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1.
JAMA ; 323(6): 538-547, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044941

RESUMO

Importance: Privately insured patients who receive care from in-network physicians may receive unexpected out-of-network bills ("surprise bills") from out-of-network clinicians they did not choose. In elective surgery, this can occur if patients choose in-network surgeons and hospitals but receive out-of-network bills from other involved clinicians. Objective: To evaluate out-of-network billing across common elective operations performed with in-network primary surgeons and facilities. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective analysis of claims data from a large US commercial insurer, representing 347 356 patients who had undergone 1 of 7 common elective operations (arthroscopic meniscal repair [116 749]; laparoscopic cholecystectomy [82 372]; hysterectomy [67 452]; total knee replacement [42 313]; breast lumpectomy [18 018]; colectomy [14 074]; coronary artery bypass graft surgery [6378]) by an in-network primary surgeon at an in-network facility between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2017. Follow-up ended November 8, 2017. Exposure: Patient, clinician, and insurance factors potentially related to out-of-network bills. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of episodes with out-of-network bills. The secondary outcome was the estimated potential balance bill associated with out-of-network bills from each surgical procedure, calculated as total out-of-network charges less the typical in-network price for the same service. Results: Among 347 356 patients (mean age, 48 [SD, 11] years; 66% women) who underwent surgery with in-network primary surgeons and facilities, 20.5% of episodes (95% CI, 19.4%-21.7%) had an out-of-network bill. In these episodes, the mean potential balance bill per episode was $2011 (95% CI, $1866-$2157) when present. Out-of-network bills were associated with surgical assistants in 37% of these episodes; when present, the mean potential balance bill was $3633 (95% CI, $3384-$3883). Out-of-network bills were associated with anesthesiologists in 37% of episodes; when present, the mean potential balance bill was $1219 (95% CI, $1049-$1388). Membership in health insurance exchange plans, compared with nonexchange plans, was associated with a significantly higher risk of out-of-network bills (27% vs 20%, respectively; risk difference, 6% [95% CI, 3.9%-8.9%]; P < .001). Surgical complications were associated with a significantly higher risk of out-of-network bills, compared with episodes with no complications (28% vs 20%, respectively; risk difference, 7% [95% CI, 5.8%-8.8%]; P < .001). Among 83 021 procedures performed at ambulatory surgery centers with in-network primary surgeons, 6.7% (95% CI, 5.8%-7.7%) included an out-of-network facility bill and 17.2% (95% CI, 15.7%-18.8%) included an out-of-network professional bill. Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective analysis of commercially insured patients who had undergone elective surgery at in-network facilities with in-network primary surgeons, a substantial proportion of operations were associated with out-of-network bills.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Honorários Médicos , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Anestesiologistas/economia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistentes Médicos/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgiões/economia , Estados Unidos
3.
Am J Public Health ; 110(1): 61-64, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725314

