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1.
Acad Med ; 95(1): 44-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599758

RESUMO

Medical school faculty and their colleagues in schools of nursing, public health, social work, and elsewhere often research issues of critical importance to health and science policy. When academics engage with government policymakers to advocate for change based on their research, however, they may find themselves engaged in "lobbying," thereby entering a complex environment of legal requirements and institutional policies that they may not fully understand. To promote academic advocacy, this article explains what is and is not legally permitted when it comes to engaging with policymakers and encourages academic institutions to facilitate permissible advocacy activities.U.S. law permits academic researchers to conduct certain types of policy-focused advocacy without running afoul of legal restrictions on lobbying. Academics acting in their personal capacities and with their own resources may freely engage with policymakers in any branch of government to provide their expertise and advocate for desired outcomes. When acting in their professional capacities, academics are free to engage in most advocacy activities directed to the executive and judicial branches, and they also may advocate to influence legislation and legislators within certain limits that are particularly relevant to academic work. In all cases, academics must take care to not use restricted funds for lobbying.Academic researchers have an important role to play in advancing evidence-based health and science policy. They should familiarize themselves with legal restrictions and opportunities to influence policy based on their research, and their institutions should actively support them in doing so.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Manobras Políticas , Ciência/legislação & jurisprudência , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Pessoal Administrativo/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal Administrativo/normas , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/legislação & jurisprudência , Docentes de Medicina/normas , Apoio Financeiro , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisadores/legislação & jurisprudência , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Escolas de Enfermagem/normas , Serviço Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (45): 149-161, mar. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177380

RESUMO

¿Puede considerarse que las personas mayores son un colectivo que merece una especial protección? Esta es la pregunta que sirve como punto de partida al análisis que realiza el presente artículo. La dificultad de establecer las fronteras de edad unido al hecho de que la edad no puede ser considerado un parámetro exclusivo de vulnerabilidad nos conduce a replantear la redacción del art. 111-2 c) del Código de Consumo de Catalunya


Shall we consider older people as a collective deserving special protection? That is the starting point for the subject of the present study. The difficulty to establish the age barriers, linked to the fact that the age cannot be considered the unique and exclusive criteria of vulnerability, give us rise to reconsider the writing of the art. 111-2 c) of the Consumer Catalan Code


Es pot considerar que les persones grans són un col·lectiu que mereix una especial protecció? Aquesta és la pregunta que serveix com a punt de partida de l'anàlisi que es realitza en el present article. La dificultat d'establir les fronteres d'edat ,unit al fet que l'edat no pot ser considerat un paràmetre exclusiu de vulnerabilitat, ens condueix a replantejar la redacció de l'art. 111-2 c) del Codi de Consum de Catalunya


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência a Idosos/ética , Assistência a Idosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Populações Vulneráveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos dos Idosos , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Am J Public Health ; 109(3): 419-422, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676805

RESUMO

Expanding access to treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) is central to addressing the US overdose mortality crisis. Numerous barriers to OUD treatment are encountered in criminal justice institutions and processes, with which people with OUD are disproportionately involved. OUD treatment access is severely limited in US corrections facilities, with few exceptions. Drug treatment courts, which in principle provide court-supervised treatment as an alternative to prison, have also unduly limited treatment options, particularly medication-assisted treatment. The voice and expertise of health professionals are urgently needed to remove these barriers and ensure that criminally accused persons are systematically linked to the care they need.


Assuntos
Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Prisioneiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Prisões/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Direito Penal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
5.
Transl Behav Med ; 9(1): 48-57, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590860

RESUMO

National health authorities uniformly express an urgent need for large-scale policies that incorporate population-based strategies to improve diet-related population health outcomes. On October 30, 2013, Washington State passed the first statewide comprehensive policy on food service guidelines (i.e., Executive Order 13-06: "Improving the Health and Productivity of State Employees and Access to Healthy Foods in State Facilities") aimed at improving diet-related health outcomes and estimated to impact 73,000 individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the facilitators and constraints to the development and passage of Executive Order 13-06 to inform future food service guideline development and passage in other agencies, states, and municipalities. We conducted 17 semi-structured telephone interviews with key stakeholders involved in the development and/or passage of Executive Order 13-06. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using the Advocacy Coalition Framework. Interviewees were from local and state public health departments, Washington State government, public agencies, academia, advocacy coalitions, and national organizations. Two main coalitions (proponents and opponents) diverged in their support of the passage of Executive Order 13-06. Proponents supported it given its potential to increase access to healthy food and beverage options. Opponents felt that it was not feasible to meet food service guidelines without affecting sales and profit. Study findings highlight the importance of early engagement with stakeholders most impacted by proposed food service guidelines, using existing guidelines rather than developing new guidelines, and creating a workgroup to discuss the feasibility of food service guideline implementation and compliance.


