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1.
J Intellect Disabil Res ; 65(1): 1-10, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities (IDD) to lose their daily routines and social support, and as a result, many adults with IDD are increasingly reliant on their family caregivers. Siblings often play a crucial support role for their brothers and sisters with IDD. As such, this study aimed to describe the experiences of adult siblings of people with IDD during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The Sibling Collaborative worked with researchers to codesign an online survey, completed by 91 people, exploring sibling supports and concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey also aimed to identify helpful resources for siblings during this time. RESULTS: The results showed that the majority of siblings are supporting their brother or sister with IDD during the COVID-19 pandemic and are concerned about the health and well-being of their brother/sister. The most common concern related to disruption of their brother's or sister's routine and activities. Although responses of older and younger siblings did not differ from each other, siblings whose brother or sister with IDD lived with family had some unique concerns relative to those whose siblings no longer lived with family. Siblings described how their own self-care and relationships with others, as well as support for their brother/sister, were particularly helpful during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Siblings are providing key support to their brother or sister with IDD during the COVID-19 pandemic, and they too must be supported. Siblings should be included in efforts to disseminate resources targeting people with IDD and their feedback and input must be obtained. It is also important to include sibling mental wellness as caregiver supports are created and implemented. More research is needed to further understand how to support sibling caregivers.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Cuidadores/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Relações entre Irmãos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Irmãos , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Intellect Dev Disabil ; 58(5): 355-360, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032314

RESUMO

The COVID-19 epidemic caused disruption and dislocation in the lives of people with disabilities, their families, and providers. What we have learned during this period regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the service system for people with disabilities should provide a roadmap for building a more robust and agile system going forward. Based on a canvas of leaders in our field, I propose a way of outlining a reimagined system.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
4.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 271-282, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192064

RESUMO

Un número considerable de estudiantes presenta dificultades de aprendizaje y bajo rendimiento académico, sin embargo su evaluación no siempre deriva en un diagnóstico concreto. Son categorizados como inmaduros, pero no se determinan ni la naturaleza ni las características de sus dificultades. El objetivo fue identificar los dominios evolutivos afectados en niños con retraso del desarrollo (RD) y valorar el concepto de dificultades neuroevolutivas como constructo comprensivo de las dificultades generalizadas de aprendizaje. Para ello, se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases electrónicas Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet y CSIC y, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión, se seleccionaron 18 artículos. Los resultados confirman que RD se utiliza como etiqueta diagnóstica para caracterizar a niños con retrasos significativos en uno o varios ámbitos del desarrollo, pero no existe una definición de consenso ni criterios específicos para su diagnóstico, y solo sería de aplicación a niños de corta edad. Los dominios afectados coinciden con funciones neuroevolutivas y, en su etiología, destacan factores de riesgo biológico y ambiental. Se constata la persistencia en la niñez de las dificultades neuroevolutivas y su asociación con las dificultades generalizas en el aprendizaje de años escolares, apuntando a las primeras como constructo explicativo de las segundas


A considerable number of students have learning difficulties and low academic performance, yet their evaluation does not always lead to a concrete diagnosis. They are categorized as immature, but neither the nature nor the characteristics of their difficulties are determined. The aim of this study was to identify the developmental domains which are affected in children with developmental delay (DD) in order to assess the concept of neurodevelopmental difficulties as a comprehensive category and profile of generalized learning difficulties. To this end, a systematic review was carried out on the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet and CSIC and, after applying the inclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected. The results confirm that DD is used as a diagnostic label to characterize children with significant delays in one or more developmental domains, but there is no definition of consensus nor specific criteria for its diagnosis, and it would only be applicable to young children. The affected domains coincide with neurodevelopmental functions, and biological and environmental risk factors stand out in their aetiology. Neurodevelopmental difficulties would encompass a wide spectrum of deficits with different levels of severity that, on interacting with each other, give rise to a variety of profiles


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(9): 699-708, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827491

RESUMO

Sexual and reproductive health is an important aspect of human development, but discussions with adolescents and young adults on this topic are often challenging for health-care providers. As a result, many adolescents and young adults do not receive appropriate, comprehensive sexual education, despite recognition from WHO and the UN that access to this education is a human right. Adolescents and young adults with mild to moderate intellectual or developmental disability, or both, are just as likely to be sexually active as are their peers without disability; however, these individuals are less likely to receive comprehensive sexual education. To ensure adequate comprehensive sexual education for adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities, sexual health educators should facilitate conversations about sexual and reproductive health that are non-judgmental and sexually inclusive. Such initiatives should use an educational framework grounded in universal design for learning, including use of multiple media types with clear, concise language and images.


