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1.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(3): 302-312, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543455

RESUMO

RATIONALE: CC16 (club cell secretory protein-16), a member of the secretoglobin family, is one of the most abundant proteins in normal airway secretions and has been described as a serum biomarker for obstructive lung diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether low CC16 is a marker for airway pathology or is implicated in the pathophysiology of progressive airway damage in these conditions. METHODS: Using human data from the birth cohort of the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study, we examined the relation of circulating CC16 levels with pulmonary function and responses to bronchial methacholine challenge from childhood up to age 32 years. In wild-type and CC16-/- mice, we set out to comprehensively examine pulmonary physiology, inflammation, and remodeling in the naive airway. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We observed that Tucson Children's Respiratory Study participants in the lowest tertile of serum CC16 had significant deficits in their lung function and enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine challenge from 11 years throughout young adult life. Similarly, CC16-/- mice had significant deficits in lung function and enhanced airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine as compared with wild-type mice, which were independent of inflammation and mucin production. As compared with wild-type mice, CC16-/- mice had significantly elevated gene expression of procollagen type I, procollagen type III, and α-smooth muscle actin, areas of pronounced collagen deposition and significantly enhanced smooth muscle thickness. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support clinical observations by providing evidence that lack of CC16 in the lung results in dramatically altered pulmonary function and structural alterations consistent with enhanced remodeling.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/complicações , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/genética , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/genética , Uteroglobina/deficiência , Uteroglobina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Deficiência de Proteína/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutr Neurosci ; 22(9): 655-663, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375017

RESUMO

Objective: We tested the correlation between maternal protein malnutrition and autistic-like symptoms using behavioral tests in rodents that measure main behavioral characteristics observed in humans with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Pregnant female rats were fed a normal diet or a hypoproteic diet during gestation and lactation periods. The litters were weighed every 3 days during lactation, and the offspring were tested in behavioral tasks during infancy (postnatal day (PND) 5: quantification of ultrasonic vocalizations; PND 13: homing behavior test) and adolescence (PND 30-32: open field, hole-board, play social behavior, and object recognition tests) in order to capture the prevalence of some of the core and associated symptoms of ASD. Results: Litters of the hypoproteic diet group had a lesser weight gain during lactation. In addition, pups of dams fed with a hypoproteic diet vocalized less compared to those fed with a normal diet, and they showed impaired social discrimination abilities in the homing behavior test. In adolescence, both male and female offspring of the hypoproteic diet group showed no impairment in locomotor activity; however, they exhibited stereotypic behavior in the hole-board test and a decrease in social play behaviors. Male offspring showed increased interest in exploring a familiar object rather than a novel object. Conclusion: Our results show that maternal protein malnutrition in rats causes offspring behaviors that resemble core and associated ASD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Deficiência de Proteína/psicologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Vocalização Animal
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 148 p. graf, tab.
Tese em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-996797

RESUMO

Protein malnutrition (PM) causes anemia and leukopenia by reduction of hematopoietic precursors and impaired production of mediators that induce hematopoiesis, as well as structural and ultrastructural changes in the bone marrow (BM) extracellular matrix. Hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM) in distinct regions called niches, which modulate the processes of differentiation, proliferation and self-renewal of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). The perivascular niche, composed mainly by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial cells (EC), is the major modulator of HSC and its function extends to the migration of mature hematopoietic cells into the peripheral blood through the production of cytokines and growth factors. Thus, our hypothesis is that PM changes the perivascular niche and our objective is to evaluate whether PM affects the modulatory capacity of MSC and EC on hematopoiesis. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into Control and Malnourished groups, which received for 5 weeks, respectively, a normal protein diet (12% casein) and a low protein diet (2% casein). After this period, animals were euthanized, nutritional and hematological evaluations were performed, featuring the PM. We performed leukemic myelo-monoblasts cells transplantation and observed that these cells have a lower proliferation rate and are rather in the cell cycle G0/G1 phases in malnourished mice, indicating that the BM microenvironment is compromised in PM. MSC were isolated, characterized and differentiated in vitro into EC cells, which were evidenced by CD31 and CD144 markers. We performed the quantification of HSC and hematopoietic progenitors, as well as some regulators of proliferation and differentiation, ex vivo and after cultures with MSC or EC. We observed that PM reduces HSC and hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo. In PM, MSC promote increase in HSC and suppress hematopoietic differentiation, whereas ECs induce cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we verified that PM affects granulopoesis by decreasing the expression of G-CSFr in granule-monocytic progenitors. Thus, we conclude that PD compromises hematopoiesis due to intrinsic alterations in HSC, as well as alterations in the medullary perivascular niche


