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1.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 39: 74-79, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223314

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Child abuse is regarded as a life-course social determinant of health problems. However, little is known about the nutritional status of physically abused children and their cumulative effect on child behavior. The present study aimed to examine the non-anemic iron deficiency status of abused children and the combined effect of physical abuse and non-anemic iron deficiency on child behavior in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 314 children aged 11-14 (12.30±0.57) years old from Jintan, China. Children self-reported their physical abuse experiences and behavior problems. Blood iron and hemoglobin concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Thirty-eight percent of children reported physical abuse experience, 17.5% had non-anemic iron deficiency, and the two risk factors co-occurred in 8.0% children. Physically abused children were more likely to be affected by non-anemic iron deficiency than their non-abused counterparts. Children who had experienced both physical abuse and non-anemic iron deficiency reported more behavior problems than children with neither or either risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Physically abused children are more likely to have non-anemic iron deficiency. Children with the presence of both physical abuse experience and non-anemic iron deficiency have more behavior problems. There is a need to prevent both child abuse and non-anemic iron deficiency simultaneously to maintain normal child behavior development.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Ferro/deficiência , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , China , Comorbidade , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Adv Neurobiol ; 18: 35-49, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889262

RESUMO

While the neurotoxic effects of manganese were recognized in 1837, the first genetic disorder of manganese metabolism was described only in 2012 when homozygous mutations in SLC30A10 were reported to cause manganese-induced neurotoxicity. Two other genetic disorders of manganese metabolism have now been described - mutations in SLC39A14 cause manganese toxicity, while mutations in SLC39A8 cause manganese and zinc deficiency. Study of rare genetic disorders often provides unique insights into disease pathobiology, and the discoveries of these three inherited disorders of manganese metabolism are already transforming our understanding of manganese homeostasis, detoxification, and neurotoxicity. Here, we review the mechanisms by which mutations in SLC30A10, SLC39A14, and SLC39A8 impact manganese homeostasis to cause human disease.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Manganês/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Metais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Deficiências Nutricionais/genética , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Humanos , Manganês/deficiência , Intoxicação por Manganês/genética , Intoxicação por Manganês/psicologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Metais/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Metais/psicologia , Zinco/deficiência , Transportador 8 de Zinco/genética
3.
Vitam Horm ; 103: 295-326, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28061974

RESUMO

Elements (bioelements) are necessary factors required for the physiological function of organisms. They are critically involved in fundamental processes of life. Extra- and intracellular message and metabolic pathway factors as well as structural components include one or many elements in their functional structure. Recent years have seen an intensification in terms of knowledge gained about the roles of elements in anxiety disorders. In this chapter we present a review of the most important current data concerning the involvement of zinc, magnesium, copper, lithium, iron, and manganese, and their deficiency, in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Magnésio/dietoterapia , Deficiência de Magnésio/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Magnésio/psicologia , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/uso terapêutico
4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 57(1): 212-223, 2017 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830700

