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1.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1771-1782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695347

RESUMO

Introduction: Post-stroke delirium is a common clinical problem, occurring in 10% to 48% of patients. It has been associated with longer hospitalization times, increased mortality and worse functional outcome. In early phase of stroke, it may be regarded as particularly difficult to differentiate from other neurological symptoms. For practical purposes, there is a need to identify simple pre-operative laboratory parameters that may aid delirium diagnosis early after stroke. Our aim was to identify the incidence of early-onset (first 24 hrs) post-stroke delirium, its risk factors and outcomes (complications and mortality) in patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study (NCT03944694) was performed. Patients were screened for delirium using CAM-ICU method. Clinical and laboratory data were collected, including baseline inflammatory parameters. Results: Final analysis included 760 patients, 121 (15.9%) developed delirium. Patients with delirium were older (75.9±13.5 years, p<0.001). Most common complications in the delirium group were pulmonary (57.8% vs 21.4%, p<0.001), cardiac (38.8% vs 13.6%, p<0.001) and renal (13.2% vs 7.5%, p=0.038). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (6.71±9.65 vs 4.55±5.51, p<0.001), C-reactive protein level (32.59±65.94 vs 15.70±38.56, p<0.001) and troponin T level (72.59±180.15 vs 26.85±77.62, p<0.001) were higher in delirious patients and platelet-to white blood cell count ratio (PWR) (23.42±9.51 vs 27.13±10.58, p<0.001) was lower. Multivariable logistic regression showed that atrial fibrillation (OR 1.651, p=0.049), higher Rankin score on admission (OR 1.689, p<0.001), hemianopia (OR 2.422, p=0.003) and PWR <20.22 (OR 2.197, p=0.002) were independently associated with delirium. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that mortality increased for patients with delirium at 3 months (p<0.001) and 1 year (p<0.001) after AIS. Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation, higher Rankin score, hemianopia and lower PWR were independently associated with early onset delirium in patients with first ever AIS. This confirms that deprivation of senses and early generalized inflammatory response are critical for delirium development.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Hemianopsia/epidemiologia , Neutrófilos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Delírio/sangue , Delírio/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
2.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1089-1093, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657300

RESUMO

Older adults undergoing nonelective surgery are at risk for geriatric events (GEs: delirium, dehydration, falls/fractures, failure to thrive, and pressure ulcers), but the impact of GEs on postoperative outcomes is unclear. Using the 2013 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample, we analyzed nonelective hospital admissions for five common operations (laparoscopic cholecystectomy, colectomy, soft tissue debridement, small bowel resection, and laparoscopic appendectomy) in older adults (aged ≥65 years) and a younger referent group (aged 55-64 years). Nationally weighted descriptive statistics were generated for GEs. Logistic regression controlling for patient, procedure, and hospital characteristics estimated the association of 1) age with GEs and 2) GEs with outcomes. Of 471,325 overall admissions, 64.7 per cent were aged ≥65 years. The rate of any GE in older adults was 26.9 per cent; GEs varied by age and procedure (P < 0.001). After adjustment, the probability of any GE increased with age category (P < 0.001); having any GE was associated with higher probability of all outcomes (P < 0.001): mortality (4.5% vs 0.8%), postoperative complications (61.7% vs 24.9%), prolonged length of stay (24.3% vs 7.9%), and skilled nursing facility discharge (46.6% vs 10.3%). In addition, there was a dose-response relationship between GEs and negative outcomes. GEs are prevalent in the nonelective surgery setting and associated with worse clinical outcomes. Quality improvement efforts should focus on addressing GEs.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Desbridamento/efeitos adversos , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desbridamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/etiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/etiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 229-242, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older people represent a risk group for acquiring or further development of delirium during hospitalization, therefore requiring suitable nonpharmacological delirium interventions. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review analyzed nonpharmacological intervention programs for older inpatients with or without cognitive decline on regular or acute geriatric wards to present the range of interventions. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using scientific databases. A total of 4652 records were screened by two independent reviewers, leaving 81 eligible articles for full-text screening and 25 studies were finally included. Inclusion criteria were older patients ≥65 years in regular or acute geriatric wards and nonpharmacological multicomponent interventions. RESULTS: More than a half of the included studies (14, 56%) recruited patients with pre-existing cognitive decline as part of the study population and 12% focused exclusively on patients with cognitive decline. On average 11 intervention components were integrated in the programs and two programs included full coverage of all 18 identified components. CONCLUSION: Only few programs were described for older inpatients and even fewer regarding pre-existing cognitive decline. The low numbers of interventions and data heterogeneity restricted the assessment of outcomes; however, delirium incidence, as reported by two thirds of the studies was reduced by nonpharmacological multicomponent interventions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 183-188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is paucity of information on delirium in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) particularly in the older persons (>60 years of age), leaving questions about the burden of the disease in an environment with lower health care standards. In this article, we set out to determine the frequency, precipitants and symptomatology of delirium in elderly patients admitted into medical wards in a teaching hospital in South-West Nigeria. METHODS: This was a descriptive study involving a pre-planned sample of one hundred and fifty patients aged 60 years and over, assessed for cognitive impairment and delirium using the previously validated IDEA cognitive screen, and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) respectively. Diagnosis of delirium was made using the CAM and DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: Delirium was diagnosed in 32 patients giving a frequency of 21.3% (95%CI: 14.7-30.0%). Patients with delirium were significantly older (p<0.05). A quarter of the patients had dementia. Hypertension was a notable co-morbid condition. All the patients had altered sleep wake cycle, inattention, disorientation, and altered consciousness. Neurological diseases were the most common precipitant. There was a good agreement between the DSM-IV and CAM diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Delirium is common in hospitalised elderly patients particularly those with neurological diseases. Co-morbidities like hypertension, dementia, and depression should be looked for in delirious elderly patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Confusão/diagnóstico , Delírio/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Confusão/psicologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16795, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most clinical guidelines recommend a restrictive red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusion threshold. However, indications for transfusion in patients with a hip fracture have not been definitively evaluated or remain controversial. We compared the pros and cons of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective cohort studies (RCSs) to investigate the effects of a restrictive strategy versus its liberal counterpart in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. The main clinical outcomes included delirium, mortality, infections, cardiogenic complications, thromboembolic events, cerebrovascular accidents, and length of hospital stay. The meta-analysis program of the Cochrane Collaboration (RevMan version 5.3.0) was used for data analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by both Cochran chi-squared test (Q test) and I test. Both Begg and Egger tests were used to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS: We identified 7 eligible RCTs and 2 eligible RCSs, involving 3,575 patients in total. In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, we found no differences in frequency of delirium, mortality, the incidence rates of all infections, pneumonia, wound infection, all cardiovascular events, congestive heart failure, thromboembolic events or length of hospital stay between restrictive and liberal thresholds for RBC transfusion (P >.05). However, we found that the use of restrictive transfusion thresholds is associated with higher rates of acute coronary syndrome (P <.05) while liberal transfusion thresholds increase the risk of cerebrovascular accidents (P <.05). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, clinicians should evaluate the patient's condition in detail and adopt different transfusion strategies according to the patient's specific situation rather than merely using a certain transfusion strategy.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
6.