Assuntos
Educação Sexual/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(17-18): 3373-3381, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498120

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To report the views and experiences of fathers following their child's diagnosis of an intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in understanding the experiences of fathers of children with IDD given the transformation of the structural change of fathers' roles within the family and wider society. DESIGN: A qualitative design was used to elicit the view and experiences of fathers. METHODS: A total of ten Irish fathers participated in face-to-face interviews. The data were thematically analysed. The COREQ guidelines for reporting qualitative studies were used in the development of this paper. RESULTS: The key themes that emerged were (a) the confirmation of the child's diagnosis (b) the impact of the diagnosis and (c) father's motivation to participate in disability research. CONCLUSIONS: This study informs and develops a further understanding of the international evidence base of fathers receiving a confirmation of a child's diagnosis of an intellectual and developmental disability, the impact of the diagnosis on fathers and their motivation to share their stories to add to the disability research. Health and social care practitioners have important contributions to make in meeting the needs of fathers. There are specific areas to consider in terms of practice, education and research that require further attention and development to ensure fathers' distinct needs regarding their child's diagnosis of IDD are known and responded to effectively. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study highlights that when the child's disability is confirmed, fathers experience a diverse range of mixed emotions. Health and social care practitioners including nurses need to be aware of the impact of the diagnosis upon fathers. There is scope to develop the knowledge, skills and confidence of health and social care practitioners regarding the experiences of fathers and how they can further support fathers and their families during the critical time of a disability disclosure.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
9.
Pediatrics ; 145(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471843

RESUMO

Down syndrome disintegrative disorder (DSDD), a developmental regression in children with Down syndrome (DS), is a clinical entity that is characterized by a loss of previously acquired adaptive, cognitive, and social functioning in persons with DS usually in adolescence to early adulthood. Initially reported in 1946 as "catatonic psychosis," there has been an increasing interest among the DS community, primary care, and subspecialty providers in this clinical area over the past decade. This condition has a subacute onset and can include symptoms of mood lability, decreased participation in activities of daily living, new-onset insomnia, social withdrawal, autistic-like regression, mutism, and catatonia. The acute phase is followed by a chronic phase in which baseline functioning may not return. No strict criteria or definitive testing is currently available to diagnose DSDD, although a comprehensive psychosocial and medical evaluation is warranted for individuals presenting with such symptoms. The etiology of DSDD is unknown, but in several hypotheses for regression in this population, psychological stress, primary psychiatric disease, and autoimmunity are proposed as potential causes of DSDD. Both psychiatric therapy and immunotherapies have been described as DSDD treatments, with both revealing potential benefit in limited cohorts. In this article, we review the current data regarding clinical phenotypes, differential diagnosis, neurodiagnostic workup, and potential therapeutic options for this unique, most disturbing, and infrequently reported disorder.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Catatonia/diagnóstico , Catatonia/epidemiologia , Catatonia/psicologia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
10.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 499-511, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443989

RESUMO

This article summarizes the literature on prevalence and establishment of severe problem behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, empirical support for applied behavior analysis, and evidence-based behavioral assessment and treatment procedures. Early intervention and prevention approaches and the role of the pediatrician with regard to surveillance, early intervention, and coordination of care are discussed.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327449

RESUMO

As the technical ability for genetic diagnosis continues to improve, an increasing number of diagnoses are made in infancy or as early as the neonatal period. Many of these diagnoses are known to be associated with developmental delay and intellectual disability, features that would not be clinically detectable at the time of diagnosis. Others may be associated with cognitive impairment, but the incidence and severity are yet to be fully described. These neonates and infants with genetic diagnoses therefore represent an emerging group of patients who are at high risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. Although there are well-established developmental supports for high-risk infants, particularly preterm infants, after discharge from the NICU, programs specifically for infants with genetic diagnoses are rare. And although previous research has demonstrated the positive effect of early developmental interventions on outcomes among preterm infants, the impact of such supports for infants with genetic disorders who may be born term, remains to be understood. We therefore review the literature regarding existing developmental assessment and intervention approaches for children with genetic disorders, evaluating these in the context of current developmental supports postdischarge for preterm infants. Further research into the role of developmental support programs for early assessment and intervention in high-risk neonates diagnosed with rare genetic disorders is needed.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/psicologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/psicologia , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia
12.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312907

RESUMO

The demand for transplantable solid organs far exceeds the supply of deceased donor organs. Patient selection criteria are determined by individual transplant programs; given the scarcity of solid organs for transplant, allocation to those most likely to benefit takes into consideration both medical and psychosocial factors. Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities have historically been excluded as potential recipients of organ transplants. When a transplant is likely to provide significant health benefits, denying a transplant to otherwise eligible children with disabilities may constitute illegal and unjustified discrimination. Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities should not be excluded from the potential pool of recipients and should be referred for evaluation as recipients of solid organ transplants.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/cirurgia , Deficiência Intelectual/cirurgia , Transplante de Órgãos/ética , Transplantados , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Transplante de Órgãos/psicologia , Transplantados/psicologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187183