RESUMO

Depression is a common, recurrent, and debilitating illness that has become more prevalent over the past 100 years. This report reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of depression, and explores the role of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as a possible treatment. In seeking to understand depression, genetic factors and environmental influences have been extensively investigated. Research has led to several hypotheses for the pathophysiological basis of depression but a definitive pathogenic mechanism, or group thereof, has hitherto remained equivocal. To date, treatment has been based on the monoamine hypothesis and hence, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been the most widely used class of medication. In the last decade, there has been considerable interest in n-3 PUFAs and their role in depression. These fatty acids are critical for development and function of the central nervous system. Increasing evidence from epidemiological, laboratory, and randomized placebo-controlled trials suggests deficiency of dietary n-3 PUFAs may contribute to development of mood disorders, and supplementation with n-3 PUFAs may provide a new treatment option. Conclusions based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses of published trials to date vary. Research into the effects of n-3 PUFAs on depressed mood is limited. Furthermore, results from such have led to conflicting conclusions regarding the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in affecting reduction in symptoms of depression. PUFAs are generally well tolerated by adults and children although mild gastrointestinal effects are reported. There is mounting evidence to suggest that n-3 PUFAs play a role in depression and deserve greater research efforts.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/psicologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
5.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 35: 5, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26887418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The essential amino acid tryptophan cannot be synthesised in the body and must be acquired through dietary intake. Oxidation of tryptophan, due to immune induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), is considered to be the main cause of tryptophan depletion in HIV infection and AIDS. We examined plasma tryptophan levels in a low-income sub-Saharan HIV-infected population and compared it to that of developed countries. Tryptophan levels were further examined in context of the general nutritional and inflammatory status. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 105 HIV-positive patients recruited from the Kalafong Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, and 60 HIV-negative controls. RESULTS: Patient tryptophan levels were in general markedly lower than those reported for developed countries. In contrast to reports from developed countries that showed tryptophan levels on average to be 18.8 % lower than their control values, tryptophan levels in our study were 44.1 % lower than our controls (24.4 ± 4.1 vs. 43.6 ± 11.9 µmol/l; p < 0.001). Tryptophan levels correlated with both CD4 counts (r = 0.341; p = 0.004) and with pro-inflammatory activity as indicated by neopterin levels (r = -0.399; p = 0.0001). Nutritional indicators such as albumin and haemoglobin correlated positively with tryptophan and negatively with the pro-inflammatory indicators neopterin, interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. The most probable causes of the lower tryptophan levels seen in our population are food insecurity and higher levels of inflammatory activity. CONCLUSIONS: We contend that inflammation-induced tryptophan depletion forms part of a much wider effect of pro-inflammatory activity on the nutritional profile of HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Áreas de Pobreza , Triptofano/deficiência , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências Nutricionais/etnologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neopterina/sangue , Ambulatório Hospitalar , África do Sul , Serviços de Saúde Suburbana , Triptofano/sangue
6.
Nutr Neurosci ; 19(4): 145-55, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24915543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on cortical metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Metabolite concentrations were determined by (1)H MRS in the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of adolescents with MDD before and following 10-week open-label supplementation with low (2.4 g/day, n = 7) or high (16.2 g/day, n = 7) dose FO. Depressive symptom severity scores and erythrocyte fatty acid levels were also determined. RESULTS: Baseline erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition was positively correlated, and arachidonic acid (AA) and the AA/EPA ratio were inversely correlated, with choline (Cho) concentrations in the right DLPFC. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was inversely correlated with myo-inositol (mI) concentrations in the left DLPFC. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition increased, and AA decreased, significantly following low-dose and high-dose FO supplementation. In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptom severity scores decreased significantly in the high-dose group (-40%, P < 0.0001) and there was a trend in the low-dose group (-20%, P = 0.06). There were no significant baseline-endpoint changes in metabolite levels in each voxel. In the low-dose group there were changes with large effect sizes, including a decrease in mI in the left DLPFC (-12%, P = 0.18, d = 0.8) and increases in glutamate + glutamine (Glx) (+12%, P = 0.19, d = 0.8) and Cho (+15%, P = 0.08, d = 1.2) in the right DLPFC. In the high-dose group, there was a trend for increases in Cho in the right DLPFC (+10%, P = 0.09, d = 1.2). DISCUSSION: These preliminary data suggest that increasing the LCn-3 fatty acid status of adolescent MDD patients is associated with subtle changes in Glx, mI, and Cho concentrations in the DLPFC that warrant further evaluation in a larger controlled trial.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Perda de Seguimento , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
7.
Public Health Nutr ; 17(9): 1960-70, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24476840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess sociodemographic correlates of micronutrient intakes from food and dietary supplements in an urban, ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women in the USA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of data collected using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Associations between racial, ethnic and sociodemographic factors and micronutrient intakes were examined using logistic regression controlling for pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal age and smoking status. SETTING: Prenatal clinics, Boston, MA, USA. SUBJECTS: Analyses included pregnant women (n 274) in the PRogramming of Intergenerational Stress Mechanisms (PRISM) study, an urban longitudinal cohort designed to examine how stress influences respiratory health in children when controlling for other environmental exposures (chemical stressors, nutrition). RESULTS: High frequencies of vitamin E (52 %), Mg (38 %), Fe (57 %) and vitamin D (77 %) inadequacies as well as suboptimal intakes of choline (95 %) and K (99 %) were observed. Factors associated with multiple antioxidant inadequacies included being Hispanic or African American, lower education and self-reported economic-related food insecurity. Hispanics had a higher prevalence of multiple methyl-nutrient inadequacies compared with African Americans; both had suboptimal betaine intakes and higher odds for vitamin B6 and Fe inadequacies compared with Caucasians. Nearly all women (98 %) reported Na intakes above the tolerable upper limit; excessive intakes of Mg (35 %), folate (37 %) and niacin (38 %) were also observed. Women reporting excessive intakes of these nutrients were more likely Caucasian or Hispanic, more highly educated, US-born and did not report food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic and other sociodemographic factors should be considered when tailoring periconceptional dietary interventions for urban ethnic women in the USA.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/etnologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/etnologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/economia , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/economia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia
8.
Can J Diet Pract Res ; 75(4): 195-201, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26067073