Anesthesiology ; 131(3): 492-500, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is one of the most common complications in the elderly surgical population. However, its long-term outcomes remain largely to be determined. Therefore a prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between postoperative delirium and long-term decline in activities of daily living and postoperative mortality. The hypothesis in the present study was that postoperative delirium was associated with a greater decline in activities of daily living and higher mortality within 24 to 36 months after anesthesia and surgery. METHODS: The participants (at least 65 yr old) having the surgeries of (1) proximal femoral nail, (2) hip replacement, or (3) open reduction and internal fixation under general anesthesia were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method algorithm was administered to diagnose delirium before and on the first, second, and fourth days after the surgery. Activities of daily living were evaluated by using the Chinese version of the activities of daily living scale (range, 14 to 56 points), and preoperative cognitive function was assessed by using the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (range, 0 to 30 points). The follow-up assessments, including activities of daily living and mortality, were conducted between 24 and 36 months after anesthesia and surgery. RESULTS: Of 130 participants (80 ± 6 yr, 24% male), 34 (26%) developed postoperative delirium during the hospitalization. There were 32% of the participants who were lost to follow-up, resulting in 88 participants who were finally included in the data analysis. The participants with postoperative delirium had a greater decline in activities of daily living (16 ± 15 vs. 9 ± 15, P = 0.037) and higher 36-month mortality (8 of 28, 29% vs. 7 of 75, 9%; P = 0.009) as compared with the participants without postoperative delirium. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative delirium was associated with long-term detrimental outcomes, including greater decline in activities of daily living and a higher rate of postoperative mortality.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Anesthesiology ; 131(3): 477-491, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction share risk factors and may co-occur, but their relationship is not well established. The primary goals of this study were to describe the prevalence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction and to investigate its association with in-hospital delirium. The authors hypothesized that delirium would be a significant risk factor for postoperative cognitive dysfunction during follow-up. METHODS: This study used data from an observational study of cognitive outcomes after major noncardiac surgery, the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study. Postoperative delirium was evaluated each hospital day with confusion assessment method-based interviews supplemented by chart reviews. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was determined using methods adapted from the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction. Associations between delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction were examined at 1, 2, and 6 months. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-four of 560 participants (24%) developed delirium during hospitalization. Slightly fewer than half (47%, 256 of 548) met the International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction-defined threshold for postoperative cognitive dysfunction at 1 month, but this proportion decreased at 2 months (23%, 123 of 536) and 6 months (16%, 85 of 528). At each follow-up, the level of agreement between delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction was poor (kappa less than .08) and correlations were small (r less than .16). The relative risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction was significantly elevated for patients with a history of postoperative delirium at 1 month (relative risk = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07-1.67), but not 2 months (relative risk = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.72-1.64), or 6 months (relative risk = 1.21; 95% CI, 0.71-2.09). CONCLUSIONS: Delirium significantly increased the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the first postoperative month; this relationship did not hold in longer-term follow-up. At each evaluation, postoperative cognitive dysfunction was more common among patients without delirium. Postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction may be distinct manifestations of perioperative neurocognitive deficits.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 31(2): 164-170, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the satisfaction of patients admitted to the intensive care unit using a diary and analyze possible points for improving this instrument. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective study, conducted between March 2014 and July 2017, in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a district hospital. The diary was implemented in patients sedated for 3 or more days. Three months after discharge, their satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. A patient who agreed with the 5 statements assessing the diary's help in clarifying the intensive care unit stay, in filling memory gaps, in recovery, in reassurance, and in the recommendation of this intervention was defined as satisfied. RESULTS: A total of 110 patients were included, of whom 55 answered the questionnaire. Of these, 36 (65.5%) were classified as satisfied. Each item had a positive response in more than 74% of cases. A total of 60% of the participants suggested increasing the number of photographs. No significant differences were found in the subgroup analysis (age, sex, duration of sedation and ventilation, length of diary keeping, severity on admission, or delirium, depression, or anxiety in the intensive care unit). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients were satisfied with the diary but suggested an increase in the number of photographs.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3692-3699, 2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication in cardiac surgery among adult patients. This retrospective study was designed to identify the risk factors associated with POD of type A aortic dissection patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical data of 148 patients with type A aortic dissection in the Department of Critical Care Medicine was retrospectively analyzed. All these patients underwent Sun's procedure with anesthetic treatment. The confusion assessment method for intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) was adapted to evaluate the delirium status of these patients. They were divided into 2 groups: the delirium group and the control group. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed in succession to determine the independent risk factors for POD. RESULTS The average age of these patients was 54.41±11.676 years old. Among the 148 patients, POD was detected in 68 patients, with an incidence of 45.95%. According to univariate analysis, age, irritability, alcohol use, extracorporeal circulation duration (cardiopulmonary bypass, CPB time), antegrade selective cerebral perfusion (ASCP) time, lowest partial pressure of oxygen (lowest PO2), mechanical ventilation time, blood loss, low PO2 and oxygenation index, hemoglobin (Hb), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and dihydroxyphenylalanine (DEX) were associated with higher odds of POD among type A aortic dissection patients. According to further analysis of multivariate logistic regression, ASCP time and irritability were confirmed as the independent factors for POD of type A aortic dissection patients. CONCLUSIONS We determined 2 independent risk factors for POD: ASCP time and irritability. Identifying and adjusting these risk factors are very important in reducing the incidence of POD among type A aortic dissection patients.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Delírio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , China , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perfusão , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 107, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium occurs commonly in older adults and is associated with adverse outcomes. Multicentre clinical trials evaluating interventions to prevent delirium are needed. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is a validated instrument for delirium detection. We hypothesised it would be possible for a large feasibility study to train a large number of research assistants, with varying experience levels, to conduct CAM assessments reliably in multiple hospital sites. METHODS: A standardised training programme was followed, incorporating structured training at a central location and at study sites. CAM practice sessions on both delirious and non-delirious patients by research assistants were conducted and, thereafter, there was ongoing inter-rater reliability assessment on the CAM between research assistant pairs at study sites. The setting was eight acute care hospitals in England and Wales. Participants were research assistants working on a multicentre feasibility study of delirium prevention. The measurement used was the Confusion Assessment Method. RESULTS: Thirty-seven research assistants were trained in CAM assessment and 33 returned training logs. The logs showed there was 100% overall agreement between research assistant pairs on 295 CAM assessments, of which 263 (89.2%) were negative for delirium and 32 (10.8%) were positive. In the course of the feasibility study, research assistants successfully completed 5065 (89.7%) of the 5645 expected CAM assessments, with minimal missing data. CONCLUSION: Using the training methods described in this study, it is possible to achieve high quality delirium assessments for large numbers of patients with little missing data across geographically dispersed sites in multicentre studies. The standardisation of multisite delirium assessments is an important contribution to research methodology, and provides a much-needed advance for the field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCT ISRCTN01187372 . Registered 13 March 2014.


Assuntos
Confusão/diagnóstico , Confusão/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Confusão/epidemiologia , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , País de Gales/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998697

RESUMO

This study is to identify the risk factors for postoperative delirium (PODE) in patients undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) for the treatment of primary cranial nerve disorders. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 912 patients (354 men, 558 women) with primary cranial nerve disorders (trigeminal neuralgia, 602 patients; hemifacial spasm, 296 patients; glossopharyngeal neuralgia, 14 patients) who underwent MVD in the Neurosurgery Department of Lanzhou University Second Hospital between July 2007 and June 2018. Potential risk factors for PODE were identified using univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis.Of the 912 patients, 221 (24.2%) patients developed PODE. Patients with PODE were significantly older and significantly more likely to be male than patients without PODE. A history of hypertension, preoperative carbamazepine therapy, and postoperative sleep disturbance and tension pneumocephalus were independently associated with PODE. Variables such as body-mass index, smoking and drinking habits, cardiac disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, mean operative time, affected vessel, mean blood loss, postoperative intensive care unit stay, postoperative fever (>38°C), and routine laboratory results were not associated with PODE in our patients.PODE is a common complication after MVD, and is associated with multiple risk factors, including old age, male sex, hypertension, preoperative carbamazepine use, postoperative sleep disturbance, and tension pneumocephalus.


Assuntos
Delírio , Cirurgia de Descompressão Microvascular/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Delírio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Espasmo Hemifacial/fisiopatologia , Espasmo Hemifacial/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/fisiopatologia , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/cirurgia