RESUMO

Participation, defined as 'involvement in life situations' according to the World Health Organisation, is a well-recognized concept and critical indicator of quality of life. In addition it has become an important outcome measure in child rehabilitation. However, little is known about the level of participation of young children with Developmental Disabilities. The aim of this study was to capture their subjective experiences of participation. An adapted informed consent based on a comic strip was used to get the children's assent. A Photo Elicitation study was used, in which photographs were taken by the children when they were involved in meaningful activities. The photographs were then used to facilitate communication with the children and to initiate in depth-interviews. Forty-seven interviews with 16 children between five and nine years were conducted based on their photographs. This method generated rich data, confirming that young children with Developmental Disabilities were able to inform us accurately on their experiences of participation. Data was analysed by means of an inductive thematic analysis. Results showed that children perceived their participation as satisfying when they can play, learn and join in family gatherings resulting in feelings of inclusion, recognition and belonging. When there are-on occasions-moments that their participation was obstructed, the children used two strategies to resolve it. Or they walked away from it and choose not to participate, or when autonomously motivated for the activity, they relied primarily on their context (i.e. mothers) as enabling their participation. Related to the data, children discussed themes related to their person, activities, connections and mediators between those themes. These themes fit well within earlier and current research on the subject of participation.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Participação Social/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Pais , Fotografação/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies provide important data to inform policy and service planning for vulnerable children in society. The aim of this study was to characterise social and educational circumstances and self-concept among a nationally representative sample of 13 year olds with developmental disabilities in Ireland. METHODS: A cross-sectional, secondary analysis of data collected from the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the reported prevalence of disabilities as reported by parents. Differences across the groups (those with and without disabilities) were analysed in relation to gender, socio-economic and school factors. Special education support received in school was described. The association between low self-concept scores (as measured by the Piers Harris Self-Concept Scales 2) and disability type was examined by use of multi-level logistic regression. RESULTS: Seventeen percent (17.36%) of the sample was reported to have a diagnosis of one or more developmental disabilities. Those with a disability were more likely to live in poorer households, have poorer health status, to experience more episodes of bullying at school, and to have more negative views of school (p<0.05) than their typically-developing peers. Forty nine percent of children with developmental disabilities were not receiving support in school as reported by parents. Discrepancies in the nature of support received were identified across disability types. Adjusting for individual and school level factors, a disability diagnosis was associated with increased odds of low self-concept scores on three of five self-concept domains. Further associations were identified which differed across disability type. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that 13 year olds with a disability in Ireland have complex social and educational needs. Findings also suggest significant levels of unmet educational need across this age group. Apparent inequities in access to support in school require further investigation. Reliable measures to provide robust prevalence figures about childhood disabilities in Ireland are needed.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Bullying , Estudos Transversais , Educação Especial , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pais , Pobreza , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social
15.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(4): 1172-1181, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970598

RESUMO

The present longitudinal study examined the utility of the screening tool for autism in 2-year-olds (STAT) in detecting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers who are less than 24 months of age. The study sample, which consisted of 119 toddlers with developmental problems, were assessed when they were between 16 and 24 months of age (Time 1) and after a period of 18 months to finalize the diagnosis (Time 2); 57 children had ASD and 62 children had developmental delays. A cutoff score of 2.5 on the STAT yielded an optimal combination of high sensitivity and specificity. The STAT demonstrated adequate predictive validity in detecting ASD in Taiwanese toddlers who are less than 24 months of age.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/normas , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 39, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cytokine imbalances may be at the root of deficits that occur in numerous neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Notably, while clinical studies have demonstrated maternal cytokine imbalances with alcohol consumption during pregnancy-and data from animal models have identified immune disturbances in alcohol-exposed offspring-to date, immune alterations in alcohol-exposed children have not been explored. Thus, here we hypothesized that perturbations in the immune environment as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure will program the developing immune system, and result in immune dysfunction into childhood. Due to the important role of cytokines in brain development/function, we further hypothesized that child immune profiles might be associated with their neurodevelopmental status. METHODS: As part of a longitudinal study in Ukraine, children of mothers reporting low/no alcohol consumption or moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy were enrolled in the study and received neurodevelopmental assessments. Group stratification was based on maternal alcohol consumption and child neurodevelopmental status resulting in the following groups: A/TD, alcohol-consuming mother, typically developing child; A/ND, alcohol-consuming mother, neurodevelopmental delay in the child; C/TD, control mother (low/no alcohol consumption), typically development child; and C/ND, control mother, neurodevelopmental delay in the child. Forty cytokines/chemokines were measured in plasma and data were analyzed using regression and constrained principle component analysis. RESULTS: Analyses revealed differential cytokine network activity associated with both prenatal alcohol exposure and neurodevelopmental status. Specifically, alcohol-exposed children showed activation of a cytokine network including eotaxin-3, eotaxin, and bFGF, irrespective of neurodevelopmental status. However, another cytokine network was differentially activated based on neurodevelopmental outcome: A/TD showed activation of MIP-1ß, MDC, and MCP-4, and inhibition of CRP and PlGF, with opposing pattern of activation/inhibition detected in the A/ND group. By contrast, in the absence of alcohol-exposure, activation of a network including IL-2, TNF-ß, IL-10, and IL-15 was associated with neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this comprehensive assessment of immune markers allowed for the identification of unique immune milieus that are associated with alcohol exposure as well as both alcohol-related and alcohol-independent neurodevelopmental delay. These findings are a critical step towards establishing unique immune biomarkers for alcohol-related and alcohol-independent neurodevelopmental delay.