RESUMO

A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Deficiências Nutricionais/complicações , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Dieta Redutora/efeitos adversos , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Dieta Vegetariana/efeitos adversos , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Ontário/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/psicologia
9.
Nutr Res Rev ; 25(1): 180-92, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22853878

RESUMO

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a relatively common and often severe mood disorder that develops in women after childbirth. The aetiology of PPD is unclear, although there is emerging evidence to suggest a psychoneuroimmune connection. Additionally, deficiencies in n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and trace minerals have been implicated. This paper reviews evidence for a link between micronutrient status and PPD, analysing the potential contribution of each micronutrient to psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms of PPD. Articles related to PPD and women's levels of n-3 PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se were reviewed. Findings suggest that while n-3 PUFA levels have been shown to vary inversely with PPD and link with psychoneuroimmunology, there is mixed evidence regarding the ability of n-3 PUFA to prevent or treat PPD. B vitamin status is not clearly linked to PPD, even though it seems to vary inversely with depression in non-perinatal populations and may have an impact on immunity. Vitamin D and the trace minerals Zn and Se are linked to PPD and psychoneuroimmunology by intriguing, but small, studies. Overall, evidence suggests that certain micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the development of PPD, possibly through psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms. Developing a better understanding of these mechanisms is important for guiding future research, clinical practice and health education regarding PPD.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/complicações , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Dieta , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Psiconeuroimunologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/imunologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Selênio/deficiência , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Zinco/deficiência
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 33(6): 2203-12, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22796640

RESUMO

Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance questionnaires in relation to diet quality by the Youth Healthy Eating Index-Taiwan and birth weight of children aged 6-13 years (n=2283). Lower birth weight (≤15th percentile: ≤2850 g for boys and ≤2700 g for girls) children were mostly from mountainous areas and of indigenous descent. Compared to normal birth weight, lower birth weight girls experienced greater inability to learn and weaker overall competence. Better diet quality predicted more favorable emotional and behavioral outcomes in lower birth weight girls, and this persisted with adjustment for covariates. None of these findings were evident among boys. Girls' cognitive and social development appears to be susceptible to diet quality and birth weight, such that the adverse risk of lower birth weight on school performance may be offset by improved diet.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Preferências Alimentares , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , /etnologia , Grupos Populacionais , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/etnologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/psicologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Ajustamento Social , Taiwan
11.
Nutr Res ; 31(10): 790-804, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22074804