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD009537, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common and distressing mental disorder. It is often caused by a combination of stressor events in susceptible people, particularly older people living with frailty and dementia. Adults living in institutional long-term care (LTC) are at particularly high risk of delirium. An episode of delirium increases risks of admission to hospital, development or worsening of dementia and death. Multicomponent interventions can reduce the incidence of delirium by a third in the hospital setting. However, it is currently unclear whether interventions to prevent delirium in LTC are effective. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing delirium in older people in institutional long-term care settings. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS (www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/alois), the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG) 's Specialised Register of dementia trials (dementia.cochrane.org/our-trials-register), to 27 February 2019. The search was sufficiently sensitive to identify all studies relating to delirium. We ran additional separate searches in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), major healthcare databases, trial registers and grey literature sources to ensure that the search was comprehensive. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-randomised controlled trials (cluster-RCTs) of single and multicomponent, non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions for preventing delirium in older people (aged 65 years and over) in permanent LTC residence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Primary outcomes were prevalence, incidence and severity of delirium; and mortality. Secondary outcomes included falls, hospital admissions and other adverse events; cognitive function; new diagnoses of dementia; activities of daily living; quality of life; and cost-related outcomes. We used risk ratios (RRs) as measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes, hazard ratios (HR) for time-to-event outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes. For each outcome, we assessed the overall certainty of the evidence using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included three trials with 3851 participants. All three were cluster-RCTs. Two of the trials were of complex, single-component, non-pharmacological interventions and one trial was a feasibility trial of a complex, multicomponent, non-pharmacological intervention. Risk of bias ratings were mixed across the three trials. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the interventions, we did not combine the results statistically, but produced a narrative summary.It was not possible to determine the effect of a hydration-based intervention on delirium incidence (RR 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 4.00; 1 study, 98 participants; very low-certainty evidence downgraded for risk of bias and very serious imprecision). This study did not assess delirium prevalence, severity or mortality.The introduction of a computerised system to identify medications that may contribute to delirium risk and trigger a medication review was probably associated with a reduction in delirium incidence (12-month HR 0.42, CI 0.34 to 0.51; 1 study, 7311 participant-months; moderate-certainty evidence downgraded for risk of bias) but probably had little or no effect on mortality (HR 0.88, CI 0.66 to 1.17; 1 study, 9412 participant-months; moderate-certainty evidence downgraded for imprecision), hospital admissions (HR 0.89, CI 0.72 to 1.10; 1 study, 7599 participant-months; moderate-certainty evidence downgraded for imprecision) or falls (HR 1.03, CI 0.92 to 1.15; 1 study, 2275 participant-months; low-certainty evidence downgraded for imprecision and risk of bias). Delirium prevalence and severity were not assessed.In the enhanced educational intervention study, aimed at changing practice to address key delirium risk factors, it was not possible to determine the effect of the intervention on delirium incidence (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.16 to 2.39; 1 study, 137 resident months; very low-certainty evidence downgraded for risk of bias and serious imprecision) or delirium prevalence (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.19; 1 study, 160 participants; very low-certainty evidence downgraded for risk of bias and serious imprecision). There was probably little or no effect on mortality (RR 0.82, CI 0.50 to 1.34; 1 study, 215 participants; moderate-certainty evidence downgraded for imprecision). The intervention was probably associated with a reduction in hospital admissions (RR 0.67, CI 0.57 to 0.79; 1 study, 494 participants; moderate-certainty evidence downgraded due to indirectness). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review identified limited evidence on interventions for preventing delirium in older people in LTC. A software-based intervention to identify medications that could contribute to delirium risk and trigger a pharmacist-led medication review, probably reduces incidence of delirium in older people in institutional LTC. This is based on one large RCT in the US and may not be practical in other countries or settings which do not have comparable information technology services available in care homes. In the educational intervention aimed at identifying risk factors for delirium and developing bespoke solutions within care homes, it was not possible to determine the effect of the intervention on delirium incidence, prevalence or mortality. This evidence is based on a small feasibility trial. Our review identified three ongoing trials of multicomponent delirium prevention interventions. We identified no trials of pharmacological agents. Future trials of multicomponent non-pharmacological delirium prevention interventions for older people in LTC are needed to help inform the provision of evidence-based care for this vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Assistência de Longa Duração , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Delírio/induzido quimicamente , Delírio/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Incidência , Institucionalização , Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 13: 1753466619840256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is the most serious pulmonary complication after lung resection. Although the beneficial effects of low-dose corticosteroids have been demonstrated in patients with postoperative ALI, there are limited data on optimal corticosteroid treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 58 patients who were diagnosed with ALI among 7593 patients who underwent lung cancer surgery between January 2009 and December 2016. RESULTS: Of the 58 patients, 42 (72%) received corticosteroid treatment within 72 h (early treatment group) and 16 (28%) received corticosteroid treatment more than 72 h after ALI occurred (late treatment group). The early treatment group demonstrated a higher response to corticosteroid treatment compared with the late treatment group (95% versus 69%, respectively, p = 0.014), had an improved lung injury score (86% versus 63%, p = 0.072), and were more likely to be successfully weaned from the ventilator within 7 days (57% versus 39%, p = 0.332). During corticosteroid treatment, the early treatment group had a lower rate of delirium (24% versus 63%, p = 0.012) compared with the late treatment group. No significant differences in length of stay (30 versus 37 days, p = 0.254) or in-hospital mortality (43% versus 38%, p = 0.773) were observed; however, the early treatment group tended to have a higher rate of successful weaning than the late treatment group ( p = 0.098, log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of corticosteroid treatment improved lung injury and promoted ventilator weaning in patients with ALI following lung resection for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Desmame do Respirador/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 43(3): 147-155, abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183109