Assuntos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/imunologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/sangue , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Ucrânia
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(4): 1221-1237, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907730

RESUMO

Challenging behavior is a significant barrier in accessing the general education curriculum for students with developmental disabilities. This necessitates the identification of evidence-based practices for addressing challenging behavior in inclusive settings. The purpose of our meta-analysis is to (a) quantify the magnitude of effect of interventions targeting the reduction of challenging behavior in students with developmental disabilities in inclusive educational settings and (b) determine if participant and intervention characteristics moderate intervention effects. A systematic search of academic databases was conducted to identify studies, which were evaluated for methodological rigor and analyzed for effects using Tau-U. Results indicate a strong overall effect of .94 (95% CI [.87, 1]) and moderating variables associated with behavior topography, interventionist, and intervention components were identified.


Assuntos
Currículo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/educação , Inclusão Escolar/métodos , Criança , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Humanos , Comportamento Problema
18.
J Adolesc ; 79: 39-48, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) are at high risk for sexual exploitation, yet there is a paucity of research on their romantic relationships. The objectives of this study were to examine the romantic understanding and experiences of youth with IDD. METHODS: Thirty-one adolescents (16-19 years; 21 males and 10 females) with IDD (12 participants with additional diagnosis of ASD) were recruited from a community health clinic. Individual interviews and questionnaires assessed cross-sectionally these youths': (1) romantic conceptualizations; (2) romantic awareness (knowledge of: romantic relationships, sexual behaviours, initiating relationships); (3) involvement; (4) social competence; and (5) expectations for autonomy. Parent perspectives on these topics were also captured through questionnaires. RESULTS: While 85% reported an immediate desire for a romantic relationship, only 35% were currently in a relationship. Qualitative findings indicated that 14% of youth were unable to differentiate between a romantic relationship and a friendship. Among those who could make this distinction, romantic relationships were conceptualized as serious, commitment for life, and primarily for companionship. Adolescents with ASD, compared to those without ASD, showed weaker social competence and lower romantic awareness. Parents were adolescents' primary source of information about relationships. Finally, parents and adolescents differed in their perception of the age at which they were ready to date. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our understanding of the romantic experiences of youth with IDD. Prevention efforts focused on education may be important to help ensure these youth develop safe and healthy relationships.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 23(5): 294-301, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451015

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: Residential Immersive life skills (RILS) programs are unique programs for youth with disabilities. These programs enable youth to develop adaptive behaviors required to navigate adulthood. This study explored the emergence of emotional literacy development for youth who attended RILS programs. METHODS: This study draws on twenty-five qualitative interviews that were conducted with nine youth who attended RILS programs. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis, aligned to a phenomenological approach. RESULTS: The themes reflecting emotional literacy development in youth were: (1) Enhanced intrapersonal development; (2) Shifts in emotional regulation and emotional responses; (3) Realized potential and self-actualization. CONCLUSIONS: The opportunities and experiences offered in the RILS programs have the potential to facilitate emotional literacy development in youth with disabilities. The findings contribute towards the research evidence on the importance of emotional literacy development in young people with disabilities and the development and mobilization of evidence-based life skills programs.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/reabilitação , Crianças com Deficiência , Emoções , Adolescente , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoeficácia , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(1): 63-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522309

RESUMO

To live independently, it is critical that students with disabilities maintain the basic mathematical skills they have acquired so they may apply these skills in daily life. To support maintenance of mathematical skills among students with developmental disabilities, the researchers used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effectiveness of the VRA instructional sequence with fading support in teaching subtraction with regrouping to four students with developmental disabilities. A functional relation was found between the VRA instructional sequence with fading support and students' accuracy in solving the problems. Students also maintained the skill up to 6 weeks after the intervention.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Matemática/educação , Ensino , Criança , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
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