A desnutrição proteica (DP) provoca anemia e leucopenia decorrente da redução de precursores hematopoéticos e comprometimento da produção de mediadores indutores da hematopoese. A hematopoese ocorre na medula óssea (MO) em regiões distintas chamadas de nichos, que modulam os processos de diferenciação, proliferação e auto renovação da célula tronco hematopoiética (CTH). O microambiente perivascular, composto principalmente por células tronco mesenquimais (CTM) e células endoteliais (CE), é o principal modulador das CTH e sua função se estende até a migração das células hematopoiéticas maduras para o sangue periférico, através da produção de citocinas e fatores de crescimento. Dessa forma, nossa hipótese é que a DP altera o microambiente perivascular e objetivamos avaliar se a DP afeta a capacidade modulatória das CTM e CE sobre a hematopoese. Utilizamos camundongos C57BL/6 machos, divididos em grupos Controle e Desnutrido, sendo que o grupo Controle recebeu ração normoproteica (12% caseína) e o grupo Desnutrido recebeu ração hipoproteica (2% caseína), ambos durante 5 semanas. Após este período, os animais foram eutanasiados, foi realizada a avaliação nutricional e hematológica, caracterizando a DP. Realizamos transplantes de mielomonoblastos leucêmicos e observamos que estas células apresentam menor taxa de proliferação e se encontram em maior quantidade nas fases G0/G1 do ciclo celular em camundongos desnutridos, indicando que o microambiente medular está comprometido. Isolamos CTM, que foram caracterizadas e diferenciadas in vitro em CE, o que foi evidenciado pelos marcadores CD31 e CD144. Quantificamos CTH e progenitores hematopoéticos, bem como reguladores de proliferação e diferenciação, ex vivo e após culturas com CTM ou CE. Observamos que a DP reduz CTH e progenitores hematopoéticos ex vivo. Na DP, as CTM promovem incremento de CTH e suprimem a diferenciação hematopoética, enquanto que as CE induzem parada no ciclo celular. Adicionalmente, observamos que a DP afeta a granulopoese por diminuição da expressão de G-CSFr nos progenitores grânulo-monocíticos. Dessa forma, concluímos que a DP compromete a hematopoese por alterações intrínsecas na CTH, como também por alterações ocasionadas no microambiente perivascular medular


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Hematopoese , Células Endoteliais/classificação , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Vaccine ; 36(42): 6270-6281, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low efficacy of rotavirus (RV) vaccines in developing African and Asian countries, where malnutrition is prevalent, remains a major concern and a challenge for global health. METHODS: To understand the effects of protein malnutrition on RV vaccine efficacy, we elucidated the innate, T cell and cytokine immune responses to attenuated human RV (AttHRV) vaccine and virulent human RV (VirHRV) challenge in germ-free (GF) pigs or human infant fecal microbiota (HIFM) transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets. We also analyzed serum levels of tryptophan (TRP), a predictor of malnutrition, and kynurenine (KYN). RESULTS: Protein-deficient pigs vaccinated with oral AttHRV vaccine had lower protection rates against diarrhea post-VirHRV challenge and significantly increased fecal virus shedding titers (HIFM transplanted but not GF pigs) compared with their protein-sufficient counterparts. Reduced vaccine efficacy in protein-deficient pigs coincided with altered serum IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ responses to oral AttHRV vaccine and the suppression of multiple innate immune parameters and HRV-specific IFN-γ producing T cells post-challenge. In protein-deficient HIFM transplanted pigs, decreased serum KYN, but not TRP levels were observed throughout the experiment, suggesting an association between the altered TRP metabolism and immune responses. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings confirm the negative effects of protein deficiency, which were exacerbated in the HIFM transplanted pigs, on innate, T cell and cytokine immune responses to HRV and on vaccine efficacy, as well as on TRP-KYN metabolism.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Lactente , Microbiota/imunologia , Deficiência de Proteína/imunologia , Deficiência de Proteína/metabolismo , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Suínos , Triptofano/metabolismo
5.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 54(2): 21-27, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-907021

