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1.
Intellect Dev Disabil ; 58(5): 355-360, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032314

RESUMO

The COVID-19 epidemic caused disruption and dislocation in the lives of people with disabilities, their families, and providers. What we have learned during this period regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the service system for people with disabilities should provide a roadmap for building a more robust and agile system going forward. Based on a canvas of leaders in our field, I propose a way of outlining a reimagined system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970686

RESUMO

Exposure to general anesthesia has been reported to induce neurotoxicity, impair learning, memory, attention, motor functions, as well as affect behavior in adult rodents and nonhuman primates. Though many have speculated similar effects in humans, previous literature has shown conflicting findings. To investigate the differences in risk of developmental delay among young children exposed to general anesthesia compared to matched unexposed individuals, a population-based cohort study was conducted with a longitudinal dataset spanning 2000 to 2013 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Procedure codes were used to identify children who received anesthesia. For each exposed child, two unexposed children matched by gender and age were enrolled into the comparison cohort. Neurocognitive outcome was measured by the presence of ICD-9-CM codes related to developmental delay (DD). Cox regression models were used to obtain hazard ratios of developing DD after varying levels of anesthesia exposure. After excluding 4,802 individuals who met the exclusion criteria, a total of 11,457 children who received general anesthesia before two years of age was compared to 22,914 children (matched by gender and age) unexposed to anesthesia. Increased risk of DD was observed in the exposure group with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.320 (95% CI 1.143-1.522, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis demonstrated further elevated risks of DD with multiple anesthesia exposures (1 anesthesia event: HR 1.145, 95% CI 1.010-1.246, P = 0.04; 2 anesthesia events: HR 1.476, 95% CI 1.155-1.887, P = 0.005; ≥3 anesthesia events: HR 2.222, 95% CI 1.810-2.621, P < 0.001) and longer total anesthesia durations (Total anesthesia <2 hours: HR 1.124, 95% CI 1.003-1.499, P = 0.047; Total anesthesia 2-4 hours: HR 1.450, 95% CI 1.157-1.800, P = 0.004; Total anesthesia > 4 hours: HR 1.598, 95% CI 1.343-1.982, P < 0.001) compared with children unexposed to anesthesia. These results suggest that children exposed to general anesthesia before two years of age have an increased risk of DD. This risk is further elevated with increased frequency of anesthesia, and longer total anesthesia duration. The findings of this study should prompt clinical practitioners to proceed with caution when assessing young patients and planning managements involving procedures requiring general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) has emerged as an important risk factor for higher short-term mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related anomalies; yet little is known about how SES affects these outcomes over the long-term. METHODS: We linked data from the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial to US Census Bureau data to analyze the relationship of neighborhood SES tertiles with mortality and transplantation, neurodevelopment, quality of life, and functional status at 5 and 6 years post-Norwood procedure (N = 525). Cox proportional hazards regression and linear regression were used to assess the association of SES with mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Patients in the lowest SES tertile were more likely to be racial minorities, older at stage 2 and Fontan procedures, and to have more complications and fewer cardiac catheterizations over follow-up (all P < .05) compared with patients in higher SES tertiles. Unadjusted mortality was highest for patients in the lowest SES tertile and lowest in the highest tertile (41% vs 29%, respectively; log-rank P = .027). Adjustment for patient birth and Norwood factors attenuated these differences slightly (P = .055). Patients in the lowest SES tertile reported lower functional status and lower fine motor, problem-solving, adaptive behavior, and communication skills at 6 years (all P < .05). These differences persisted after adjustment for baseline and post-Norwood factors. Quality of life did not differ by SES. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, those with low SES have worse neurodevelopmental and functional status outcomes at 6 years. These differences were not explained by other patient or clinical characteristics.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fontan/métodos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/cirurgia , Classe Social , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Técnica de Fontan/mortalidade , Técnica de Fontan/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/complicações , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/etnologia , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico/mortalidade , Renda , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ocupações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Qualidade de Vida , Características de Residência , Resultado do Tratamento , Coração Univentricular/mortalidade , Coração Univentricular/cirurgia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(34): 1156-1160, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853187