Assuntos
Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Alimentação/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Local de Trabalho/normas , Cultura , Dieta/métodos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Washington/epidemiologia
7.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (42): 51-69, mar. 2018.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-170957

RESUMO

O conceito de soberania alimentar pauta-se na tentativa de contrariar o sistema de produção alimentar, comandado pelas grandes empresas, que retiram o direito dos povos de decidirem sobre sua alimentação. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura com pergunta norteadora orientada pela bioética, através da Declaração Universal sobre Bioética e Direitos Humanos. Para busca, utilizaram-se os descritores «soberania» e «alimentar», tendo como resultado 21 artigos para leitura integral. Compilou-se em três categorias: [I] Aspectos do meio-ambiente, [II] Direitos Humanos e [III] Aspectos político-econômicos. A análise demonstrou que a concentração de terras, de meios de produção, e capital, têm trazido consequências para a saúde e iniquidades das populações, sem atentar-se com a sustentabilidade e a sobrevivência do próprio planeta


El concepto de soberanía alimentaria se basa en intentar contrarrestar el sistema de producción de alimentos desarrollado por grandes empresas que anula la autonomía de las personas para decidir sobre su consumo alimentario. A través de la Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos, se realizó una revisión integral de la literatura existente guiada por una preguntada orientada dentro del campo de la bioética. La búsqueda en la base de datos se hizo con los descriptores «soberanía» y «comida», y como resultado aparecieron 21 artículos de lectura completa. Éstos se compilaron en tres categorías: [I] Aspectos vinculados al medio ambiente, [II] Derechos Humanos y [III] Aspectos político-económicos. El análisis ha demostrado que la tenencia de la tierra en pocas manos, los medios de producción y el capital han traído graves consecuencias para la población y para su salud, sin tener en cuenta la sostenibilidad y la supervivencia del planeta


El concepte de sobirania alimentària es basa en intentar contrarestar el sistema de producció d'aliments desenvolupats per grans empreses que anul·la l'autonomia de les persones per a decidir sobre el seu consum alimentari. A través de la Declaració Universal sobre Bioètica i Drets Humans, es va realitzar una revisió integral de la literatura existent guiada per una preguntada orientada dins del camp de la bioètica. La recerca dins la base de dades es va fer amb els descriptors «sobirania» i «menjar», i com a resultat varen aparèixer 21 articles de lectura completa. Aquests es van recopilar en tres categories: [I] Aspectes lligats al medi ambient, [II] Drets Humans i [III] Aspectes polític-econòmics. L'anàlisi ha demostrat que la tinència de la terra en poques mans, els mitjans de producció i el capital han generat grans conseqüències per a la població i per a la seva salut, sense tenir en compte la sostenibilitat i la supervivència del planeta


The concept of food sovereignty is based on the attempt to counteract the food production's system, led by large companies, which withdraw the autonomy of people to decide on their food actions. An integrative review of literature was conducted with a guiding question oriented by bioethics, through the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. The search on the database was made with the descriptors «sovereignty» and «food», resulting in 21 articles for full reading. They were compiled in three categories: [I] Aspects of the environment, [II] Human Rights and [III] Political-economic aspects. The analysis has shown that the concentrations of land, means of production, and capital, have brought consequences for the iniquities of populations and their health, without regard to the sustainability and survival of the planet


Assuntos
Humanos , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Produção de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/ética , Temas Bioéticos , Agricultura Sustentável/ética , Direitos Humanos/tendências , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências
10.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (41): 197-208, nov. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167505

RESUMO

El pasado 14 de junio, el Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea resolvió en cuestión prejudicial que la denominación «leche» y otras denominaciones de "productos lácteos" deben reservarse a productos de origen animal. El fallo responde a la cuestión prejudicial planteada por un Tribunal alemán durante el litigio entre VSW, asociación empresarial alemana y TofuTown, productora y distribuidora de alimentos vegetarianos/veganos. El fallo del Tribunal señala que designar un producto puramente vegetal como «leche de…» vulnera el derecho de la Unión por ser contrario a la normativa de protección del sector lácteo. Pero la sentencia no analiza si estas denominaciones ponen en jaque la protección del derecho del consumidor a una información alimentaria clara, objetiva y contrastada científicamente