RESUMO

A maturação do sistema nervoso central depende, entre outros fatores, da ingestão adequada de nutrientes. Períodos de desnutrição podem afetar seu desenvolvimento, comprometendo a capacidade cognitiva. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento social de ratos e ratas Wistar alimentados com dieta hipoproteica e posteriormente recuperados com dieta normoproteica. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar (machos e fêmeas) divididos em dois grupos: Controle (C), alimentado com dieta normoproteica (AIN 14% de proteína) durante 12 semanas e Recuperado (R), desnutrido com dieta hipoproteica (AIN 6% de proteína) por 6 semanas e posteriormente alimentado com dieta normoproteica da 7ª a 12ª semanas. A massa corporal foi verificada semanalmente e após o período experimental os animais foram submetidos aos testes de labirinto em cruz elevado e reconhecimento social. Foram avaliados os parâmetros sensoriais utilizados pelos ratos no reconhecimento de seus pares no lócus de convívio. Utilizou-se o paradigma intruso-residente na análise, sendo observado que a dieta hipoproteica comprometeu o ganho de massa corporal em machos e fêmeas, como também foi verificado redução na capacidade de reconhecer seus pares, após exposição consecutiva de curta duração, e ainda, houve uma intensa manifestação de agressividade nos machos do grupo recuperado, fato que não foi observado pelas fêmeas indicando que a intensidade de comprometimento no sistema nervoso central, gerado pela desnutrição pode ter relação com o dimorfismo sexual. (AU)


The maturation of the central nervous system depends, among other factors, proper intake of nutrients. Periods of malnutrition can affect your development, undermining the cognitive ability. The objective of this work was to evaluate the social behavior of mice and Wistar rats fed with hipoproteica diet and later recovered with present diet. Wistar rats were used (males and females) divided into two groups: control (C), fed up with the present diet (AIN 14% protein) for 12 weeks and recovered (R), malnourished with diet hipoproteica (AIN 6% protein) for 6 weeks and subsequently fed with the present diet of 7th to 12th weeks. Body mass was checked weekly and after the trial period the animals were subjected to the tests of high cross maze and social recognition. We evaluated the sensory parameters used by rats in the recognition of his peers in locus. The intruder-resident paradigm in the analysis, being observed that diet hipoproteica undertook the weight gain in males and females and verified reduction in ability to recognize their peers, after successive exposure of short duration, and yet, there was an intense manifestation of aggression in males of the group recovered, a fact that was not observed for females, indicating that the intensity of commitment in the central nervous system, generated by malnutrition may be related to sexual dimorphism. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/veterinária , Comportamento Social , Comportamento Animal , Análise de Variância , Ratos Wistar , Experimentação Animal
6.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 42(1): 212-218, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failure to provide adequate nutrition in the intensive care unit (ICU) may be particularly harmful for patients with prolonged critical illness. We hypothesized that early nutrition inadequacy is more influential for those requiring a longer ICU stay versus those requiring a shorter stay. METHODS: We enrolled 280 adult patients with prolonged surgical ICU stay who were receiving enteral nutrition for >72 hours. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: shortICU (<14 days) and longICU (≥14 days). Nutrition deficits at ICU days 3 and 7 were calculated. To investigate whether early nutrient deficit was associated with ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, 28-day ventilator-free days, and discharge disposition (home/rehabilitation vs death/nursing home), we performed linear and logistic regression analyses controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation). RESULTS: While the shortICU (n = 163) and longICU (n = 117) groups were similar in age, APACHE II, Injury Severity Score, energy/protein prescription, and enteral nutrition initiation within 48 hours, the longICU group was more commonly male (76% vs 61%, P = .007) and had higher body mass index (27.4 vs 25.6, P = .007). Significant interactions occurred: in the longICU group but not the shortICU group, protein deficits were associated with longer ICU stay and fewer 28-day ventilator-free days. CONCLUSIONS: Early protein deficits accumulating at ICU days 3 and 7 are associated with worse clinical outcomes among patients requiring longer ICU stays. Additional studies are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1735: 201-206, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29380313

