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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e17970, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764802

RESUMO

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. The relationship between AD and homocysteine (Hcy) is contradictory.A community-based investigation was conducted to find patients with AD in a vitamin B deficient population (≥55 years old) in Lüliang area in China. Venous blood samples were collected. Serum Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 were measured. For each case, 4 controls were selected matched with age to evaluate the relationship between Hcy and AD.The crude prevalence of AD among people ages 55 years or older in this area was 8.60%. There were significant differences in serum Hcy and B12 between the case and control groups. We found that the higher level of serum Hcy was associated with a high risk of AD, and higher education level, higher folate and B12 concentration were protective factors to AD.Adjustment of diet structure and supplementation of folate and B12 may offer potential therapeutic measures in this area.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(8): 1573-1580, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919078

RESUMO

Folic acid (FA), also termed folate, is an essential vitamin for health at all ages since it participates in the biosynthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and certain vitamins. It is therefore crucial for rapidly growing tissues such as those of the fetus. It is becoming clear that FA deficiency and impaired folate pathways are implicated in many diseases of both early life and old age. FA can be transported into the cell by the folate receptor, the reduced folate transporter, and proton-coupled folate transporter. Folate transport proteins are present in certain eye tissues, which explains why FA plays an important role in eye development. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate the evidence relating FA deficiency to eye diseases.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Animais , Oftalmopatias/sangue , Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Oftalmopatias/prevenção & controle , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/terapia , Humanos , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico
4.
Brain Dev ; 41(5): 406-412, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional deficiency in pregnant women is a confirmed cause of neural tube defects (NTDs). Alongside to this background, We sought to determine the nutritional status and level of awareness on the issue of the NTDs as well as folic acid (FA) utilization among women who born infants with NTDs in Tigray region of Ethiopia. METHOD: A standard interviewer and a food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain information from mothers of cases with neural tube defects (n = 205) and their controls (n = 412). Demographic information, weekly food frequency consumption, information on awareness on the issue of the NTDs as well as folic acid (FA) use was collected. RESULT: The mean age of the mothers of the cases and controls was 26.5 years (range 17-43 years) and 26.05 years (range 18-40 years), respectively. Approximately 92.2% (189/205) of the cases and 90.5% (373/412) control mothers do not know the term folic acid (FA). Notably, all participant mothers (100%) did not understand that NTDs are a serious health problem associated with inadequate intake of FA and none of them used FA prior to conception. Food frequency analysis revealed that except for cereals (p = 0.12) and milk products (p = 0.8), the proportion of the consumed food type within seven days recalls period showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) as compared with controls. The dietary diversity score assessment showed those attained low and high dietary diversity score were a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0003) and (p = 0.0002) respectively) as compared with controls, but the medium dietary diversity score no significant variation was found (p = 0.35). CONCLUSION: This study has shown none of the study participants do understand that NTDs are a serious health problem associated with inadequate intake of FA. Dietary diversity score was significantly associated with incidence of NTDs. This Ethiopian study also highlighted the need of considering the basic food in future programs of food fortification with folic acid, preconceptional folic acid supplementation and adequate dietary intake counseling. Advance research is required to find out the gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions, as well as particular causative factors associated with NTDs in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Nutr ; 149(2): 295-303, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies is reduced with adequate folic acid intake during early pregnancy. However, NTDs have been observed among offspring of women with adequate folic acid intake. Some of these women are possibly not absorbing enough folic acid. Because lactase deficiency can lead to poor nutrient absorption, we hypothesized that lactase-deficient women will be at increased risk of having offspring with NTDs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between maternal rs4988235 (a lactase deficiency genetic marker) and NTDs in offspring. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, United States, 1997-2009, restricting to non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic women. Cases were women with an offspring with an NTD (n = 378 NHW, 207 Hispanic), and controls were women with an offspring without a birth defect (n = 461 NHW, 165 Hispanic). Analyses were conducted separately by race/ethnicity, using logistic regression. Women with the CC genotype were categorized as being lactase deficient. To assess potential effect modification, analyses were stratified by lactose intake, folic acid supplementation, dietary folate, and diet quality. RESULTS: Among NHW women, the odds of being lactase deficient were greater among cases compared with controls (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.82). Among Hispanic women, the odds of being lactase deficient were significantly lower among cases compared with controls (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.77). The association differed when stratified by lactose intake in NHW women (higher odds among women who consumed ≥12 g lactose/1000 kcal) and by dietary folate in Hispanic women (opposite direction of associations). The association did not differ when stratified by folic acid supplementation or diet quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal lactase deficiency is associated with NTDs in offspring. However, we observed opposite directions of effect by race/ethnicity that could not be definitively explained.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lactase/genética , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Lactase/deficiência , Mães , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/enzimologia , Razão de Chances , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(1): 106-113, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Megaloblastic, nonregenerative anemia is a well-known consequence of cobalamin or folate deficiencies in humans but is not recognized in hypocobalaminemic or hypofolatemic dogs. Establishment of relationships between hypocobalaminemia or hypofolatemia and hematologic disease would encourage vitamin B testing, and potentially supplementation, in anemic dogs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of anemia in hypocobalaminemic or hypofolatemic dogs and to report the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia and hypofolatemia and nonregenerative anemia, macrocytosis, and anisocytosis in anemic dogs. ANIMALS: One hundred and fourteen client-owned dogs with known serum cobalamin and folate concentrations and CBCs and 42 client-owned anemic dogs. METHODS: Retrospective comparison of anemia prevalence in hypocobalaminemic or hypofolatemic and normocobalaminemic or normofolatemic dogs was performed. Prospective measurement of erythrocyte variables and cobalamin and folate concentrations in anemic dogs was carried out; relationships among hypocobalaminemia and regenerative status, mean corpuscular volume, and red cell distribution width were evaluated. RESULTS: Significant differences in prevalence of anemia between hypocobalaminemic (36%) and normocobalaminemic dogs (26%; P = .23) or between hypofolatemic (31%) and normofolatemic dogs (30%; P = .99) were not detected. Between hypocobalaminemic and normocobalaminemic dogs, no significant differences in prevalence of nonregenerative anemia (69% vs 63%; P = .65), macrocytosis (17% vs 0%; P = .53), or anisocytosis (28% vs 0%; P = .14) were detected. Anemic dogs had high prevalence of vitamin B deficiencies (nonregenerative: 64% hypocobalaminemic, 18% hypofolatemic; regenerative: 57% hypocobalaminemic, 21% hypofolatemic). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The association between cobalamin and folate deficiencies and macrocytic, nonregenerative anemia established in humans is not routinely present in dogs.