On June 14, the Court of Justice of the European Union resolved in a preliminary ruling that the name "milk" and other denominations of "dairy products" must be reserved for products of animal origin. The verdict responds to the preliminary ruling proposed by a German Court during the lawsuit between VS W, German business association and TofuTown, a company that produces and distributes vegetarian/vegan foodstuffs. The Court's ruling indicates that designating a purely plant based product like "milk" breaks the Union Law to be contrary to the legislation protecting the dairy sector. However, the ruling does not analyze whether these descriptions check the protection of the consumer right to clear, objective and scientifically corroborated food information


El passat 14 de juny, el Tribunal de Justícia de la Unió Europea va resoldre en qüestió prejudicial que la denominació «llet» i altres denominacions de «productes làctics» han de reservar-se a productes d'origen animal. La decisió respon a la qüestió prejudicial plantejada per un Tribunal alemany durant el litigi entre VSW, associació empresarial alemanya i TofuTown, productora i distribuïdora d'aliments vegetarians/vegans. La decisió del Tribunal estableix que designar un producte purament vegetal com a «llet de…» vulnera el dret de la Unió Europea perquè és contrari a la normativa de protecció del sector làctic. Però la sentència no analitza si aquestes denominacions posen en entredit la protecció del dret del consumidor a una informació alimentària clara, objectiva i contrastada científicament


Assuntos
Humanos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Defesa do Consumidor/ética , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Leite , Laticínios , Comércio/ética , Comercialização de Produtos
12.
Issue Brief (Commonw Fund) ; 16: 1-10, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28613066

RESUMO

ISSUE: Privately insured consumers expect that if they pay premiums and use in-network providers, their insurer will cover the cost of medically necessary care beyond their cost-sharing. However, when obtaining care at emergency departments and in-network hospitals, patients treated by an out-of-network provider may receive an unexpected "balance bill" for an amount beyond what the insurer paid. With no explicit federal protections against balance billing, some states have stepped in to protect consumers from this costly and confusing practice. GOAL: To better understand the scope of state laws to protect consumers from balance billing. METHODS: Analysis of laws in all 50 states and the District of Columbia and interviews with officials in eight states. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Most states do not have laws that directly protect consumers from balance billing by an out-of-network provider for care delivered in an emergency department or in-network hospital. Of the 21 states offering protections, only six have a comprehensive approach to safeguarding consumers in both settings, and gaps remain even in these states. Because a federal policy solution might prove difficult, states may be better positioned in the short term to protect consumers.


Assuntos
Contas a Pagar e a Receber , Defesa do Consumidor/economia , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/economia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/legislação & jurisprudência , Honorários e Preços/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/economia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas Pré-Pagos de Saúde/economia , Sistemas Pré-Pagos de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Organizações de Prestadores Preferenciais/economia , Organizações de Prestadores Preferenciais/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(14): 4737-4743, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper considers the background of Article 69 of the newly revised Food Safety Law in China in combination with the current situation of Chinese legislation on GMF labeling management, compared with a foreign genetically modified food labeling management system, revealing deficiencies in the Chinese legislation with respect to GMF labeling management, and noting that institutions should properly consider the GMF labeling management system in China. RESULTS: China adheres to the principle of mandatory labeling based on both product and processes in relation to GMFs and implements a system of process-centered mandatory labeling under a negotiation-construction form. However, China has not finally defined the supervision mode of mandatory labeling of GMFs through laws, and this remains a challenge for GMF labeling management when two mandatory labeling modes coexist. CONCLUSION: Since April 2015 and October 1, 2015 when the Food Safety Law was revised and formally implemented respectively, the applicable judicial interpretations and enforcement regulations have not made applicable revisions and only principle-based terms have been included in the Food Safety Law, it is still theoretically and practically difficult for mandatory labeling of GMFs in juridical practices and conflicts between the principle of GMF labeling and the purpose that safeguards consumers' right to know remain. The GMF labeling system should be legislatively and practically improved to an extent that protects consumers' right to know. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Legislação sobre Alimentos , China , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/efeitos adversos , Humanos
14.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(3): 487-496, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067964