RESUMO

Poor nutrition during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of metabolic disorders and other diseases in the offspring. This can be modelled in animals through manipulation of the maternal diet. One such model is the maternal low-protein rat which gives rise to offspring characterized by insulin resistance. This chapter gives a detailed protocol for generation of the maternal low-protein rat, which has been used in the study of several disorders including diabetes and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exposição Materna , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos
8.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 134 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-910828

RESUMO

A desnutrição é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública do mundo, que contribui significativamente para o aumento da morbidade e mortalidade. Estima-se um total de 815 milhões de pessoas subnutridas no mundo, e apesar da melhoria dos recursos alimentares o número de pessoas desnutridas ainda é alarmante. Estudos de nosso laboratório tem demonstrado, em modelo murino de desnutrição proteica, hipoplasia medular com evidências histológicas de alterações na matriz extracelular (MEC) e permanência da célula-tronco hemopoética (CTH) na fase G0/G1 do ciclo celular em camundongos desnutridos. Dados deste trabalho evidenciaram alterações nas proteínas Akt /mTOR, que podem contribuir para o aumento da expressão autofágica nas CTHs e CTPHs (célula-tronco progenitora). A literatura demonstra que desequilíbrios nutricionais e metabólicos podem induzir ativação autofágica. Autofagia é um processo catabólico que participa da manutenção da homeostase celular, da MEC e na regulação das CTHs, dados deste trabalho demonstram diminuição da quantidade de CTH e CTPH em camundongos desnutridos sem a presença do gene Atg7, proteína participativa no processo autofágico. Já camundongos com deleção da transglutaminase 2 (TG2) e submetidos a privação de nutrientes por 24 horas , apresentou diminuição da quantidade de CTH e aumento da diferenciação da CTPH. A TG2 tem participação na impulsão e formação do fagóforo (processo inicial autofágico). Considerando que a desnutrição proteica leva a comprometimento da hemopoese, alterações no ciclo celular das CTHs e hipoplasia medular com pancitopenia periférica e que privação e ou jejum prolongado de nutrientes pode aumentar a atividade autofágica, concluímos nesse projeto que autofagia é importante para regulação da CTH e diferenciação da CTPH, entretanto a desnutrição proteica e privação de nutrientes estimula de maneira diversa o mecanismo de diferenciação da CTH


Malnutrition is one of the world's major public health problems, which contributes significantly to increased morbidity and mortality. An estimated 815 million people are undernourished in the world, and despite the improvement in food resources the number of undernourished people is still alarming. Studies of our laboratory have demonstrated in murine model of protein malnutrition, medullary hypoplasia with histological evidence of extracellular matrix (ECM) changes and hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) stay in the G0/ G1 phase of the cell cycle in malnourished mice. Data from this work showed alterations in Akt / mTOR proteins, which may contribute to the increase of autophagic expression in HSC and HPC (progenitor stem cell). The literature demonstrates that nutritional and metabolic imbalances can induce autophagic activation. Autophagy is a catabolic process that participates in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, ECM and in the regulation of HSC, data from this work demonstrate a decrease in the amount of HSC and HPC in malnourished mice without the presence of the Atg7 gene, a participatory protein in the autophagic process. Mice with transglutaminase 2 deletion (TG2) and submitted to nutrient deprivation for 24 hours showed a decrease in the amount of HSC and an increase in the differentiation of HPC. TG2 plays a role in the uptake and formation of phagophore (autophagic initial process). Considering that protein malnutrition leads to hemopoiesis, alterations in the cell cycle of HSC and spinal cord hypoplasia with peripheral pancytopenia, and that prolonged nutrient starvation or fasting may increase the autophagic activity, we conclude in this project that autophagy is important for regulation of HSC and differentiation of HPC, however, protein malnutrition and nutrient deprivation stimulate in a different way the mechanism of differentiation of HSC


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Autofagia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Transglutaminases , Matriz Extracelular/classificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos
9.
Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere ; 45(5): 344-351, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933510

RESUMO

A dog was referred for nutrition consultation after surgical removal of struvite uroliths from the bladder. Inspection of the dog's current ration revealed a pronounced vitamin-A deficiency together with a marked deficiency of protein, phosphorus and magnesium. Therefore, a supersaturation of the urine with ammonium, magnesium and phosphate, the three constituents of struvite, as a cause of struvite calculi formation appears rather unlikely. Vitamin-A deficiency can promote urinary infections and consequently struvite stone formation because of the lack of the protective effect of vitamin A on the epithelia of the urinary tract. Not only common causes for struvite urolith formation, including urinary supersaturation with stone-forming constituents and urinary tract infection, but also less common causes, including vitamin-A deficiency, which was the presumed trigger in the present case study, have to be taken into consideration. Dietetic measures appear to be a useful tool in such cases to prevent uroliths from reoccurring.