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines recommend that primary care providers (PCPs) provide guidance and support to ensure a planned transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents, beginning at age 12 years (1). However, most adolescents do not receive the recommended health care transition planning (2). This is particularly concerning for adolescents with diagnosed mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) (3), who account for approximately 20% of U.S. adolescents (4). Childhood MBDDs are linked to increased long-term morbidity and mortality; timely health care transition planning might mitigate adverse outcomes (5,6). CDC analyzed pooled, parent-reported data from the 2016 and 2017 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), comparing adolescents, aged 12-17 years, with and without MBDDs on a composite measure and specific indicators of recommended health care transition planning by PCPs. Overall, approximately 15% of adolescents received recommended health care transition planning: 15.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.1%-17.5%) of adolescents with MBDDs, compared with 14.2% (95% CI = 13.2%-15.3%) of adolescents without MBDDs. Relative to peers without MBDDs and after adjusting for age, adolescents with anxiety were 36% more likely to receive recommended health care transition planning, and those with depression were 69% more likely; adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were 35% less likely to receive such transition planning, and those with developmental delay* were 25% less likely. Fewer than 20% of adolescents with MBDDs receiving current treatment met the transition measure. These findings suggest that a minority of adolescents with MBDDs receive recommended transition planning, indicating a potential missed public health opportunity to prevent morbidity and mortality in a population at high risk for health care disengagement (1). Improving access to comprehensive and coordinated programs and services,† as well as increasing provider training concerning adolescents' unique mental and physical health care needs (7), could help increase the number of adolescents benefiting from successful health care transitions (4).