Assuntos
Anemia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/veterinária , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/veterinária , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações
7.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(Suppl 1): 29-45, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506126

RESUMO

Objectives Since the 1990s, programs for the control of micronutrient deficiencies became a public health priority for many governments, including the countries partnering the project "Sustainable Micronutrient Interventions to Control Deficiencies and Improve Nutritional Status and General Health in Asia" (SMILING): Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos-PDR, Thailand and Vietnam. The aim of this study was to map which micronutrient deficiencies have been addressed and which interventions were in place in the SMILING countries. Methods The mapping covered the period up to 2012. Updated information from relevant surveys after 2012 is included in this paper after the completion of the SMILING project. The mapping of micronutrient status was limited to either national or at least large-scale surveys. Information on nutrition interventions obtained through a systematic mapping of national programs combined with a snowball collection from various sources. Results Among the five SMILING countries, Thailand differed historically by an early implementation of a nationwide community-based nutrition program, contributing to reductions in undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. For Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, and Vietnam, some national programs addressing micronutrients have been implemented following adjusted international recommendations. National surveys on micronutrient status were scattered and inconsistent across the countries in design and frequency. Conclusion for practice In conclusion, some micronutrient deficiencies were addressed in national interventions but the evidence of effects was generally lacking because of limited nationally representative data collected. Improvement of intervention programs to efficiently reduce or eliminate micronutrient deficiencies requires more systematic monitoring and evaluation of effects of interventions in order to identify best practices.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Ferro , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva , Ásia Sudeste , Criança , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Adulto Jovem
8.
Dig Liver Dis ; 51(4): 505-509, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic atrophic autoimmune gastritis (CAAG) leads to vitamin B12 deficiency, but other micronutrient deficiencies are largely understudied. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in CAAG patients and their potential relationship with the grading of gastric atrophy or entero-chromaffin-like cells hyperplasia or body mass index (BMI). METHODS: From 2005 to 2016 a number of CAAG patients underwent regular follow-up with annual blood testing and upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy every years. RESULTS: Out of the 122 CAAG patients checked (100 F; median age 65 years), 76 presented nutritional deficiencies, single in 24 and multiple in 52 cases: a deficiency of B12 and iron showed in 42 patients, 25-OH vitamin D lacked in 76 and folic acid in 6 cases. 25-OH vitamin D levels directly correlated with B12 levels and were significantly lower in patients with macronodular than in those with linear or micronodular hyperplasia. No significant correlation was observed between B12, folic acid or ferritin levels and BMI, blood gastrin levels, the grading of gastric atrophy or ECL cells hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: 25-OH vitamin D deficiency was the main one in CAAG patients: its correlation with B12 deficiency may indicate underlying shared pathogenic mechanisms, although further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Gastrite Atrófica/sangue , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doença Crônica , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Gastrite Atrófica/complicações , Gastrite Atrófica/patologia , Humanos , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/complicações , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
9.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 72: 6-12, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447272

RESUMO

Embryonic development is a critical period wherein brain neurons are generated and organized. Maternal dietary folate, a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism, modulates neurogenesis and apoptosis in foetal brain neurons. We hypothesized that aberrant neuronal apoptosis may affect the development of the central nervous system during maternal folic acid deficiency, with evident effects because maternal folic acid deficiency modulates the microRNA-34a associated with Bcl-2 pathway during embryonic development. Four-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two groups (10 rats per group): a folate-deficient diet group and a folate-normal diet group. The diets were administered to the rats 60 d before mating, which was continued for the pregnant dams until parturition. Maternal folic acid deficiency increased neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus and the cortex in the offspring. Furthermore, maternal folic acid deficiency increased the ratio of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3, followed by an increase in caspase-3 activity. Moreover, maternal folic acid deficiency downregulated Bcl-2 and upregulated Bax, and this effect associate with maternal folic acid deficient increases expression of microRNA-34a. Together, the present results indicate that maternal folic acid deficiency stimulates neuronal apoptosis via microRNA-34a associated with Bcl-2 signalling in rat offspring.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Relações Materno-Fetais , Neurônios/patologia , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
10.
Brain Dev ; 41(1): 111-115, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104084

RESUMO

Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (SACD) is a rare neurologic disorder manifesting progressive symptoms of paresthesia and spastic paralysis. Herein we present an autopsy case of SACD caused by folic acid and copper deficiency. A 16-year-old male presented with gradually worsening unsteady gait, and bladder and rectal dysfunction. He had a medical history of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), diagnosed 1.5 years previously. The patient had undergone chemotherapy, including methotrexate, as well as allogeneic bone mallow transplantation. Laboratory tests revealed normal vitamin B12 and methylmalonic acid concentration, but reduced serum copper, ceruloplasmin and folic acid concentrations. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed symmetrical T2 signal hyperintensities in the posterior and lateral spinal cord. The patient was treated with oral copper, oral folate, and intravenous vitamin B12. A month after this treatment, the patient's symptoms were unchanged, and 2 months later he died of acute adrenal insufficiency. The pathological findings of the spinal cord were compatible with SACD. Because SACD is usually reversible with early treatment, it should be suspected in high-risk patients undergoing chemotherapy or those who are malnourished with characteristic symptoms of SACD, even in young patients.