Assuntos
Estruvita , Urolitíase/veterinária , Deficiência de Vitamina A/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Deficiência de Magnésio/complicações , Deficiência de Magnésio/veterinária , Fósforo/deficiência , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/veterinária , Urolitíase/dietoterapia , Urolitíase/prevenção & controle , Urolitíase/cirurgia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações
10.
Acta pediátr. hondu ; 8(1): 739-750, abr.-sept. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-987905

RESUMO

El hambre oculta es un problema a nivel mun-dial que ocasiona altas tasas de mortalidad si se compara con algunas de las enfermedades infectocontagiosas como malaria y tuberculo-sis. Cuando existe la desnutrición aumenta el deterioro en la capacidad de producción, trabajo y por ende en la producción de alimen-tos. Hambre oculta se de ne como la de cien-cia crónica de micronutrientes. Afecta la salud de forma silenciosa y grave, llegando a ocasio-nar en muchos casos la muerte. El problema engloba a los niños con desnutrición y también a aquellos con sobrepeso que esconden la escasez de nutrientes, por lo que debemos educar a la población sobre como recibir una alimentación balanceada y equilibrada.En Centroamérica y el Caribe existe un dé cit importante de micronutrientes. Debemos de ser proactivos en mejorar la alimentación para disminuir la desnutrición y obesidad. Para ello debemos mejorar la producción de alimentos. La forti cación de granos y cereales es la opción más rentable y sostenible en las mejo-ras del estado nutricional, aumentando su biodisponibilidad de los nutrientes.Erradicar el hambre y la desnutrición debe ser nuestra meta concreta, por lo que el objetivo de esta revisión es resaltar la importancia de administrar una cantidad y composición adecuada de micronutrientes desde el primer día de la gestación para hacer que disminuyaeste agelo. Es nuestra responsabilidad, y debe ser parte de la política pública, ya que a los problemas éticos ligados a la desnutrición, se añaden consecuencias negativas que afecta-ran a todos los niños...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Vitaminas/mortalidade , Fome Oculta , Produção de Alimentos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 24(8)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637803

RESUMO

Malnutrition leads to increased morbidity and is evident in almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years. Mortality due to rotavirus diarrhea is common in developing countries where malnutrition is prevalent; however, the relationship between malnutrition and rotavirus infection remains unclear. In this study, gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant were fed protein-sufficient or -deficient diets and infected with virulent human rotavirus (HRV). After human rotavirus infection, protein-deficient pigs had decreased human rotavirus antibody titers and total IgA concentrations, systemic T helper (CD3+ CD4+) and cytotoxic T (CD3+ CD8+) lymphocyte frequencies, and serum tryptophan and angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2. Additionally, deficient-diet pigs had impaired tryptophan catabolism postinfection compared with sufficient-diet pigs. Tryptophan supplementation was tested as an intervention in additional groups of fecal microbiota-transplanted, rotavirus-infected, sufficient- and deficient-diet pigs. Tryptophan supplementation increased the frequencies of regulatory (CD4+ or CD8+ CD25+ FoxP3+) T cells in pigs on both the sufficient and the deficient diets. These results suggest that a protein-deficient diet impairs activation of the adaptive immune response following HRV infection and alters tryptophan homeostasis.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Diarreia/virologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Vida Livre de Germes , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Lactente , Microbiota , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Triptofano/sangue
12.
Histol Histopathol ; 32(12): 1293-1303, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28217832