RESUMO

Clinical trials have demonstrated that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protects against HIV infection; yet, even with its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012, less than 10% of eligible users in the United States are currently taking PrEP.While there are multiple factors that influence PrEP uptake and pose barriers to PrEP implementation, here we focus on PrEP's cost in the United States, which, at the current list price of $2000 per month and with high levels of cost sharing, can leave insured users with more than $1000 in out-of-pocket costs every year. We discuss how patient deductibles, monthly premiums, copayments, and coinsurance vary widely and may increase the financial burden. Although drug payment-assistance programs have made PrEP more affordable to uninsured and underinsured users, lack of insurance is a barrier to PrEP accessibility. The FDA approved a generic version in 2017; however, that version has not been distributed to US consumers and may not be more affordable.As other countries begin implementing PrEP programs, the extent of PrEP's availability as a tool in the global fight against HIV remains to be seen.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro de Serviços Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Assistência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 780, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher income population tend to prefer brand-name to generic drugs, which may cause disparity in access to brand-name drugs among income groups. A potential policy that can resolve such disparity is imposing a greater co-payment rate on high-income enrollees. However, the effects of such policy are unknown. We examined how patients' choice between brand-name and generic drugs are affected by the unique income-based co-payment rates in Japan; 10% for general enrollees and 30% for those with high income among the elderly aged 75 and over. METHODS: We drew on cross-sectional price variation among commonly prescribed 311 drugs using health insurance claims data from a large prefecture in Japan between October 2013 and September 2014 to identify between-income-group differences in responses to differentiated payments. RESULTS: Running 311 multivariate logistic regression models controlling individual demographics, the median estimate indicated that high-income group was 3% (odds ratio = 0.97) less likely to choose a generic drug than the general-income group and the interquartile estimates ranged 0.92-1.02. The multivariate feasible generalized least squares model indicated high-income group's higher likelihood to choose brand-name drugs than the general-income group without co-payment rate differentiation (p < 0.001). Such gap in the likelihood was attenuated by 0.4% (p = 0.027) with an US$1 increase in the difference in additional payment/month for brand-name drugs between income groups - no gap with US$10 additional payment/month. This attenuation was observed in drugs for chronic diseases only, not for acute diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Income-based co-payment rates appeared to reduce disparity in access to brand-name drugs across income groups, in addition to reducing total medical expenditure among high-income group who shifted from brand-name drugs to generic ones due to larger drug price differences.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/classificação
7.
Value Health ; 22(7): 762-767, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between cancer history and cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) as well as cost-coping strategies, by health insurance coverage. METHODS: We used the 2013 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey to identify adults aged 18 to 64 years with (n = 3599) and without (n = 56 909) a cancer history. Cost-related changes in medication use included (1) CRN, measured as skipping, taking less, or delaying medication because of cost, and (2) cost-coping strategies, measured as requesting lower cost medication or using alternative therapies to save money. Separate multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of CRN and cost-coping strategies associated with cancer history, stratified by insurance. RESULTS: Cancer survivors were more likely than adults without a cancer history to report CRN (AOR 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.43) and cost-coping strategies (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 0.99-1.19). Among the privately insured, the difference in CRN by cancer history was the greatest among those enrolled in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) without health savings accounts (HSAs) (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.30-2.44). Among adults with HDHP and HSA, cancer survivors were less likely to report cost-coping strategies (AOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.90). Regardless of cancer history, CRN and cost-coping strategies were the highest for those uninsured, enrolled in HDHP without HSA, and without prescription drug coverage under their health plan (all P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors are prone to CRN and more likely to use cost-coping strategies. Expanding options for health insurance coverage, use of HSAs for those with HDHP, and enhanced prescription drug coverage may effectively address CRN.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Gastos em Saúde , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Redução de Custos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poupança para Cobertura de Despesas Médicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(2): 43-59, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insurance benefit features play a role in determining access to specialty mental health care. Previous research, primarily examining the effects of copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles in a fee-for-service setting, has concluded that specialty mental health use is highly sensitive to changes in financial requirements. Less is known about the effects of other benefit features and the effects of all of these features in a managed care environment. AIMS OF THE STUDY: Determine whether increased generosity of three types of benefit features was associated with increases in specialty mental health use and expenditures in a managed care setting. Secondary analyses investigated whether these associations varied by income level. METHODS: A first-differences design used linked claims, enrollment, and benefit data for 1,242,949 non-elderly adults (aged 18-64) with employer-sponsored insurance, before (2009) and after (2011) national behavioral health parity implementation. The data were provided by a large national managed behavioral health organization. Benefit design features included combined cost sharing from copayment and coinsurance, deductibles, the presence of annual use limits, cost sharing penalties associated with services used without getting required prior-authorization, and provider network. Outcomes included visits/days, total expenditures and patient out-of-pocket expenditures for individual psychotherapy and inpatient use, with separate values for in-network and out-of-network (OON) service use. Ordinary least squares regression was performed on change scores (2011 minus 2009 values) of all outcomes to implement the first-differences study design and normalize distributions of otherwise heavily skewed (towards zero) variables. Regressions stratified by higher income (>=USD75,000) and net worth (>=USD100,000) and lower income/net worth were also conducted. RESULTS: For in-network individual psychotherapy, larger increases in cost sharing from copayment and coinsurance were modestly associated with larger decreases in use and total expenditures (beta_visits=--0.00008, p-value=0.030; beta_total expenditures=USD--0.00629, p-value=0.011), and elimination of treatment limits was associated with larger increases in use (beta=0.09637, p-value=0.002) and total expenditures (beta=USD6.57506, p-value=0.001). These results were observed among all enrollees of plans that covered in-network and out-of-network plans and among a sub-set of these enrollees who did not change plans between 2009 and 2011. Benefit features had fewer associations with inpatient care and OON services. DISCUSSION: Elimination of limits was associated with small average increases in in-network individual psychotherapy utilization and expenditures. Cost sharing sensitivities of individual psychotherapy visits to financial requirements reported here were small, and resembled previous findings based in a managed care setting, which were smaller than findings based on the fee-for-service settings. Cost sharing may not pose a practical barrier to specialty behavioral health for non-elderly adults with employer-sponsored managed care plans. However, the influence of cost sharing may vary by specific healthcare needs, something that should be explored in further research.