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Apoio Social , Transição para Assistência do Adulto/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the prevalence and predictors of non-right-handedness and its link to long-term neurodevelopmental outcome and early neuroimaging in a cohort of children born extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation). METHODS: 179 children born extremely preterm admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of our tertiary centre from 2006-2013 were included in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Collected data included perinatal data, demographic characteristics, neurodevelopmental outcome measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development at 2 years and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years, and handedness measured at school age (4-8 years). Magnetic resonance imaging performed at term-equivalent age was used to study overt brain injury. Diffusion tensor imaging scans were analysed using tract-based spatial statistics to assess white matter microstructure in relation to handedness and neurodevelopmental outcome. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-right-handedness in our cohort was 22.9%, compared to 12% in the general population. Weaker fine motor skills at 2 years and paternal non-right-handedness were significantly associated with non-right-handedness. Both overt brain injury and fractional anisotropy of white matter structures on diffusion tensor images were not related to handedness. Fractional anisotropy measurements showed significant associations with neurodevelopmental outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that non-right-handedness in children born extremely preterm occurs almost twice as frequently as in the general population. In the studied population, non-right-handedness is associated with weaker fine motor skills and paternal non-right-handedness, but not with overt brain injury or microstructural brain development on early magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/estatística & dados numéricos , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 308-312, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (NHIE) is an important cause of long-term handicap in survivors. There is limited information on the burden of handicap from NHIE in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the developmental outcomes in survivors of NHIE in South Africa (SA). METHODS: In this prospective observational study, the developmental outcomes in 84 infants who had survived hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (the NHIE group) were compared with those in 64 unaffected infants (the control group). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development version III were used for assessment of developmental outcomes. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the developmental outcomes of the two groups, with a significantly lower composite language score and higher proportions with language, motor and cognitive developmental delays in the NHIE group than in the control group. Cerebral palsy (CP) was present in 13 of the infants with NHIE (15.5%) and none in the control group (p<0.001). CP was associated with developmental delay, and also with the severity of NHIE. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) was administered in 58.3% of the study group, but although it was associated with lower rates of CP and developmental delay than in the group without TH, the only significant difference was for delay on the language subscale. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of NHIE in SA are at risk of poor developmental outcomes.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
Neurology ; 95(9): e1222-e1235, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether publication of evidence on delays in time to treatment shortens time to treatment in pediatric refractory convulsive status epilepticus (rSE), we compared time to treatment before (2011-2014) and after (2015-2019) publication of evidence of delays in treatment of rSE in the Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG) as assessed by patient interviews and record review. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected dataset from June 2011 to September 2019 on pediatric patients (1 month-21 years of age) with rSE. RESULTS: We studied 328 patients (56% male) with median (25th-75th percentile [p25-p75]) age of 3.8 (1.3-9.4) years. There were no differences in the median (p25-p75) time to first benzodiazepine (BZD) (20 [5-52.5] vs 15 [5-38] minutes, p = 0.3919), time to first non-BZD antiseizure medication (68 [34.5-163.5] vs 65 [33-142] minutes, p = 0.7328), and time to first continuous infusion (186 [124.2-571] vs 160 [89.5-495] minutes, p = 0.2236). Among 157 patients with out-of-hospital onset whose time to hospital arrival was available, the proportion who received at least 1 BZD before hospital arrival increased after publication of evidence of delays (41 of 81 [50.6%] vs 57 of 76 [75%], p = 0.0018), and the odds ratio (OR) was also increased in multivariable logistic regression (OR 4.35 [95% confidence interval 1.96-10.3], p = 0.0005). CONCLUSION: Publication of evidence on delays in time to treatment was not associated with improvements in time to treatment of rSE, although it was associated with an increase in the proportion of patients who received at least 1 BZD before hospital arrival.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Lacunas da Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Infusões Intravenosas , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estado Epiléptico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 64(7): 489-496, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown how the novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the current acute respiratory illness COVID-19 pandemic that has infected millions of people, affects people with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). The aim of this study is to describe how individuals with IDD have been affected in the first 100 days of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Shortly after the first COVID-19 case was reported in the USA, our organisation, which provides continuous support for over 11 000 individuals with IDD, assembled an outbreak committee composed of senior leaders from across the health care organisation. The committee led the development and deployment of a comprehensive COVID-19 prevention and suppression strategy, utilising current evidence-based practice, while surveilling the global and local situation daily. We implemented enhanced infection control procedures across 2400 homes, which were communicated to our employees using multi-faceted channels including an electronic resource library, mobile and web applications, paper postings in locations, live webinars and direct mail. Using custom-built software applications enabling us to track patient, client and employee cases and exposures, we leveraged current public health recommendations to identify cases and to suppress transmission, which included the use of personal protective equipment. A COVID-19 case was defined as a positive nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. RESULTS: In the 100-day period between 20 January 2020 and 30 April 2020, we provided continuous support for 11 540 individuals with IDD. Sixty-four per cent of the individuals were in residential, community settings, and 36% were in intermediate care facilities. The average age of the cohort was 46 ± 12 years, and 60% were male. One hundred twenty-two individuals with IDD were placed in quarantine for exhibiting symptoms and signs of acute infection such as fever or cough. Sixty-six individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and their average age was 50. The positive individuals were located in 30 different homes (1.3% of total) across 14 states. Fifteen homes have had single cases, and 15 have had more than one case. Fifteen COVID-19-positive individuals were hospitalised. As of 30 April, seven of the individuals hospitalised have been discharged back to home and are recovering. Five remain hospitalised, with three improving and two remaining in intensive care and on mechanical ventilation. There have been three deaths. We found that among COVID-19-positive individuals with IDD, a higher number of chronic medical conditions and male sex were characteristics associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 100 days of the COVID-19 outbreak in the USA, we observed that people with IDD living in congregate care settings can benefit from a coordinated approach to infection control, case identification and cohorting, as evidenced by the low relative case rate reported. Male individuals with higher numbers of chronic medical conditions were more likely to be hospitalised, while most younger, less chronically ill individuals recovered spontaneously at home.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Instituições Residenciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(7): 503-514, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PEPaNIC randomised controlled trial, which recruited 1440 critically ill infants and children in 2012-15, showed that withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week (late-parenteral nutrition), compared with early supplementation within 24 h of admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (early-parenteral nutrition), prevented infections, accelerated recovery, and improved neurocognitive development assessed 2 years later. Because several neurocognitive domains can only be thoroughly assessed from age 4 years onwards, we aimed to determine the effect of late-parenteral nutrition versus early-parenteral nutrition on physical, neurocognitive, and emotional and behavioural development 4 years after randomisation. METHODS: This is a preplanned, blinded, 4-year follow-up study of participants included in the PEPaNIC trial (done at University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium; Erasmus Medical Centre Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands; and Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada) and of matched healthy children. Studied outcomes were anthropometrics; health status; parent-reported or caregiver-reported executive functions, and emotional and behavioural problems; and clinical tests for intelligence, visual-motor integration, alertness, motor coordination, and memory. Through multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses, after imputation for missing values (≤30%) and adjustment for risk factors, we investigated the effect of early-parenteral nutrition versus late-parenteral nutrition. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01536275. FINDINGS: Between March 8, 2016, and Nov 8, 2019, 684 children from the original PEPaNIC trial (356 from the late-parenteral nutrition group and 328 from the early-parenteral nutrition group) were assessed for neurocognitive development at 4-years follow-up. Compared with the control group (369 healthy children), children who had critical illness had lower height (ß-estimate -2·11 [95% CI -3·15 to -1·06]; p<0·0001) and head circumference (-0·42 [-0·67 to -0·18]; p=0.00077); and worse health status (eg, hospital admission odds ratio 4·27 [95% CI 3·12 to 5·84]; p<0·0001), neurocognitive (eg, parent-reported or caregiver-reported total executive functioning ß-estimate 3·57 [95% CI 1·95 to 5·18], p<0·0001; total intelligence quotient -7·35 [-9·31 to -5·39], p<0·0001), and parent-reported or caregiver-reported emotional and behavioural developmental outcomes (internalising 2·73 [1·19 to 4·28], p=0·00055; externalising 1·63 [0·19 to 3·08], p=0·027; and total behavioural problems 2·95 [1·44 to 4·46], p=0·00013), adjusted for risk factors. Outcomes were never worse in the late-parenteral nutrition group compared with the early-parenteral nutrition group, but patients in the late-parenteral nutrition group had fewer parent-reported or caregiver-reported internalising (ß-estimate -1·88 [95% CI -3·69 to -0·07]; p=0·042), externalising (-1·73 [-3·43 to -0·03]; p=0·046), and total emotional and behavioural problems (-2·44 [-4·22 to -0·67]; p=0·0070) than patients who had received early-parenteral nutrition, after adjusting for risk factors, and were no longer different from healthy controls for these outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Omitting early parenteral nutrition use for critically ill children did not adversely affect long-term outcomes 4 years after randomisation and protected against emotional and behavioural problems, further supporting the deimplementation of early parenteral nutrition. FUNDING: European Research Council, Methusalem, Flanders Institute for Science and Technology, Research Foundation Flanders, Sophia Foundation, Stichting Agis Zorginnovatie, Erasmus Trustfonds, and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Nutrição Parenteral , Suspensão de Tratamento , Estatura , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cefalometria , Criança , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inteligência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 64(7): 489-496, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown how the novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the current acute respiratory illness COVID-19 pandemic that has infected millions of people, affects people with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). The aim of this study is to describe how individuals with IDD have been affected in the first 100 days of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Shortly after the first COVID-19 case was reported in the USA, our organisation, which provides continuous support for over 11 000 individuals with IDD, assembled an outbreak committee composed of senior leaders from across the health care organisation. The committee led the development and deployment of a comprehensive COVID-19 prevention and suppression strategy, utilising current evidence-based practice, while surveilling the global and local situation daily. We implemented enhanced infection control procedures across 2400 homes, which were communicated to our employees using multi-faceted channels including an electronic resource library, mobile and web applications, paper postings in locations, live webinars and direct mail. Using custom-built software applications enabling us to track patient, client and employee cases and exposures, we leveraged current public health recommendations to identify cases and to suppress transmission, which included the use of personal protective equipment. A COVID-19 case was defined as a positive nucleic acid test for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. RESULTS: In the 100-day period between 20 January 2020 and 30 April 2020, we provided continuous support for 11 540 individuals with IDD. Sixty-four per cent of the individuals were in residential, community settings, and 36% were in intermediate care facilities. The average age of the cohort was 46 ± 12 years, and 60% were male. One hundred twenty-two individuals with IDD were placed in quarantine for exhibiting symptoms and signs of acute infection such as fever or cough. Sixty-six individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and their average age was 50. The positive individuals were located in 30 different homes (1.3% of total) across 14 states. Fifteen homes have had single cases, and 15 have had more than one case. Fifteen COVID-19-positive individuals were hospitalised. As of 30 April, seven of the individuals hospitalised have been discharged back to home and are recovering. Five remain hospitalised, with three improving and two remaining in intensive care and on mechanical ventilation. There have been three deaths. We found that among COVID-19-positive individuals with IDD, a higher number of chronic medical conditions and male sex were characteristics associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 100 days of the COVID-19 outbreak in the USA, we observed that people with IDD living in congregate care settings can benefit from a coordinated approach to infection control, case identification and cohorting, as evidenced by the low relative case rate reported. Male individuals with higher numbers of chronic medical conditions were more likely to be hospitalised, while most younger, less chronically ill individuals recovered spontaneously at home.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Instituições Residenciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Can J Psychiatry ; 65(10): 695-700, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents major challenges to places of detention, including secure forensic hospitals. International guidance presents a range of approaches to assist in decreasing the risk of COVID-19 outbreaks as well as responses to manage outbreaks of infection should they occur. METHODS: We conducted a literature search on pandemic or outbreak management in forensic mental health settings, including gray literature sources, from 2000 to April 2020. We describe the evolution of a COVID-19 outbreak in our own facility, and the design, and staffing of a forensic isolation unit. RESULTS: We found a range of useful guidance but no published experience of implementing these approaches. We experienced outbreaks of COVID-19 on two secure forensic units with 13 patients and 10 staff becoming positive. One patient died. The outbreaks lasted for 41 days on each unit from declaration to resolution. We describe the approaches taken to reduction of infection risk, social distancing and changes to the care delivery model. CONCLUSIONS: Forensic secure settings present major challenges as some proposals for pandemic management such as decarceration or early release are not possible, and facilities may present challenges to achieve sustained social distancing. Assertive testing, cohorting, and isolation units are appropriate responses to these challenges.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Psiquiatria Legal , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233949, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition leads to impaired psychosocial and cognitive development. This study explored the developmental status of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and correlated it with various risk factors for SAM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We recruited 100 children with SAM and no other associated significant health issues during the recovery phase of treatment using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III prior to discharge from the nutritional rehabilitation unit in R D Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, Central India. We also assessed composite developmental scores, developmental age equivalents, and average differences in developmental age. Risk factors for developmental delay were identified in children with complicated SAM. The results revealed that 75%, 75%, and 63% of children with SAM exhibited delay in motor (mean score: 78.22), language (mean score: 83.97), and cognitive (mean score: 78.06) domains, respectively. A total of 63% children exhibited delay by an average of 4-7 months in the total developmental age. The proportion of children with delay in motor, language, and cognitive domains was determined. An increased risk of global developmental delay was observedin children with a low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 18.06, 95%CI: 2.08-156.56; P = 0.009), having working mothers (aOR: 17.54, 95%CI: 3.02-102.59; P = 0.001), weight-for-age less than three standard deviations (aOR: 6.09, 95%CI: 1.08-34.10; P = 0.04), and presence of severe anemia (aOR: 16.34, 95%CI: 2.94-90.73; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that children with SAM exhibit developmental delay across all domains. Identifying multiple modifiable risk factors for developmental delay in children with SAM will be helpful in devising early interventional strategies in low-middle income countries; however, the exact timing of such interventions should be investigated.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Idioma , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/reabilitação
15.
Pediatrics ; 145(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471843