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar las características clínicas, la prevalencia y los factores asociados al delirium en pacientes de entre 5 y 14 años de edad y en estado crítico. Diseño: Estudio observacional analítico transversal. El delirium se evalúo con el Pediatric-Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU) y la clasificación motora con la Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98. Ámbito: Unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Pacientes: Todos los que ingresaron durante un año fueron evaluados durante las primeras 24-72h o cuando fue posible si estaban en sedación profunda. Excluidos: pacientes en estupor o coma, con dificultad grave para la comunicación, en sedación profunda durante todo el ingreso y los que no contaban con consentimiento. Resultados: Veintinueve (18,6%) de los 156 pacientes evaluados tenían delirium y el 55,2% eran hipoactivos. Las alteraciones neurocognitivas evaluadas por el pCAM-ICU fueron similares en los 3 grupos motores. La discapacidad intelectual (OR=17,54; IC95%: 3,23-95,19), la ventilación mecánica (OR=18,80; IC95%: 4,29-82,28), el fallo hepático (OR=54,88; IC95%: 4,27-705,33), las enfermedades neurológicas (OR=4,41; IC95%: 1,23-15,83), el uso de anticolinérgicos (OR=3,23; IC95%: 1,02-10,26), diversos tipos de psicotrópicos (OR=4,88; IC95%: 1,42-16,73) y la taquicardia (OR=4,74; IC95%: 1,21-18,51) se asociaron al delirium según el análisis logístico. Conclusión: La frecuencia de delirium y del tipo hipoactivo es alta, por lo que es necesario evaluar rutinariamente los pacientes con instrumentos estandarizados. Todos los pacientes presentan alteración neurocognitiva importante. Varios factores relacionados con la fisiopatología del delirium se asocian al diagnóstico, algunos de los cuales son modificables mediante la racionalización de la atención médica


Objective: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, prevalence and factors associated with delirium in critical patients from 5 to 14 years of age. Design: An analytical, cross-sectional observational study was made. Delirium was assessed with the Pediatric-Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU) and motor classification was established with the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98. Setting: A pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Patients: All those admitted over a one-year period were assessed during the first 24-72h, or when possible in deeply sedated patients. Exclusion criteria: Patients in stupor or coma, with severe communication difficulty, subjected to deep sedation throughout admission, and those with denied consent. Results: Twenty-nine of the 156 assessed patients suffered delirium (18.6%) and 55.2% were hypoactive. The neurocognitive alterations evaluated by the pCAM-ICU were similar in the three motor groups. Intellectual disability (OR=17.54; 95%CI: 3.23-95.19), mechanical ventilation (OR=18.80; 95%CI: 4.29-82.28), liver failure (OR=54.88; 95%CI: 4.27-705.33), neurological disease (OR=4.41; 95%CI: 1.23-15.83), anticholinergic drug use (OR=3.23; 95%CI: 1.02-10.26), different psychotropic agents (OR=4.88; 95%CI: 1.42-16.73) and tachycardia (OR=4.74; 95%CI: 1.21-18.51) were associated to delirium according to the logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The frequency of delirium and hypoactivity was high. It is therefore necessary to routinely evaluate patients with standardized instruments. All patients presented with important neurocognitive alterations. Several factors related with the physiopathology of delirium were associated to the diagnosis; some of them are modifiable through the rationalization of medical care


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Delírio/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Respiração Artificial , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Delírio/diagnóstico
15.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(7): 1018-1028, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Delirium is an important postoperative complication, yet predictive risk factors for postoperative delirium severity remain elusive. We hypothesized that the NSQIP risk calculation for serious complications (NSQIP-SC) or risk of death (NSQIP-D), and cognitive tests of executive function (Trail Making Tests A and B [TMTA and TMTB]), would be predictive of postoperative delirium severity. Further, we demonstrate how advanced statistical techniques can be used to identify candidate predictors. METHODS/DESIGN: Data from an ongoing perioperative prospective cohort study of 100 adults (65 y old or older) undergoing noncardiac surgery were analyzed. In addition to NSQIP-SC, NSQIP-D, TMTA, and TMTB, participant age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, tobacco use, surgery type, depression, Framingham risk score, and preoperative blood pressure were collected. The Delirium Rating Scale-R-98 (DRS) measured delirium severity; the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) identified delirium. LASSO and best subsets linear regression were employed to identify predictive risk factors. RESULTS: Ninety-seven participants with a mean age of 71.68 ± 4.55, 55% male (31/97 CAM+, 32%), and a mean peak DRS of 21.5 ± 6.40 were analyzed. LASSO and best subsets regression identified NSQIP-SC and TMTB to predict postoperative delirium severity (P < 00.001, adjusted R2 : 0.30). NSQIP-SC and TMTB were also selected as predictors for postoperative delirium incidence (AUROC 0.81, 95% CI, 0.72-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, we identified NSQIP risk score for serious complications and a measure of executive function, TMT-B, to predict postoperative delirium severity using advanced modeling techniques. Future studies should investigate the utility of these variables in a formal delirium severity prediction model.