RESUMO

Two important lines of research have enhanced our understanding of the molecular role of nutrition in influencing behavior. First, exposure to an adverse environment during early life can influence the long-term behavior of the offspring. Second, regulation of the nervous system development and functioning appears to involve epigenetic mechanisms that require a continuous supply of methyl group donors in food. We hypothesized that a maternal diet during pregnancy deficient in methyl donors (MDD) may lead to altered behavior in offspring through permanent changes in hippocampal DNA methylation. We used a rat model of prenatal dietary MDD to test this hypothesis in female offspring as they aged. Prenatal MDD reduced birth weight, litter size, and newborn viability. Aged female offspring of MDD mothers showed increased anxiety and increased learning ability in comparison with control diet group offspring. To explore the role of MDD on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain of adult offspring, we studied expression and methylation of 4 selected genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 11 type 2, neuronatin, and reelin proteins in the hippocampus. No major group differences in methylation or expression of the studied genes were detected, except for a significant down-regulation of the reelin gene in the MDD female offspring. The prenatal MDD diet caused intrauterine growth restriction, associated with long-term effects on the behavior of the offspring. However, the observed behavioral differences between the MDD and control diet offspring cannot be explained by epigenetic regulation of the specific genes investigated in this study.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Comportamento Animal , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Metilação de DNA , Deficiências Nutricionais/embriologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/psicologia , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/metabolismo , Metionina/deficiência , Metionina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Ratos Wistar , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/embriologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/psicologia
13.
Clin Cardiol ; 34(4): 211-7, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21462215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that micronutrient deficiency has some role in the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). HYPOTHESIS: Oral supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) and creatine may reduce mitochondrial dysfunction that contributes to impaired physical performance in CHF. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of a mixture of water-soluble CoQ(10) (CoQ(10) terclatrate; Q-ter) and creatine on exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life. Exercise tolerance was measured as total work capacity (kg·m) and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2), mL/min/kg), both from a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Health-related quality of life was measured by the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) in CHF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%). After baseline assessment, 67 patients with stable CHF were randomized to receive Q-ter 320 mg + creatine 340 mg (n = 35) or placebo (n = 32) once daily for 8 weeks. RESULTS: At multivariate analysis, 8-week peak VO(2) was significantly higher in the active treatment group than in the placebo group (+1.8 ± 0.9 mL/min/kg, 95% CI: 0.1-3.6, P < 0.05). No untoward effects occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that oral Q-ter and creatine, added to conventional drug therapy, exert some beneficial effect on physical performance in stable systolic CHF. Results may support the design of larger studies aimed at assessing the long-term effects of this treatment on functional status and harder outcomes.


Assuntos
Creatina/administração & dosagem , Deficiências Nutricionais/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Doença Crônica , Creatina/efeitos adversos , Creatina/deficiência , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Placebo , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Ubiquinona/efeitos adversos , Ubiquinona/deficiência , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Ment Health Today ; : 10-3, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18825815
15.
Psychol Bull ; 133(5): 747-60, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17723028

RESUMO

In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like compounds (choline). Recent investigations with multi-ingredient formulas are especially promising. However, without a reasonable conceptual framework for understanding mechanisms by which micronutrients might influence mood, the published literature is too readily dismissed. Consequently, 4 explanatory models are presented, suggesting that mood symptoms may be expressions of inborn errors of metabolism, manifestations of deficient methylation reactions, alterations of gene expression by nutrient deficiency, and/or long-latency deficiency diseases. These models provide possible explanations for why micronutrient supplementation could ameliorate some mental symptoms.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Vitaminas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Humanos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/fisiopatologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia
16.
J Nutr ; 137(5): 1176-82, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17449578

RESUMO

Iron deficiency anemia in early childhood causes developmental delays and, very likely, irreversible alterations in neurological functioning. One primary goal for the present study was to determine whether the effects of late gestational iron deficiency on brain monoamine metabolism, iron content, and behavioral phenotypes could be repaired with iron intervention in early lactation. Young pregnant rats were provided iron-deficient or control diets from mid-gestation (G15). At postnatal d 4 (P4), pups from iron-deficient dams were out-fostered either to other ID dams or control dams while pups of control dams were similarly fostered to other control dams. Dietary treatments continued to adulthood (P65) when brain iron and regional monoamines were evaluated. P4 iron repletion normalized body iron status, brain iron concentrations, monoamine concentrations, and monoamine transporter and receptor densities in most brain regions. Dopamine transporter densities in caudate and substantia nigra were lower in ID rats but were normalized with iron repletion. Serotonin transporter levels in most brain regions and open-field exploration were also normalized with iron repletion. The success of this approach of early postnatal iron intervention following iron deficiency in utero contrasts to a relative lack of success when the intervention is performed at weaning. These data suggest that a window of opportunity exists for reversing the detrimental effects of iron deficiency in utero in rats and provides strong support of intervention approaches in humans with iron deficiency during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Deficiências Nutricionais/embriologia , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/deficiência , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal , Monoaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Transferrina/metabolismo
17.
J Nutr ; 137(4): 979-84, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17374664

