem with 'functional' theories of deception, and in particular Brian Skyrms's: there are perfectly cooperative, non-exploitative instances of channel management that come out as manipulative and deceptive according to those theories.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Decepção , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos
8.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102499, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326742

RESUMO

Instructions in sports are used to improve athletes' performance. However, instructions can also impair performance if they direct athletes' attention to a to-be-avoided behavior which paradoxically provokes exactly that behavior (ironic effect). The present study investigates the impact of different instructions on the head-fake effect in basketball. Specifically, we asked here if deliberate attempts to ignore the deceptive cues gaze direction and head orientation increase the impact of that information and thus, paradoxically increase the head-fake effect. We found that the detrimental impact of spatially incongruent gaze direction and head orientation was essentially independent of whether participants were, or were not, instructed to deliberately ignore the task-irrelevant information. Hence, deceptive actions exert their impact independent of the perceivers' attempts to ignore deceptive cues. We thus conclude that the deceptive cues gaze direction and head orientation are per se hyper-accessible or over-salient and its processing cannot be controlled with any amount of mental capacity (and even not with the non-ironic instruction). However, as both ignore instructions produce general processing costs (i.e., slower reactions) coaches should solely instruct athletes' to focus attention on the processing of the pass direction.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Basquetebol/psicologia , Decepção , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(9): 1557-1574, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305092

RESUMO

In this research, we examine the unintended consequences of dishonest behavior for one's interpersonal abilities and subsequent ethical behavior. Specifically, we unpack how dishonest conduct can reduce one's generalized empathic accuracy-the ability to accurately read other people's emotional states. In the process, we distinguish these 2 constructs from one another and demonstrate a causal relationship. The effects of dishonesty on empathic accuracy that we found were significant, but modest in size. Across 8 studies (n = 2,588), we find support for (a) a correlational and causal account of dishonest behavior reducing empathic accuracy; (b) an underlying mechanism of reduced relational self-construal (i.e., the tendency to define the self in terms of close relationships); (c) negative downstream consequences of impaired empathic accuracy, in terms of dehumanization and subsequent dishonesty; and (d) a physiological trait (i.e., vagal reactivity) that serves as a boundary condition for the relationship between dishonest behavior and empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Decepção , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1719-1728, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280467

RESUMO

Recent work suggests that dishonesty results from ethical blind spots: people's lack of attention to ethical information. In two experiments (one pre-registered) we used eye tracking to investigate when ethical blind spots emerge, and whether they can be reduced through a simple, non-invasive intervention. Participants reported a Target Digit indicated by a jittery cue that was slightly biased in the direction of another digit (the Second-Cued Digit), which could be either higher or lower than the Target Digit. Participants were paid more for reporting higher digits, and were not penalized for making mistakes, thus providing an incentive to cheat. Results showed that participants frequently made self-serving (and rarely self-hurting) mistakes by reporting the Second-Cued Digit when it was more valuable than the target. Importantly, they rapidly gazed at the digit that they would later report, regardless of whether this report was correct or a self-serving mistake. Finally, we were able to reduce or increase the number of self-serving mistakes by respectively increasing or reducing the visual saliency of the Target Digit. We suggest that increasing the visual saliency of morally desirable options is a promising cost-effective tool to curb dishonesty.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Decepção , Princípios Morais , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: 263-270, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No means exists to classify the overall credibility of physical torture allegations, which relies on qualitative forensic medical criteria. OBJECTIVES: To develop procedures for processing physical data from torture allegations in order to achieve robust credibility assessments. To assess inter-observer variation in semi-quantitative evaluations. To analyse the importance of physical aspects for the overall assessment of allegations of torture. To assess the correlation between a quantitative description of physical aspects of torture and the appraisal of credibility based on the semi-quantitative model. METHODS: We developed a semi-quantitative model to assess credibility of physical torture allegations and a model to describe allegations quantitatively. Information about physical aspects of ill-treatment in 202 extensive reports made by psychologists (part of a Basque Country Governmental project) was appraised individually and jointly by the two authors in the semi-quantitative model. Inter-observer variation was appraised. The assessed credibility based on physical details was compared with the psychologists' overall assessments and with the quantitative scoring of physical data. FINDINGS: The inter-observer agreement was substantial with kappa values of 0.64-0.77. Peer-reviewing revealed an error; using the defined criteria in the models facilitated achievement of common opinions. Comparison of credibility assessments found by different means suggests that physical data may be given a low priority in the overall assessment of torture allegations. There was a strong correlation (r=0,86, p<0.001) between the semi-quantitative credibility assessment and the quantitative scoring of physical aspects of torture, reinforcing the validity of both means. CONCLUSION: Peer-reviewing of physical aspects of torture based on a qualitative /semi-quantitative /quantitative multi-step analysis leads to robust assessments of credibility. A procedure is needed on how to merge the credibility assessments of the psychological and the physical data into an overall conclusion. We suggest that the highest level of the two evaluations should constitute the overall credibility assessment. LIMITATIONS: The examinations were done years after the detentions, they were not focused on physical details and the data we used was retrieved retrospectively.


Assuntos
Decepção , Psiquiatria Legal , Psicologia Forense , Tortura , Adulto , Coleta de Dados , Documentação , Edema/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Dor/etiologia , Revisão por Pares , Inconsciência/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 70-78, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228773

RESUMO

Offenders successfully disposing of a homicide victim's body creates challenges to the criminal justice process, yet no research literature exists on no-body homicide cases. We explored 25 solved homicides in Australia where no part of the victim's body was recovered. Coroners' findings, case law, and media reports from 1983 to 2017 were examined qualitatively and descriptively. Features of the cases differed based on whether the homicide was related to organized crime, serial sexual offences, or domestic violence. Challenges posed by each type of case are discussed and opportunities for solving these cases are examined.


Assuntos
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Decepção , Feminino , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102872, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254864

RESUMO

In competitive situations, humans sometimes use fake actions. Fake actions are carried out to pretend a certain action goal, which however is not actually pursued, such as pump fakes in basketball, or drop shots in tennis. Here, we studied the short-term consequences of producing or observing fakes on the planning and detection of subsequent fake actions. Two players participated in a game, an attacker and a defender. Attackers had to either throw a ball into a target basket of the defender, or to mimic such a throw without actually throwing. Defenders had to discriminate between real throws and faked throws. Participants changed the roles of attacker and defender, and switched between real and faked throws randomly, on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that the (self-)observation of a fake action facilitated the detection of subsequent fake actions of opponents, but did not facilitate the subsequent planning of own fake actions. We conjecture that previous encounters of fake actions help to focus on the movement aspects that are most diagnostic for such fake actions. As a potential practical consequence, we recommend to not generate multiple fake actions in sports within a short time, to prevent potential short-term perceptual adaptation effects of defenders.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Decepção , Movimento/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Health Hum Rights ; 21(1): 239-252, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239630

RESUMO

In January 2007, former president of The Gambia Yahya Jammeh created the Presidential Alternative Treatment Program (PATP), which introduced a fraudulent "HIV cure." PATP and the fraudulent HIV herbal cure (PATP cure) were widely advertised in state media through patient testimonials and specially produced broadcasts of Jammeh administering treatment, enticing people living with HIV to join the program. Jammeh faced little to no opposition from within The Gambia. Due to the great power and influence he wielded, PATP was nothing short of a health dictatorship. This paper argues that PATP and the PATP cure violated the human rights of people living with HIV in The Gambia and compromised HIV health service delivery. In addition, during PATP's 10-year operation, the global health community was derelict in its duty to stop Jammeh's promotion and use of the PATP cure and to protect people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Decepção , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Gâmbia , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Política
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