Assuntos
Cobre/deficiência , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Insuficiência Adrenal , Evolução Fatal , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/patologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/patologia , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/terapia
11.
J Neurol Sci ; 396: 112-118, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotype and the response to folinic acid supplementation of cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) in adults, a disorder diagnosed on low 5-methyltetrahydro-folate (5MTHF) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which can correspond to a inherited disorder of folate metabolism (IDFM) or to a metabolic consequence of various neurological diseases. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on 224 adult patients with neurological symptoms who had a 5MTHF CSF dosage, collecting their neurologic and neuroimaging data. RESULTS: 69 patients had CFD (CSF 5MTHF level < 41 nmol/L), 25 of them had severe CFD (sCFD; ≤25 nmol/L) with adult onset neurological symptoms in 41%. 56% of sCFD patients had an underlying identified neurologic disorder, mainly mitochondrial diseases, hepatic encephalopathy and primary brain calcifications (no identified IDFM), the others were classified as undiagnosed. sCFD patients presented most frequently pyramidal syndrome (75%), movement disorders (56%), cerebellar syndrome (50%) and intellectual disability (46%). MRI findings mostly showed white matter abnormalities (WMA; 32%) and calcifications (12%), and were normal in 23%. The clinico-radiological phenotype of sCFD patients was not clearly different from non CFD patients in terms of manifestations frequency. However, their neurological picture was more complex with a higher number of combined neurological symptoms (4.7±1.6 vs 3.4±1.7, p = .01). In Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), Choline/Creatine (Cho/Cr) ratio was lower in sCFD patients (n = 7) compared to non-CFD patients (n = 73) (p = .005), with good sensitivity (71%) and excellent specificity (92%). Among twenty-one CFD patients treated with folinic acid, nine had a sustained improvement, all with sCFD but one (50% of sCFD patients improved). In two undiagnosed patients with extremely low 5MTHF CSF values, MRI WMA and low Cho/Cr ratios, folinic acid treatment leaded to a dramatic clinical and radiological improvement. CONCLUSION: CSF 5MTHF dosage should be considered in patients with mitochondrial diseases, primary brain calcifications and unexplained complex neurological disorders especially if associated with WMA, since folinic acid supplementation in patients with sCFD is frequently efficient.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/etiologia , Calcinose/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/diagnóstico por imagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Mitocondriais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 380-391, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590411

RESUMO

Background: Arsenic exposure through drinking water persists in many regions. Inorganic As (InAs) is methylated to monomethyl-arsenical species (MMAs) and dimethyl-arsenical species (DMAs), facilitating urinary excretion. Arsenic methylation is dependent on one-carbon metabolism, which is influenced by nutritional factors such as folate and creatine. Objective: This study investigated the effects of folic acid (FA) and/or creatine supplementation on the proportion of As metabolites in urine. Design: In a 24-wk randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 622 participants were assigned to receive FA (400 or 800 µg per day), 3 g creatine per day, 400 µg FA + 3 g creatine per day, or placebo. The majority of participants were folate sufficient; all received As-removal water filters. From wk 12-24, half of the participants receiving FA received placebo. Results: Among groups receiving FA, the mean decrease in ln(%InAs) and %MMAs and increase in %DMAs exceeded those of the placebo group at wk 6 and 12 (P < 0.05). In the creatine group, the mean decrease in %MMAs exceeded that of the placebo group at wk 6 and 12 (P < 0.05); creatine supplementation did not affect change in %InAs or %DMAs. The decrease in %MMAs at wk 6 and 12 was larger in the 800 µg FA than in the 400 µg FA group (P = 0.034). There were no differences in treatment effects between the 400 µg FA and creatine + FA groups. Data suggest a rebound in As metabolite proportions after FA cessation; at wk 24, log(%InAs) and %DMAs were not significantly different than baseline levels among participants who discontinued FA supplementation. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that FA supplementation rapidly and significantly increases methylation of InAs to DMAs. Further research is needed to understand the strong cross-sectional associations between urinary creatinine and As methylation in previous studies. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenicais/metabolismo , Creatina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica , Masculino , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/prevenção & controle , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Nutricional , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adulto Jovem
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 69 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022992