RESUMO

Sensitive periods for induction of behavioral impairments by developmental iron deficiency were studied in a nonhuman primate model. Rhesus monkey infants were deprived of iron prenatally (n = 14) via the dam's diet (10 microg Fe/g) or postnatally (birth-4 mo, n = 12) via infant formula (1.5 mg Fe/L). They were compared with controls (n = 12) with adequate dietary iron throughout development in a series of cognitive tests and related assessments from 6 to 12 mo of age, a developmental stage corresponding approximately to 2-4 y of age in humans. Health, growth, and hematological status were not affected. Auditory brainstem response and white matter volumes in the cerebrum were similarly unaffected. Male infants in the prenatally deprived group had reduced spontaneous daytime activity relative to controls, as monitored by actimeter. On cognitive tests, prenatally deprived juveniles had similar level of correct responding, but showed more completed trials, and shorter latencies during early phases of the tests. Juveniles deprived of iron as infants showed a similar pattern of behavioral change, but most differences from controls were not as great. Inadequate iron nutrition during pregnancy was reflected in the juvenile period primarily as attenuated inhibitory response. This finding may be relevant to individual differences in temperament or to behavior disorders in children involving reduced inhibitory control.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Ferro/deficiência , Macaca mulatta/embriologia , Macaca mulatta/psicologia , Ciclos de Atividade , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cognição , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Feto/metabolismo , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 68(3): 515-24, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17045757

RESUMO

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). A growing body of evidence suggests that this form PUFA is a useful and well tolerated treatment for major depressive disorder, a common and serious mental illness. The efficacy of omega-3 PUFA is routinely explained as being due to a deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of this class of fatty acid. The hypothesis considered states that low omega-3 PUFA abundance in patients with major depressive and related disorders is due to an underlying genetically determined abnormality. The hypothesis can explain why although a specific and consistent deficit in omega-3, but not omega-6, PUFA occurs in major depressive and related disorders, the literature does not consistently support the notion that this is due to deficient dietary intake. Specifically it is hypothesized that having genetically determined low activity of fatty acid CoA ligase 4 and/or Type IV phospholipase A(2) combined with the low dietary availability of omega-3 PUFA results in reduced cellular uptake of omega-3 PUFA and constitutes a risk factor for depression. The hypothesis also has important consequences for the pharmacological treatment of depression in that it predicts that administering agents which enhance phospholipid synthesis, particularly those containing ethanolamine such as CDP-ethanolamine, should be effective antidepressants especially when co-administered with omega-3 PUFA.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 84(2): 378-84, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16828857

RESUMO

Diurnal effects on motor control are evident in the human disease of Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS), which is purported to be linked to brain iron deficiency as well as alterations in dopaminergic systems. Thus, we explored the relationship between daily rhythms, the onset of motor dysregulation and brain iron deficiency in an animal model of iron deficiency. Male and female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats consuming control (CN) or iron-deficient (ID) diets were examined weekly for acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) for a 5-week period. Iron deficiency reduced the magnitude, but not timing, of the ASR at specific time points. ASR was elevated 60% at the onset of the dark cycle relative to the median of the light cycle in male CN and ID rats. The respective elevation was 400% and 150% in female CN and ID rats during the first 2 weeks of testing. The diurnal cycle of ASR response was attenuated by 3 weeks of testing in both dietary treatment groups. PPI was not affected by iron deficiency, sex, diurnal cycle or the interaction between these factors. These results thus demonstrate that iron deficiency moderately alters ASR signaling although the inhibitory pathways of ASR do not appear to be affected.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/deficiência , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo Acústico
20.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 31(6): 681-91, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16621325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence in the neuropsychological literature that growth hormone (GH) deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment. There is also evidence that this impairment may be ameliorated with GH replacement therapy. The current study assessed the nature and severity of cognitive impairment associated with growth hormone deficiency, as well as effect of GH replacement on cognitive function by conducting a meta-analysis of the published literature to date. METHOD: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and these included: five cross-sectional studies investigating GH deficiency; and, eight (eight prospective, two of which also included cross-sectional comparisons) investigating GH replacement. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) falling into six cognitive domains were computed (separately for GH deficiency and GH replacement). RESULTS: For GH deficiency, each of the cognitive domains assessed (besides language) showed moderate to large impairments when compared to matched controls (Effect sizes -0.46 to -1.46). For GH replacement, even though treated patients still performed moderately to largely below that of controls, when compared to their own baselines (as in prospective analyses), moderate improvements were found in cognitive performance, particularly attention and memory. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis clearly demonstrates the link between GH and cognitive performance, where poor performance can be ameliorated with GH treatment.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio do Crescimento/deficiência , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/classificação , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/complicações , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Análise por Pareamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
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