RESUMO

Down syndrome disintegrative disorder (DSDD), a developmental regression in children with Down syndrome (DS), is a clinical entity that is characterized by a loss of previously acquired adaptive, cognitive, and social functioning in persons with DS usually in adolescence to early adulthood. Initially reported in 1946 as "catatonic psychosis," there has been an increasing interest among the DS community, primary care, and subspecialty providers in this clinical area over the past decade. This condition has a subacute onset and can include symptoms of mood lability, decreased participation in activities of daily living, new-onset insomnia, social withdrawal, autistic-like regression, mutism, and catatonia. The acute phase is followed by a chronic phase in which baseline functioning may not return. No strict criteria or definitive testing is currently available to diagnose DSDD, although a comprehensive psychosocial and medical evaluation is warranted for individuals presenting with such symptoms. The etiology of DSDD is unknown, but in several hypotheses for regression in this population, psychological stress, primary psychiatric disease, and autoimmunity are proposed as potential causes of DSDD. Both psychiatric therapy and immunotherapies have been described as DSDD treatments, with both revealing potential benefit in limited cohorts. In this article, we review the current data regarding clinical phenotypes, differential diagnosis, neurodiagnostic workup, and potential therapeutic options for this unique, most disturbing, and infrequently reported disorder.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Catatonia/diagnóstico , Catatonia/epidemiologia , Catatonia/psicologia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231937, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352985