RESUMO

A deficiência de folato é um problema de saúde pública que vem sendo combatido através da fortificação obrigatória de ácido fólico. Entretanto, a ingestão excessiva pode causar efeitos colaterais indesejados. A forma natural da vitamina produzida por algumas cepas de bactérias láticas pode ser uma alternativa segura para aumentar a ingestão de folato pela população. Este trabalho visou selecionar as melhores cepas de BAL produtoras de folato, identificar as melhores condições para a produção da vitamina e avaliar a biodisponibilidade do folato produzido pelas cepas no leite fermentado, empregando-se testes em modelos animais. O estudo foi desenvolvido com cinco cepas de Streptococcus thermophilus (34v, 170v, 268v, 361v e 341 pc) e um cepa de Lactobacillus plantarum (16cv), todas boas produtoras de folato. As condições de produção e a combinação de cepas que resultaram na melhor produção folato foram utilizadas para produzir um leite biofermentado (BFM), avaliando-se a biodisponibilidade da vitamina produzida empregando-se um modelo animal de depleção/repleção, com camundongos Balb/c submetidos a 14 dias de depleção, seguido de 21 dias de repleção da vitamina. Após os 35 dias, os animais foram sacrificados, retirando-se sangue, rins, fígado, baço e intestino para quantificação de folato e avaliação histológica da mucosa intestinal. Todas as quantificações de folato foram feitas pelo método microbiológico. A melhor combinação de cepas (St. Thermophilus 34v + Lb. Plantarum 16cv) resultou na produção de 300 ng/mL de folato, sendo a temperatura de 42ºC melhor que 37ºC para a produção da vitamina. A produção de folato no leite na fermentação em pH controlado 6,0 foi 35% superior à observada no leite fermentado em pH livre. As concentrações de folato no baço e glóbulos vermelhos foram mais altas nos camundongos que ingeriram leite fermentado bioenriquecido (BFM) em relação aos demais grupos de animais. A relação vilosidade/cripta nos camundongos dos grupos BFM foi igual à observada nos animais que receberam leite suplementado com ácido fólico. Houve aumento da hemoglobina, hematócrito e hemácias nos camundongos que ingeriram BFM, evidenciando a bioeficácia do folato produzido. Esses resultados indicam que a produção de folato por bactérias láticas selecionadas em produtos fermentados pode ser uma boa alternativa para aumentar a ingestão de vitamina B9 pela população


A deficiência de folato é um problema de saúde pública que vem sendo combatido através da fortificação obrigatória de ácido fólico. Entretanto, a ingestão excessiva pode causar efeitos colaterais indesejados. A forma natural da vitamina produzida por algumas cepas de bactérias láticas pode ser uma alternativa segura para aumentar a ingestão de folato pela população. Este trabalho visou selecionar as melhores cepas de BAL produtoras de folato, identificar as melhores condições para a produção da vitamina e avaliar a biodisponibilidade do folato produzido pelas cepas no leite fermentado, empregando-se testes em modelos animais. O estudo foi desenvolvido com cinco cepas de Streptococcus thermophilus (34v, 170v, 268v, 361v e 341 pc) e um cepa de Lactobacillus plantarum (16cv), todas boas produtoras de folato. As condições de produção e a combinação de cepas que resultaram na melhor produção folato foram utilizadas para produzir um leite biofermentado (BFM), avaliando-se a biodisponibilidade da vitamina produzida empregando-se um modelo animal de depleção/repleção, com camundongos Balb/c submetidos a 14 dias de depleção, seguido de 21 dias de repleção da vitamina. Após os 35 dias, os animais foram sacrificados, retirando-se sangue, rins, fígado, baço e intestino para quantificação de folato e avaliação histológica da mucosa intestinal. Todas as quantificações de folato foram feitas pelo método microbiológico. A melhor combinação de cepas (St. Thermophilus 34v + Lb. Plantarum 16cv) resultou na produção de 300 ng/mL de folato, sendo a temperatura de 42ºC melhor que 37ºC para a produção da vitamina. A produção de folato no leite na fermentação em pH controlado 6,0 foi 35% superior à observada no leite fermentado em pH livre. As concentrações de folato no baço e glóbulos vermelhos foram mais altas nos camundongos que ingeriram leite fermentado bioenriquecido (BFM) em relação aos demais grupos de animais. A relação vilosidade/cripta nos camundongos dos grupos BFM foi igual à observada nos animais que receberam leite suplementado com ácido fólico. Houve aumento da hemoglobina, hematócrito e hemácias nos camundongos que ingeriram BFM, evidenciando a bioeficácia do folato produzido. Esses resultados indicam que a produção de folato por bactérias láticas selecionadas em produtos fermentados pode ser uma boa alternativa para aumentar a ingestão de vitamina B9 pela população