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been linked to heart disease in adulthood. This study aimed to examine the effect of gestational protein restriction during fetal and early postnatal life on the cardiac muscle structure and function in adult offspring. Pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups: normal-protein diet (NP) and low-protein diet (LP). Fifteen male offspring from each group were included in the study. Offspring body weights were recorded at birth and monthly from weaning until 24 weeks of age while systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, hearts were weighed and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study. Immunohistochemical staining for localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and connexin 43 proteins was performed. The gestational protein restriction induced deleterious effects on adult offspring including decreased birth weight, heart weight, and heart rate, and increased systolic blood pressure. Histologically, the number of cardiomyocytes decreased and cardiac fibrosis increased. Signs of degeneration at both structural and ultra-structural levels of cardiomyocytes were also seen. The iNOS was up regulated in LP offspring which was a promoter for apoptosis, while connexin 43 was down regulated which would affect heart conductivity and contractility. Our results demonstrate that adult offspring body weight and cardiac muscle structure and function can be programmed by maternal gestational nutrition. These adverse outcomes suggest the criticality of dietary behavior during pregnancy on long-term offspring cardiac health.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Animais , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Ratos
13.
Nutr Neurosci ; 20(8): 437-442, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27122360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein malnutrition during pregnancy on maternal behavior, on the early behavior in pups by ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emission, and on the behavior of offspring in adulthood in an elevated T-maze. METHODS: Pregnant female rats were fed a normal protein-powdered diet (22% casein; control) or a low-protein (hypoproteic) diet (6% casein; protein restriction) during the first 2 weeks of pregnancy. On the fifth postpartum day (PND5), the number of USV was rated. On PND7, maternal behavior was assessed. Male offspring in adulthood were evaluated for behavioral performance in an elevated T-maze. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that a hypoproteic diet during early pregnancy increased the maternal behavior, increased the number of USV by pups, and reduced the inhibitory avoidance responses in an elevated T-maze during adulthood. In addition, there was a reduction in weight gain of rats during pregnancy and of offspring during lactation. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the data found in our study suggest that the increase in USV emitted by pups due to hypoproteic diet during pregnancy accentuated maternal behavior. In addition, an increase in maternal care promoted the reduction in anxiety-like behavior in adult male offspring.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Animais , Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Deficiência de Proteína/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
14.
J Neurochem ; 140(1): 68-81, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27778340

RESUMO

Early malnutrition is a risk factor for depression and schizophrenia. Since the offspring of malnourished dams exhibit increased brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), a tryptophan-derived neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of these mental disorders, it is believed that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on brain function are due in large part to altered serotoninergic neurotransmission resulting from impaired tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. However, tryptophan is also metabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway yielding several neuroactive compounds including kynurenic (KA), quinolinic (QA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids. Nevertheless, the impact of perinatal malnutrition on brain kynurenine pathway metabolism has not been examined to date. Here, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous quantification of tryptophan and a set of seven compounds spanning its metabolism through the serotonin and kynurenine pathways, in the brain of embryos and adult offspring of rat dams fed a protein-restricted (PR) diet. Protein-restricted embryos showed reduced brain levels of Trp, serotonin and KA, but not of KYN, XA, or QA. In contrast, PR adult rats exhibited enhanced levels of Trp in the brainstem and cortex along with increased concentrations of 5-HT, kynurenine and XA. The levels of XA and KA were also increased in the hippocampus of adult PR rats. These results show that early protein deficiency induces selective and long-lasting changes in brain kynurenine metabolism. Given the regulatory role of KYN pathway metabolites on brain development and function, these changes might contribute to the risk of developing psychiatric disorders induced by early malnutrition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Deficiência de Proteína/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Enferm. nefrol ; 19(4): 307-316, oct.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-159093

RESUMO

Introducción: El paciente en diálisis va a sufrir una desnutrición proteico-calórica, con diferentes factores implicados en su aparición, lo cual se asocia con una elevadísima morbilidad cardiovascular y mortalidad. Se ha estimado una prevalencia de desnutrición en la población en hemodiálisis del 18-75%, siendo por tanto, un problema de especial relevancia en este tipo de pacientes. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica de los artículos científicos existentes sobre las variables que intervienen en la desnutrición del paciente en diálisis. Metodología: Se ha realizado una revisión bibliográfica mediante las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, Pro-Quest. La búsqueda se ha realizado con términos Mesh, con una antigüedad no mayor de 5 años y con distintas palabras clave. Resultados: Se han revisado 19 artículos. La mayoría de los artículos fueron estudios observacionales y de revisión. Los factores que se asocian con desnutrición son la edad, pérdida de masa muscular, baja actividad física y dieta pobre en micronutrientes. Otro factor muy importante, es la inflamación. En cuanto a los métodos diagnósticos, son variados y diferentes, debido a la gran cantidad de variables que influyen en la desnutrición. Conclusiones: La desnutrición en pacientes en diálisis depende de distintas variables y no solamente de la dieta. Los factores que se asocian con desnutrición son mayor edad, pérdida de masa muscular, baja actividad física y dieta pobre en micronutrientes. Además, habría que añadir el doble papel que juega la inflamación en este proceso, pues puede ser tanto consecuencia como factor predisponente a la desnutrición (AU)