RESUMO

We examined reading, spelling, and mathematical skills in an unselected group of 129 Italian fifth graders by testing various cognitive predictors for each behaviour. As dependent variables, we measured performance in behaviours with a clear functional value in everyday life, such as reading a text, spelling under dictation and doing mental and written computations. As predictors, we selected cognitive dimensions having an explicit relation with the target behaviour (called proximal predictors), and prepared various tests in order to select which task had the best predictive power on each behaviour. The aim was to develop a model of proximal predictors of reading (speed and accuracy), spelling (accuracy) and maths (speed and accuracy) characterized by efficacy also in comparison to the prediction based on general cognitive factors (i.e., short-term memory, phonemic verbal fluency, visual perceptual speed, and non-verbal intelligence) and parsimony, pinpointing the role of both common and unique predictors as envisaged in the general perspective of co-morbidity. With one exception (reading accuracy), the proximal predictors models (based on communality analyses) explained a sizeable amount of variance, ranging from 27.5% in the case of calculation (accuracy) to 48.7% of reading (fluency). Models based on general cognitive factors also accounted for some variance (ranging from 6.5% in the case of spelling to 19.5% in the case of reading fluency) but this was appreciably less than that explained by models based on the hypothesized proximal predictors. In general, results confirmed the efficacy of proximal models in predicting reading, spelling and maths although they offered only limited support for common predictors across different learning skills; namely, performance in the Orthographic Decision test entered as a predictor of both reading and spelling indicating that a single orthographic lexicon may account for performance in reading and spelling. Possible lines of research to expand on this approach are illustrated.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Matemática , Leitura , Redação , Criança , Cognição , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e204096, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369180

RESUMO

Importance: Although birth defects in children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) are expected to result in significant intellectual disabilities, the extent of delay and profiles of development have yet to be fully described. Objectives: To describe the neurodevelopmental profiles of children with CZS and to test whether prenatal and postpartum characteristics were associated with the severity of developmental delays. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a case series of the trajectories of developmental, behavioral, and medical needs of 121 young children with CZS who were assessed at a specialized rehabilitation center in Recife, Brazil, beginning in January 2018 as part of 5-year longitudinal study. Children were included if they had serologic confirmation of Zika virus and met clinical criteria accompanied by parental report of suspected exposure to Zika virus during pregnancy. Exposures: Prenatal Zika virus exposure. Main Outcomes and Measures: The Brazilian version of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, was administered by trained assessors as part of an initial comprehensive assessment battery. Caregiver interviews and medical record reviews were conducted to gather basic demographic information and medical comorbidities. Linear regression was used to identify potential factors for development. Results: The sample included 121 young children (mean [SD] age, 31.2 [1.9] months; 61 [50.4%] girls). At age approximately 2.5 years, nearly all children in this sample demonstrated profound developmental delays across all domains of functioning, with a mean (SD) developmental age equivalent to approximately 2 to 4 months (eg, cognitive domain, 2.24 [3.09] months; fine motor subscale, 2.15 [2.93] months; expressive language subscale, 2.30 [2.52] months). A relative strength was found in receptive language, with scores on this scale significantly higher than most other domains (eg, cognition: t = 3.73; P < .001; fine motor: t = 6.99; P < .001). Head circumference at birth was the single strongest factor associated with outcomes across all developmental domains (eg, cognitive: ß = 1.41; SE, 0.67; P = .04; fine motor: ß = 1.36; SE, 0.49; P = .007). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study provide important information regarding the severity of disability that these children and their families will experience. The findings also establish an initial point from which to monitor developmental trajectories, medical comorbidities (eg, seizures), effectiveness of interventions, and cumulative consequences on families.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e204070, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374395