Assuntos
Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Benefícios do Seguro , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatrics ; 143(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most states have passed insurance mandates requiring health plans to cover services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Research reveals that these mandates increased treated prevalence, service use, and spending on ASD-related care. As employer-sponsored insurance shifts toward high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), it is important to understand how mandates affect children with ASD in HDHPs relative to traditional, low-deductible plans. METHODS: Insurance claims for 2008-2012 for children covered by 3 large US insurers (United Healthcare, Aetna, and Humana) available through the Health Care Cost Institute were used to compare the effects of mandates on ASD-related spending for children in HDHPs and traditional health plans. RESULTS: Relative to children in traditional plans, mandates were associated with higher average monthly spending increases for children in HDHPs. Mandate-attributable spending differences between children enrolled in HDHPs relative to traditional plans were $77 for ASD-specific services (95% confidence interval [CI]: $10 to $144), $125 for outpatient health services (95% CI: $26 to $223), and $144 for all health services (95% CI: $36 to $253). These spending differentials were driven by differences in plan spending and not out-of-pocket (OOP) spending. CONCLUSIONS: Spending on ASD-related services attributable to autism mandates was higher among children in HDHPs, but higher spending did not translate into a greater OOP burden. For families with consistently high health care expenditures on ASD-related services, high-deductible products may be worth considering in the context of mandate laws. Families in mandate states with children with ASD enrolled in HDHPs were able to increase service use without paying more OOP.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Obrigatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/economia , Criança , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino , Programas Obrigatórios/economia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(2): 136.e1-136.e9, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communicating healthcare costs to patients is an important component of delivering high-quality value-based care, yet cost data are lacking. This is especially relevant for ovarian cancer, where no clinical consensus on optimal first-line treatment exists. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to generate cost estimates of different primary management strategies in ovarian cancer. STUDY DESIGN: All women who underwent treatment for ovarian cancer from 2006-2015 were identified from the MarketScan database (n=12,761) in this observational cohort study. Total and out-of-pocket costs were calculated with the use of all claims within 8 months from initial treatment and normalized to 2017 US dollars. The generalized linear model method was used to assess cost by strategy. RESULTS: Among patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and those who underwent primary debulking, mean adjusted total costs were $113,660 and $107,153 (P<.001) and mean out-of-pocket costs were $2519 and $2977 (P<.001), respectively. Total costs for patients who had intravenous standard, intravenous dose-dense, and intraperitoneal/intravenous chemotherapy were $105,047, $115,099, and $121,761 (P<.001); and out-of-pocket costs were $2838, $3405, and $2888 (P<.001), respectively. Total costs for regimens that included bevacizumab were higher than those without it ($171,468 vs $104,482; P<.001); out-of-pocket costs were $3127 vs $2898 (P<.001). Among patients who did not receive bevacizumab, 25% paid ≥$3875, and 10% paid ≥$6265. For patients who received bevacizumab, 25% paid ≥$4480, and 10% paid ≥$6635. Among patients enrolled in high-deductible health plans, median out-of-pocket costs were $4196, with 25% paying ≥$6680 and 10% paying ≥$9751. CONCLUSION: Costs vary across different treatment strategies, and patients bear a significant out-of-pocket burden, especially those enrolled in high-deductible health plans.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/economia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/economia , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/economia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/economia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 42(3): 256-262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033582

RESUMO

As the survival rate of traumatic brain injury increases, the burden of care for patients with traumatic brain injury is emerging as a socioeconomic issue and the discharge destination is one of the important outcome measures in the post-acute rehabilitation unit. To investigate the predictors of functional outcome and discharge destination in patients with traumatic brain injury after post-acute rehabilitation. A retrospective review was performed on 86 patients who were admitted to the rehabilitation unit between January 2010 and June 2017. Multiple regression analysis was used as a statistical method to identify the factors affecting Modified Barthel Index and discharge destination. The number of days from traumatic brain injury onset to rehabilitation unit admission (odds ratio = 0.959, P = 0.049), brain surgery for traumatic brain injury management (odds ratio = 0.160, P = 0.021), initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (odds ratio = 1.269, P = 0.022) and Mini-Mental State Examination score at admission (odds ratio = 1.245, P < 0.001) were the predictive factors for higher Modified Barthel Index after rehabilitation. Underlying vascular risk factors (odds ratio = 0.138, P = 0.015), Modified Barthel Index score after rehabilitation (odds ratio = 1.085, P < 0.001) and deductible-free insurance (odds ratio = 0.211, P = 0.032) were the predictive factors of home discharge. The functional outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury after rehabilitation was related to the severity of initial injury, cognitive function at admission and rehabilitation timing. The discharge destination after rehabilitation was related to functional outcome, insurance issues and underlying vascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Avaliação da Deficiência , Alta do Paciente , Idoso , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento
13.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(6): 785-799, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868381