RESUMO

Worldwide, binge drinking is a major public health problem. The popularized health risks associated with binge drinking include physical injury and motor vehicle crashes; less attention has been given to the negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. The primary aims of this review were to provide a summary of the adverse effects of binge drinking on the risk and development of CV disease and to review potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Using specific inclusion criteria, an integrative review was conducted that included data from human experimental, prospective cross-sectional, and cohort epidemiological studies that examined the association between binge drinking and CV conditions such as hypertension (HTN), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and arrhythmias. Studies were identified that examined the relationship between binge drinking and CV outcomes. Collectively, findings support that binge drinking is associated with a higher risk of pre-HTN, HTN, MI, and stroke in middle-aged and older adults. Binge drinking may also have adverse CV effects in young adults (aged 18 to 30). Mechanisms remain incompletely understood; however, available evidence suggests that binge drinking may induce oxidative stress and vascular injury and be proatherogenic. Public health messages regarding binge drinking need to include the effects of binge drinking on the CV system.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/fisiopatologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Defesa do Consumidor , Política de Saúde , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 35(1): 1-8, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of medicine in India has undergone considerable change affecting delivery of health in both positive and negative directions. As a result, there was a growing feeling that medical treatment should be made accountable and this led to doctors and dentists becoming subject to the process of law. Patients have become more aware of their right to compensation and as a consequence doctors and dentists should be knowledgeable about the laws that govern them. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the awareness about Medico legal aspects and Consumer Protection Act [CPA] among Dental professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-structured validated questionnaire comprising of 20 questions related to medico legal aspects and CPA was designed. A total of 450 dental professionals were surveyed from 4 prime dental institutions in Chennai, India. Of the 450 professionals that were surveyed 150 were MDS faculty, 150 were BDS faculty and 150 were PG students. The data was subjected to SPSS, version 16 and statistically analysed using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test. A- p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: BDS faculty, MDS faculty and PG students were found to possess similar level of understanding and there was no significant difference between the groups. Knowledge was found to be equal between male and female dentists. The young practitioners were found to be more informed about CPA than the senior practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that most of the participants were aware of relevant Medico legal aspects, but were less aware of CPA. This study emphasises the need for education relevant to Medico legal aspects and CPA for dental professionals.


Assuntos
Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Docentes de Odontologia , Competência Profissional , Estudantes de Odontologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Yale J Health Policy Law Ethics ; 17(1): 209-250, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756757

RESUMO

Most electoral democracies, including forty-three states in the United States, deny people the right to vote on the basis of intellectual disability or mental illness. Scholars in several fields have addressed these disenfranchisements, including legal scholars who analyze their validity under U.S. constitutional law and international-human-rights law, philosophers and political scientists who analyze their validity under democratic theory, and mental-health researchers who analyze their relationship to scientific categories. This Note reviews the current state of the debate across these fields and makes three contentions: (a) pragmatic political considerations have blurred the distinction between disenfranchisement provisions based on cognitive capacity and those based on personal status; (b) proposals that advocate voting by proxy trivialize the broad civic purpose of the franchise; and (c) the persistence of disenfranchisement on the basis of mental illness inevitably contributes to silencing socially disfavored views and lifestyles. Accordingly, the Note cautions reformers against advocating for capacity assessment or proxy voting, and emphasizes the importance of disassociating the idea of mental illness from voting capacity.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Civis/legislação & jurisprudência , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Política , Estados Unidos
18.
Health Hum Rights ; 18(1): 69-84, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27781000

RESUMO

One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies.


Assuntos
Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Tuberculose , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Responsabilidade Social , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/terapia
19.
Public Health Res Pract ; 26(4)2016 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27714392

RESUMO

In recent years, nonmammographic breast imaging devices, such as thermography, electrical impedance scanning and elastography, have been promoted directly to consumers, which has captured the attention of governments, researchers and health organisations. These devices are not supported by evidence and risk undermining existing mammographic breast cancer screening services. During a 5-year period, Cancer Council Western Australia (CCWA) used strategic research combined with legal, policy and media advocacy to contest claims that these devices were proven alternatives to mammography for breast cancer screening. The campaign was successful because it had input from people with public health, academic, clinical and legal backgrounds, and took advantage of existing legal and regulatory avenues. CCWA's experience provides a useful advocacy model for public health practitioners who are concerned about unsafe consumer products, unproven medical devices, and misleading health information and advertising.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Defesa do Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Decepção , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Impedância Elétrica , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Termografia , Austrália Ocidental
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