RESUMO

Importance: Cyclohexanone is an industrial solvent used as a coupling agent in medical plastics. Perioperative exposure to cyclohexanone could play a role in lower scores on measures of neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal cardiac operations. Objective: To examine the presence and association of serum cyclohexanone level with neonatal cardiac operations and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This ad hoc secondary analysis used data from the Corticosteroid Therapy in Neonates Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass randomized clinical trial. The cohort included neonates younger than 31 days and with at least 37 weeks postgestational age at surgical treatment who were enrolled at a single center between June 1, 2012, and October 31, 2016, and who had completed a neurodevelopmental assessment at age 12 months. Data were analyzed from July 8 to August 20, 2019. Exposures: Serum cyclohexanone and its metabolites were measured preoperatively (prior to skin incision), postoperatively (immediately after the surgical procedure was completed), and 12 hours postoperatively. Cyclohexanone and the molar sum of its metabolites were examined at each point and as a geometric mean of all 3 points. Main Outcomes and Measures: Neurodevelopment was assessed at age 12 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, assessing cognitive, language, and motor function composite scores standardized to a population mean (SD) of 100 (15). Linear regression models were used to determine covariate-adjusted differences in 12-month cognitive, language, and motor composite scores per interquartile range increase in cyclohexanone level or summed metabolite molar concentrations. Results: Among 85 included neonates, mean (SD) age at surgical treatment was 9.7 (5.3) days, 49 (58%) were boys, and 54 (64%) underwent corrective repair. Mean (SD) Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III composite scores were 108.2 (12.2) for cognitive function, 104.7 (11.0) for language function, and 94.7 (15.7) for motor function. Median (interquartile range) cyclohexanone levels increased approximately 3-fold from immediately prior to surgical treatment to immediately after surgical treatment (572 [389-974] vs 1744 [1469-2291] µg/L; P = .001). In adjusted analyses, higher geometric mean cyclohexanone levels were associated with significantly lower composite scores for cognitive (-4.23; 95% CI, -7.39 to -1.06; P = .01) and language (-3.65; 95% CI, -6.41 to -0.88; P = .01) function. The difference in composite scores for motor function among infants with higher geometric mean cyclohexanone levels was not statistically significant(-3.93, 95% CI: -8.19 to 0.33, P = .07). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial suggest that infants who underwent neonatal cardiac surgical treatment with cardiopulmonary bypass had substantial cyclohexanone levels, which were associated with adverse neurodevelopmental function at age 12 months. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01579513.


Assuntos
Cicloexanonas/efeitos adversos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Cicloexanonas/sangue , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
19.
Intellect Dev Disabil ; 58(2): 126-138, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240049

RESUMO

Understanding the pregnancy experiences of racial and ethnic minority women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is critical to ensuring that policies can effectively support these women. This research analyzed data from the 1998-2013 Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal (PELL) data system to examine the racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes and labor and delivery charges of U.S. women with IDD. There was significant preterm birth disparity among non-Hispanic Black women with IDD compared to their non-Hispanic White peers. There were also significant racial and ethnic differences in associated labor and delivery-related charges. Further research, examining potential mechanisms behind the observed racial and ethnic differences in labor and delivery-related charges in Massachusetts' women with IDD is needed.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/economia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/economia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores Raciais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 955-963, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228785

RESUMO

Following the large outbreak of Zika virus in the Western Hemisphere, many infants have been born with congenital Zika virus infection. It is important to describe the functional outcomes seen with congenital infections to allow for their recognition and appropriate interventions. We evaluated 120 children conceived during the 2015-2016 Zika virus outbreak in Paraíba, Brazil, who were approximately 24 months old, to assess functional outcomes. All children met either anthropometric criteria or laboratory criteria suggestive of possible congenital Zika virus infection. We collected results of previous medical evaluations, interviewed parents, and performed physical examinations and functional assessments, for example, the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). We compared patterns of neurologic outcomes and developmental delay at age 24 months by whether children met anthropometric or laboratory criteria, or both. Among children meeting both criteria, 60% (26/43) were multiply affected (had severe motor impairment, severe developmental delay, and suboptimal HINE scores), compared with 5% (3/57) meeting only laboratory criteria and none (0/20) meeting only anthropometric criteria. Of the remaining 91 children, 49% (45) had developmental delay, with more severe delay seen in children meeting both criteria. Although children meeting physical and laboratory criteria for potential congenital Zika virus infection were more severely affected, we did identify several children with notable adverse neurologic outcomes and developmental delay with no physical findings but potential laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection. Given this, all children who were potentially exposed in utero to Zika virus should be monitored in early childhood for deficits to allow for early intervention.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Audição , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/etiologia , Microcefalia/virologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Visão Ocular , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
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