RESUMO

We evaluate the presence and magnitude of moral hazard in Japan's public long-term care insurance (LTCI) market. Using monthly LTCI claim records from January 2006 to December 2015 linked to concurrent death records, we construct a sample by propensity score matching insured individuals who co-pay 10% of their fees to those with no required copayments, and we implement fixed-effect estimations. We find that a ten-percentage-point reduction in the copayment rate increases monthly costs by 10.2 thousand yen, corresponding to a price elasticity of about - 0.1. Insured individuals with no copayments tend to use more services and have more utilization days than those with copayments do. Furthermore, we find that insured individuals who die from cerebral (myocardial) infarction increase their service use more in response to a reduction in the copayment rate than those who die from senility do, indicating a positive association between ex-ante health risks and ex-post service use. We verify that a cost-sharing adjustment is a valid solution for soaring LTCI expenditures. These findings could provide broad implications for the rapidly aging world.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/economia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo/economia , Assistência de Longa Duração/economia , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Política Pública , Análise de Regressão
14.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213403, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the heterogeneity of the effect of a change in pharmaceutical cost-sharing by therapeutic groups in a Spanish region. METHODS: Data: random sample (provided by the Canary Islands Health Service) of 40,471 people covered by the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) in the Canary Islands. The database includes individualised monthly-dispensed medications (prescribed by the SNHS) from one year before (August 2011) to one year after (June 2013) the Royal Decree Law 16/2012 (RDL 16/2012). Sample: two intervention groups (low-income pensioners and middle-income working population) and one control group (low-income working population). Empirical model: quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design to study the change in consumption (measured in number of monthly Defined Daily Dose (DDDs) per individual) among 13 therapeutic groups. The policy break indicator (three-level categorical variable) tested the existence of stockpiling between the reform's announcement and its implementation. We ran 16 linear regression models (general, by therapeutic groups and by comorbidities) that considered whether the exclusion of some drugs from public provision impacted on consumption more than the co-payment increase. RESULTS: General: Reduction (-13.04) in consumption after the reform's implementation, which was fully compensated by a previous increase (16.60 i.e., stockpiling) among low-income pensioners. The middle-income working population maintained its trend of increasing consumption. Therapeutic groups: Reductions in consumption after the reform's implementation among low-income pensioners in 7 of the 13 groups, which were fully compensated for by a previous increase (i.e., stockpiling) in 4 groups and partially compensated for in the remaining 3. The analysis without the excluded medicines provided fewer negative coefficients. Comorbidities: Reduction in consumption that was only slightly compensated for by a previous increase (i.e., stockpiling). CONCLUSIONS: The negative impact of cost-sharing produced, among low-income pensioners, a risk of loss of adherence to treatments, which could deteriorate the health status of individuals, especially among pensioners within the most inelastic therapeutic groups (associated with chronic diseases) and patients with comorbidities (also, associated with chronic diseases). Notwithstanding the above, this risk was more related to the exclusion of some drugs from provision than to the cost-sharing increase.