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Disponibilidade Biológica , Leite/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fólico/análise , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Bacteriocinas/efeitos adversos , Streptococcus thermophilus/classificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/classificação
14.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 59(15): 6045-6056, 2018 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574659

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of the research was to elucidate the role of folic acid (B9) deficiency in the development of nutritional optic neuritis and to characterize the neurophysiological consequences of optic nerve degeneration in the cortical visual system. Methods: A combined behavioral and electrophysiological approach was applied to study luminance contrast sensitivity in two macaque monkeys affected by nutritional optic neuritis and in two healthy monkeys for comparison. For one monkey, a follow-up approach was applied to compare visual performance before onset of optic neuropathy, during the disease, and after treatment. Results: Optic nerve degeneration developed as a consequence of insufficient dietary intake of folic acid in two exemplars of macaque monkeys. The degeneration resulted in markedly reduced luminance contrast sensitivity as assessed behaviorally. In one monkey, we also measured visual activity in response to varying contrast at the level of single neurons in the cortical visual system and found a striking reduction in contrast sensitivity, as well as a marked increase in the latency of neuronal responses. Prolonged daily folate supplementation resulted in a significant recovery of function. Conclusions: Folic acid deficiency per se can lead to the development of optic nerve degeneration in otherwise healthy adult animals. The optic nerve degeneration strongly affects contrast sensitivity and leads to a distinct reduction in the strength and velocity of the incoming signal to cortical visual areas of the macaque brain, without directly affecting excitability and functional properties of cortical neurons.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Degeneração Neural/etiologia , Neurite Óptica/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Animais , Eletrofisiologia , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/fisiopatologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Degeneração Neural/fisiopatologia , Neurite Óptica/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia
15.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(Spec No6): 54-59, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351163

RESUMO

The "fragility" of the nervous system, especially concerning to its nutrition and metabolism, explains why vitamin deficits are an important cause of neurological pathology. Some deficiency diseases, which can be very severe and irreversible, are still present in our environment; diagnosis, which must be early so as not to delay treatment, can be difficult if we do not have them in mind. In this review we address the most relevant neurological diseases associated with thiamine, folate and cobalamin deficiency, and we focus especially combined subacute degeneration and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/patologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência de Tiamina/complicações , Deficiência de Tiamina/patologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/patologia , Complexo Vitamínico B , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/complicações
16.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314363

RESUMO

Data on the nutritional situation and prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Azerbaijan are scarce, and knowledge about anemia risk factors is needed for national and regional policymakers. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, over- and undernutrition, and to disentangle determinants of anemia in children and women in Azerbaijan. The survey generated estimates of micronutrient deficiency and growth indicators for children aged 0⁻59 months of age (6⁻59 months for blood biomarkers) and non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age. Questionnaire data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were collected to assess the prevalence of under- and over-nutrition, anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia, in both groups. In children only, vitamin A deficiency and zinc deficiency were also assessed. In women only, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and vitamin A insufficiency were assessed. In total, 3926 household interviews were successfully completed with a response rate of 80.6%. In the 1455 children, infant and young child feeding practices were relatively poor overall; the prevalence of wasting and stunting were 3.1% and 18.0%, respectively; and 14.1% of children were overweight or obese. The prevalence of anemia was 24.2% in 6⁻59 months old children, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 15.0% in this age group, and the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 6.5%. Vitamin A deficiency was found in 8.0% of children, and zinc deficiency was found in 10.7%. Data from 3089 non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age showed that while undernutrition was scarce, 53% were overweight or obese, with increasing prevalence with increasing age. Anemia affected 38.2% of the women, iron deficiency 34.1% and iron deficiency anemia 23.8%. Vitamin A insufficiency was found in 10.5% of women. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency were somewhat more common, with prevalence rates of 35.0% and 19.7%, respectively. The main risk factors for anemia in children were recent lower respiratory infection, inflammation and iron deficiency. In women, the main risk factors for anemia were iron deficiency and vitamin A insufficiency. Anemia is a public health problem in Azerbaijani children and women, and additional efforts are needed to reduce anemia in both groups.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/complicações , Micronutrientes/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipernutrição/sangue , Hipernutrição/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina A/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/deficiência
18.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1431(1): 35-57, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239016