Assuntos
Delírio/etiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 19(1): 39, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A common postoperative complication found among patients who are critically ill is delirium, which has a high mortality rate. A predictive model is needed to identify high-risk patients in order to apply strategies which will prevent and/or reduce adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To identify the incidence of, and the risk factors for, postoperative delirium (POD) in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients, and to determine predictive scores for the development of POD. METHODS: This study enrolled adults aged over 18 years who had undergone an operation within the preceding week and who had been admitted to a SICU for a period that was expected to be longer than 24 h. The CAM - ICU score was used to determine the occurrence of delirium. RESULTS: Of the 250 patients enrolled, delirium was found in 61 (24.4%). The independent risk factors for delirium that were identified by a multivariate analysis comprised age, diabetes mellitus, severity of disease (SOFA score), perioperative use of benzodiazepine, and mechanical ventilation. A predictive score (age + (5 × SOFA) + (15 × Benzodiazepine use) + (20 × DM) + (20 × mechanical ventilation) + (20 × modified IQCODE > 3.42)) was created. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.786 to 0.897). The cut point of 125 demonstrated a sensitivity of 72.13% and a specificity of 80.95%, and the hospital mortality rate was significantly greater among the delirious than the non-delirious patients (25% vs. 6%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: POD was experienced postoperatively by a quarter of the surgical patients who were critically ill. A risk score utilizing 6 variables was able to predict which patients would develop POD. The identification of high-risk patients following SICU admission can provide a basis for intervention strategies to improve outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trials Registry TCTR20181204006 . Date registered on December 4, 2018. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Delírio/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Delírio/etiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
17.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 87, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the increase in elderly patients who undergo major abdominal surgery there is a subsequent increase in postoperative complications, prolonged hospital stays, health-care costs and mortality rates. Delirium is a frequent and severe complication in the 'frail' elderly patient. Different preoperative approaches have been suggested to decrease incidence of delirium by improving patients' baseline health. Studies implementing these approaches are often heterogeneous, have a small sample and do not provide high-quality or successful strategies. The aim of this study is to prevent postoperative delirium and other complications by implementing a unique multicomponent and multidisciplinary prehabilitation program. METHODS: This is a single-center controlled before-and-after study. Patients aged ≥70 years in need of surgery for colorectal cancer or an abdominal aortic aneurysm are considered eligible. Baseline characteristics (such as factors of frailty, physical condition and nutritional state) are collected prospectively. During 5 weeks prior to surgery, patients will follow a prehabilitation program to optimize overall health, which includes home-based exercises, dietary advice and intravenous iron infusion in case of anaemia. In case of frailty, a geriatrician will perform a comprehensive geriatric assessment and provide additional preoperative interventions when deemed necessary. The primary outcome is incidence of delirium. Secondary outcomes are length of hospital stay, complication rate, institutionalization, 30-day, 6- and 12-month mortality, mental health and quality of life. Results will be compared to a retrospective control group, meeting the same inclusion and exclusion criteria, operated on between January 2013 and October 2015. Inclusion of the prehabilitation cohort started in November 2015; data collection is ongoing. DISCUSSION: This is the first study to investigate the effect of prehabilitation on postoperative delirium. The aim is to provide evidence, based on a large sample size, for a standardized multicomponent strategy to improve patients' preoperative physical and nutritional status in order to prevent postoperative delirium and other complications. A multimodal intervention was implemented, combining physical, nutritional, mental and hematinic optimization. This research involves a large cohort, including patients most at risk for postoperative adverse outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol is retrospectively registered at the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR) number: NTR5932 . Date of registration: 05-04-2016.