Assuntos
Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Custos de Medicamentos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/legislação & jurisprudência , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/tendências , Custos de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribução , Espanha
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 22, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-insurance rates in Japan decrease when patients turn 70 years of age. We aim to compare changes in medical demand for Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at age 70 prior to 2014, when there was a reduction in co-insurance rates from 30 to 10%, with changes in medical demand at age 70 after 2014 when co-insurance rates decreased from 30% to only 20%. METHODS: We used administrative data from large Japanese hospitals. We employed a discontinuity regression (RD) approach to control for unobserved endogeneity in the data. RESULTS: We identified a total of 7343 patients with RA, 4905 (67%) turned age 70 before April, and found that a 20% decrease in co-insurance was associated with increased utilization of more expensive biologic RA drugs, more outpatient visits and higher total medical costs. However, a 10% decrease in co-insurance for patients who turned 70 after 2014 did not significantly change demand for medical services. CONCLUSIONS: For the younger cohort, we did not observe any changes in medical demand after a price decrease. We therefore conclude that the economic goal of cost sharing, namely a behavioural change towards lower health-care utilization, is not achieved in this particular cohort of chronic patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Bases de Dados Factuais , Emprego , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão
17.
Med Care ; 57(3): 187-193, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 70 million Americans are enrolled in a high-deductible health plan (HDHP), with high upfront cost-sharing to encourage strategies such as price shopping to mitigate out-of-pocket spending. Recent research suggests HDHP enrollees are reluctant to engage in these consumer strategies, but there is little information on why. OBJECTIVES: To describe associations between HDHP enrollees' attitudes about and intent to engage in consumer strategies. RESEARCH DESIGN: We conducted a nationally representative web survey of 1637 HDHP enrollees that included 2 hypothetical scenarios amenable to consumer strategies. For each scenario, we asked participants whether they would compare price or quality information, discuss cost with a provider, or try to negotiate a service price. We measured participants' ratings of the difficulty of each strategy, its effectiveness at reducing cost or increasing the likelihood of getting care, and how likely participants would be to actually engage in each strategy. RESULTS: Fewer than half of HDHP enrollees intended to engage in any of the surveyed strategies. Enrollees who viewed a consumer strategy as helpful were more likely to engage in that strategy; no associations were found with perceived difficulty of a strategy and intent to engage in it. CONCLUSIONS: HDHP enrollees may not pursue consumer strategies because they believe they are not helpful for getting care or lowering costs. Providers and payers should ensure these strategies are actually helpful to HDHP enrollees and that enrollees understand how they could use these strategies to reduce their out-of-pocket costs.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde , Adulto , Comércio/economia , Feminino , Planos de Assistência de Saúde para Empregados/economia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(4): 513-524, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539335

RESUMO

Health insurers may use financial incentives to encourage their enrollees to choose preferred providers for medical treatment. Empirical evidence whether differences in cost-sharing rates across providers affects patient choice behavior is, especially from Europe, limited. This paper examines the effect of a differential deductible to steer patient provider choice in a Dutch regional market for varicose veins treatment. Using individual patients' choice data and information about their out-of-pocket payments covering the year of the experiment and 1 year before, we estimate a conditional logit model that explicitly controls for pre-existing patient preferences. Our results suggest that in this natural experiment designating preferred providers and waiving the deductible for enrollees using these providers significantly influenced patient choice. The average cross-price elasticity of demand is found to be 0.02, indicating that patient responsiveness to the cost-sharing differential itself was low. Unlike fixed cost-sharing differences, the deductible exemption was conditional on the patient's other medical expenses occurring in the policy year. The differential deductible did, therefore, not result in a financial benefit for patients with annual costs exceeding their total deductible.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos , Organizações de Prestadores Preferenciais/economia , Organizações de Prestadores Preferenciais/organização & administração , Organizações de Prestadores Preferenciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Varizes/economia , Varizes/terapia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(11): e004632, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High deductible health plans (HDHP) are associated with high levels of patient cost-sharing and are becoming increasingly used in the United Status as a means of reducing healthcare utilization and spending. Our objective is to determine whether HDHP enrollment is associated with a change in adherence to evidence-based medications to treat cardiovascular risk factors and whether such changes vary based on race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using an interrupted time series with concurrent control group design among beneficiaries of Aetna-a national commercial insurer. We included 14 866 patients who filled prescriptions for medications to treat hypertension, high cholesterol, or diabetes mellitus between 2009 and 2014 and who switched from a traditional plan into an HDHP and 14 866 controls who did not switch to an HDHP matched based on calendar time, medication class, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and propensity score. We were specifically interested in evaluating 4 prespecified subgroups based on race/ethnicity (white versus nonwhite) and socioeconomic status (higher versus lower). The main outcome was medication adherence as measured by proportion of days covered. The overall cohort had an average age of 53 years, and 44% were women. Baseline adherence was the lowest in the nonwhite patient group. Switching to an HDHP was associated with a decrease in the level of adherence of 5 percentage points across all 4 subgroups (change in level, -5.0%; 95% CI, -5.9% to -4.0%; P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: HDHP enrollment was associated with a reduction in adherence to medications to treat cardiovascular risk factors. The magnitude of this effect did not vary based on race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Because racial/ethnic minorities have lower rates of medication adherence, future studies should evaluate whether HDHP-associated changes in adherence have greater clinical consequences for these patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Grupos Étnicos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Classe Social , Estados Unidos
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