RESUMO

Inadequate folate status in women of reproductive age (WRA) can lead to adverse health consequences of public health significance, such as megaloblastic anemia (folate deficiency) and an increased risk of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies (folate insufficiency). Our review aims to evaluate current data on folate status of WRA. We queried eight databases and the World Health Organization Micronutrients Database, identifying 45 relevant surveys conducted between 2000 and 2014 in 39 countries. Several types of folate assays were used in the analysis of blood folate, and many surveys used folate cutoffs not matched to the assay. To allow better comparisons across surveys, we attempted to account for these differences. The prevalence of folate deficiency was >20% in many countries with lower income economies but was typically <5% in countries with higher income economies. Only 11 surveys reported the prevalence of folate insufficiency, which was >40% in most countries. Overall, folate status data for WRA globally are limited and must be carefully interpreted due to methodological issues. Future surveys would benefit from using the microbiologic assay to assess folate status, along with assay-matched cutoffs to improve monitoring and evaluation of folic acid interventions, thus informing global efforts to prevent NTDs.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Reprodução/fisiologia , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Prevalência
19.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 7(3): 70-84, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099693

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research has evaluated the potential impact of folate on cancer risk with conflicting findings. Studies have demonstrated increased risk, no effect, and decreased risk. This review summarizes findings of mixed results between folate intake, serum levels, gene polymorphisms, and cancer risk based on meta-analyses from the past five years. RECENT FINDING: Low or deficient folate status is associated with increased risk of many cancers. Folic acid supplementation and higher serum levels are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Gene polymorphisms may impact risk in certain ethnic groups. Folate has been studied extensively due to its role in methylation and nucleotide synthesis. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify optimal levels for nutrient remediation and risk reduction in those at risk, as well as elucidate the association between high intake, high serum levels, and prostate cancer risk. Future considerations for cancer risk may include gene interactions with nutrients and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12138, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108274

RESUMO

Gut microbiome plays an important role in determining the effectiveness of cancer therapy. The composition of the microbiome is crucial to maintain good digestive health in the host, and to prevent and treat colorectal cancers. Most cancer therapies employ oxidative stress, which disturbs the redox status of the cell, and consequently affect growth, reductive biosynthesis and cell death. Therefore, oxidative stress can undesirably affect the gut microbiome. Hence, it is important to understand the impact of oxidative stress on gut bacteria to devise effective treatment strategies. The current study induces oxidative stress in the model gut bacterium Enterococcus durans (MTCC 3031) with menadione and H2O2. Oxidative stress considerably decreased the redox ratio (NADPH/NADP), an indicator of the redox status, by 55% (menadione) and 28% (H2O2). In addition, an oxidative stress induced decrease in redox ratio decreased folate synthesis by the bacteria, which is an undesirable consequence for the host, since folate deficiency can induce colorectal cancer. Further, oxidative stress considerably decreased growth and the biomass density by 61% (menadione) and 21% (H2O2). Thus, maintenance of the cellular redox status and management of oxidative stress in the gut microbiome may be crucial to the effectiveness of cancer treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/prevenção & controle , Ácido Fólico/biossíntese , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/análise , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K 3/farmacologia
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