Introduction: The patient on dialysis will suffer from protein-caloric malnutrition, with different factors involved in its onset, which is associated with very high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prevalence of malnutrition in the hemodialysis population of 18- 75% has been estimated, being therefore a problem of special relevance in this type of patients. Objective: A literature review of the existing scientific articles on the variables involved in malnutrition of patients on dialysis was carried out. Methods: A bibliographic review has been done using the PubMed, Scielo, ProQuest databases. The search used Mesh terms, with an age of no more than 5 years and with different keywords. Results: Nineteen articles were reviewed. Most articles were observational and review studies. The factors that are associated with malnutrition are age, loss of muscle mass, low physical activity and diet deficient in micronutrients. Another very important factor is inflammation. Regarding the diagnostic methods are varied and different, due to the large number of variables that influence malnutrition. Conclusions: Malnutrition in dialysis patients depends on different variables and not only on the diet. The factors that are associated with malnutrition are older age, loss of muscle mass, low physical activity and diet deficient in micronutrients. In addition, we should add the dual role of inflammation in this process as it can be both a consequence and a predisposing factor to malnutrition (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Diálise Peritoneal/enfermagem , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/enfermagem , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/complicações , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/diagnóstico , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/enfermagem , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Diálise/tendências , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/dietoterapia , Bibliometria , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Anorexia/complicações , Anorexia/enfermagem
16.
Nutr Res ; 36(9): 937-946, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27632913

RESUMO

Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (P<.05) at weaning (50.3, 29.6 vs 59.1±0.8 g) and at 18 weeks of age (420, 369 vs 464±10.9 g). At 18 weeks of age, offspring from fructose dams expressed greater quantities (P<.05) of intestinal Pgc1a messenger RNA compared with offspring from control or low-protein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (P<.05) consumption increased expression of Pgc1a in offspring liver (7.24, 2.22 vs 1.22; confidence interval, 2.11-3.45). These data indicate that maternal fructose feeding is a programming model that shares some features of maternal protein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Lactação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Desmame
17.
Am J Crit Care ; 25(4): 318-26, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27369030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate nutritional therapy in critically ill patients is integral to optimal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cumulative macronutrient deficit and overall morbidity in surgical intensive care unit patients. METHODS: Adult patients receiving enteral nutrition for more than 72 hours were included if they had no previous admission to the surgical intensive care unit, had received no enteral feedings before admission, had no intestinal obstruction or ileus, and survived 72 hours or more after admission. Data on demographics, outcomes, and nutritional intake during the unit stay were collected for up to 14 days until oral intake began, discharge, or death. Outcome variables included lengths of stay in the hospital and intensive care unit, days with no mechanical ventilation, complications, and mortality. RESULTS: Of 94 participants, 71% were men, mean age was 63 years, and mean score on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II was 14. Patients with high cumulative calorie deficit (≥ 6000 cal) and high protein deficit (≥ 300 g) had significantly fewer days with no mechanical ventilation (P < .001), longer unit stays (P < .001), longer hospital stays (P = .007), more total complications (P = .007), and more infectious complications (P = .009) than other participants. These associations remained significant in multivariable models after adjustments for age, sex, reason for admission, and propensity score of deficit. In-hospital and 30-day mortality did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative macronutrient deficits have important clinical outcomes in surgical intensive care patients.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 435: 48-60, 2016 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267668