Assuntos
Delírio/psicologia , Delírio/reabilitação , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is common and underdiagnosed among patients in hospitals, and is associated with complications, increased mortality, onset of dementia and need for nursing home care. Cognitive impairment from other causes is also common among hospitalised elderly people and is a key risk factor for delirium. Since no relevant prevalence studies have been undertaken in Norwegian hospitals, we investigated the prevalence of delirium among elderly patients in Norwegian emergency departments on World Delirium Awareness Day, 14 March 2018. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We included patients ≥ 75 years who arrived in ten Norwegian emergency departments between 08:00 and 22:00 on that day. We identified delirium and cognitive impairment using the '4AT' screening tool and registered the patients' age and gender and the hospital and department to which they were admitted (internal medicine, surgery, orthopaedics, 'other'). RESULTS: Of 118 included patients, 20 (17 per cent) showed signs of delirium and 36 (30 per cent) showed signs of other forms of cognitive impairment. All hospitals and all categories of departments received patients with signs of delirium and cognitive impairment. INTERPRETATION: Delirium and other forms of cognitive impairment are both common among elderly patients in Norwegian emergency departments. Our results indicate that all hospital departments who treat elderly patients frequently observe these issues. All departments should therefore have routines to identify and deal with patients who suffer from delirium and cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Delírio/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Delírio/classificação , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Ir J Med Sci ; 188(4): 1311-1315, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the preoperative comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) would predict postoperative delirium (POD) in elderly patients with hip fracture. METHODS: This is an observational study, performed in a tertiary hospital from June 2014 to May 2018, which enrolled patients with hip fracture aged over 65 years. The comprehensive geriatric assessment for recruited patients was carried out before surgery. POD was recorded prospectively until discharge. Delirium was diagnosed according to the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) algorithm. RESULTS: POD occurred in 22.09% of the 507 patients who underwent hip surgery. The Barthel index, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), vitality index, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) results were related to the occurrence of POD. All of them were independent factors related to the occurrence of POD after adjusting other traditional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive geriatric assessment before hip fracture surgery can predict the occurrence of POD in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Delírio/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(2)2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association between polypharmacy and delirium, the association of specific drug categories with delirium, and the differences in drug-delirium association between medical and surgical units and according to dementia diagnosis. METHODS: Data were collected during 2 waves of Delirium Day, a multicenter delirium prevalence study including patients (aged 65 years or older) admitted to acute and long-term care wards in Italy (2015-2016); in this study, only patients enrolled in acute hospital wards were selected (n = 4,133). Delirium was assessed according to score on the 4 "A's" Test. Prescriptions were classified by main drug categories; polypharmacy was defined as a prescription of drugs from 5 or more classes. RESULTS: Of 4,133 participants, 969 (23.4%) had delirium. The general prevalence of polypharmacy was higher in patients with delirium (67.6% vs 63.0%, P = .009) but varied according to clinical settings. After adjustment for confounders, polypharmacy was associated with delirium only in patients admitted to surgical units (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-6.1). Insulin, antibiotics, antiepileptics, antipsychotics, and atypical antidepressants were associated with delirium, whereas statins and angiotensin receptor blockers exhibited an inverse association. A stronger association was seen between typical and atypical antipsychotics and delirium in subjects free from dementia compared to individuals with dementia (typical: OR = 4.31; 95% CI, 2.94-6.31 without dementia vs OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.19-2.26 with dementia; atypical: OR = 5.32; 95% CI, 3.44-8.22 without dementia vs OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.26-2.40 with dementia). The absence of antipsychotics among the prescribed drugs was inversely associated with delirium in the whole sample and in both of the hospital settings, but only in patients without dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy is significantly associated with delirium only in surgical units, raising the issue of the relevance of medication review in different clinical settings. Specific drug classes are associated with delirium depending on the clinical setting and dementia diagnosis, suggesting the need to further explore this relationship.


Assuntos
Delírio/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Departamentos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
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