RESUMO

One carbon metabolism or methyl transfer, a crucial component of metabolism in all cells and tissues, supports the critical function of synthesis of purines, thymidylate and methylation via multiple methyl transferases driven by the ubiquitous methyl donor s-adenosylmethionine. Serine is the primary methyl donor to the one carbon pool. Intracellular folates and methionine metabolism are the critical components of one carbon transfer. Methionine metabolism requires vitamin B12, B6 as cofactors and is modulated by endocrine signals and is responsive to nutrient intake. Perturbations in one carbon transfer can have profound effects on cell proliferation, growth and function. Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental model have established a strong relationship between impaired fetal growth and the immediate and long term consequences to the health of the offspring. It is speculated that during development, maternal environmental and nutrient influences by their effects on one carbon transfer can impact the health of the mother, impair growth and reprogram metabolism of the fetus, and cause long term morbidity in the offspring. The potential for such effects is underscored by the unique responses in methionine metabolism in the human mother during pregnancy, the absence of transsulfuration activity in the fetus, ontogeny of methionine metabolism in the placenta and the unique metabolism of serine and glycine in the fetus. Dietary protein restriction in animals and marginal protein intake in humans causes characteristic changes in one carbon metabolism. The impact of perturbations in one carbon metabolism on the health of the mother during pregnancy, on fetal growth and the neonate are discussed and their possible mechanism explored.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Metilação , Gravidez/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/complicações , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/metabolismo
19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 174(2): 274-279, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27113769

RESUMO

To determine the current evidence on risk factors for Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) using an integrative meta-analysis. We searched five English and three Chinese databases from inception to September 2015, to identify case-control studies that examined risk factors for KBD using multivariate logistic analysis. DerSimonian and Laird effective models are applied in processing data using pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Seven studies were identified with 3087 cases and 6402 controls. The main risk factors found to be significantly associated with the onset of KBD were age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.10-1.28), parents prevalence (OR 5.16, 2.51-7.80), family hygiene (OR 1.68, 1.42-1.93), food source (OR 3.29, 2.38-4.19), wheat (OR 1.12, 1.08-1.16), wheat germ necrosis rate (OR 6.03, 1.87-12.92), total volatile basic nitrogen (OR 6.85, 1.01-28.67), low selenium in hair (OR 2.29, 1.08-3.50) were found to be significant risks factors. The pooled ORs (95 % CI) of protein intake and rice were 0.79 (0.66-0.93) and 0.90 (0.86-0.95), respectively, indicating that the two factors may be protective for KBD. We found that the combination of low protein intake, polluted grain, and selenium deficiency may contribute to be onset of KBD together.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Cabelo/metabolismo , Doença de Kashin-Bek , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Selênio , Idade de Início , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Doença de Kashin-Bek/epidemiologia , Doença de Kashin-Bek/etiologia , Doença de Kashin-Bek/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Proteína/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Selênio/deficiência , Selênio/metabolismo
20.
Physiol Behav ; 161: 38-46, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27080079

RESUMO

Dietary protein deficiency influences the behavioural phenotypes of mammals. We studied whether protein deficiency during gestation and/or post-weaning heightened anxiety, reduced memory recall and influenced competitive ability in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. Mice were subjected to five protein diet treatments, which they received continuously, or were raised on one diet to weaning and switched to an alternate diet post-weaning (Day 16): 1) HP-HP: high protein (24%); first letter pair indicates maternal diet and the second pair indicates offspring diet post-weaning; 2) BP-BP: baseline protein (19%); 3) LP-LP: low protein (10%); 4) HP-LP: switched from high to low protein diet; and 5) LP-HP: switched from low protein to high protein diet. From Day 70, when mice were sexually mature, 20 individuals (10 males, 10 females) per treatment were subjected to three successive experiments, in which we tested their anxiety responses in: 1) an open field arena (time spent in the centre of the open field); 2) novel object recognition (time spent exploring a novel object); and 3) social interactions (excluding BP-BP) in age-matched same-sex dyadic encounters (aggressive, amicable and avoidance behaviours). LP-LP and LP-HP treatment mice spent the least amount of time in the centre of the open field, did not demonstrate object preference compared to the other treatments, and were the most aggressive in dyadic encounters. Our study shows that the systemic effects of protein-deficient diets during early life shapes the behavioural phenotype in R. d. chakae, possibly through early organisation of neuro-biological pathways or competition among littermates.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Proteína/complicações , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/etiologia , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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