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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22663, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031330

RESUMO

RATIONALE: GNE myopathy is caused by mutations in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase(GNE) gene and is clinically characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of the lower-limb muscles with quadriceps sparing. Nearly all GNE mutations that have been reported thus far in various ethnic populations around the world have been missense or nonsense mutations. PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman with GNE myopathy. The patient presented with progressive weakness of the lower-limb muscles that had spread to her legs. Her serum creatine kinase level was higher than the normal range. Mild myogenic changes were detected in the tibialis anterior muscles on electromyography, and moderate fatty infiltration was observed in various lower-limb muscles on magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological examination of a skeletal muscle biopsy specimen revealed variation in muscle fiber size, rimmed vacuoles, and disorganized intermyofibrillar networks. DNA sequencing testing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation consisting of a known mutation (c.620A > T in exon 3) and a novel (exon 1 deletion) mutation. DIAGNOSES: Taken together, the clinical features, laboratory testing and DNA findings eventually made the diagnosis of GNE myopathy. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Based on the diagnosis of the GNE myopathy, the patient was administered sialic acid 6 g a day for 1 year, and up to now, her symptoms did not progress further. LESSONS: We have reported the case of a GNE myopathy patient with compound heterozygous GNE gene mutations. This case expands the genotypic spectrum of GNE myopathy.


Assuntos
Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4886, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985500

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are associated with approximately 30% of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). CALR mutations, including the two most frequent 52 bp deletion (del52) and 5 bp insertion (ins5), induce a frameshift to the same alternative reading frame generating new C-terminal tails. In patients, del52 and ins5 induce two phenotypically distinct myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). They are equally found in ET, but del52 is more frequent in PMF. We generated heterozygous and homozygous conditional inducible knock-in (KI) mice expressing a chimeric murine CALR del52 or ins5 with the human mutated C-terminal tail to investigate their pathogenic effects on hematopoiesis. Del52 induces greater phenotypic changes than ins5 including thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, splenomegaly, bone marrow hypocellularity, megakaryocytic lineage amplification, expansion and competitive advantage of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Homozygosity amplifies these features, suggesting a distinct contribution of homozygous clones to human MPNs. Moreover, homozygous del52 KI mice display features of a penetrant myelofibrosis-like disorder with extramedullary hematopoiesis linked to splenomegaly, megakaryocyte hyperplasia and the presence of reticulin fibers. Overall, modeling del52 and ins5 mutations in mice successfully recapitulates the differences in phenotypes observed in patients.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Animais , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutagênese Insercional , Fenótipo , Mielofibrose Primária/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Trombocitemia Essencial/metabolismo
3.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 329, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first detected in Wuhan (China) in December of 2019 is responsible for the current global pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it is similar to other betacoronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and Middle-Eastern Respiratory Syndrome, MERS-CoV. Its genome is ∼ 30 kb in length and contains two large overlapping polyproteins, ORF1a and ORF1ab that encode for several structural and non-structural proteins. The non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) is arguably the most important pathogenic determinant, and previous studies on SARS-CoV indicate that it is both involved in viral replication and hampering the innate immune system response. Detailed experiments of site-specific mutagenesis and in vitro reconstitution studies determined that the mechanisms of action are mediated by (a) the presence of specific amino acid residues of nsp1 and (b) the interaction between the protein and the host's small ribosomal unit. In fact, substitution of certain amino acids resulted in reduction of its negative effects. METHODS: A total of 17,928 genome sequences were obtained from the GISAID database (December 2019 to July 2020) from patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 from different areas around the world. Genomes alignment was performed using MAFFT (REFF) and the nsp1 genomic regions were identified using BioEdit and verified using BLAST. Nsp1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 with and without deletion have been subsequently modelled using I-TASSER. RESULTS: We identified SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, from several Countries, carrying a previously unknown deletion of 9 nucleotides in position 686-694, corresponding to the AA position 241-243 (KSF). This deletion was found in different geographical areas. Structural prediction modelling suggests an effect on the C-terminal tail structure. CONCLUSIONS: Modelling analysis of a newly identified deletion of 3 amino acids (KSF) of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 suggests that this deletion could affect the structure of the C-terminal region of the protein, important for regulation of viral replication and negative effect on host's gene expression. In addition, substitution of the two amino acids (KS) from nsp1 of SARS-CoV was previously reported to revert loss of interferon-alpha expression. The deletion that we describe indicates that SARS-CoV-2 is undergoing profound genomic changes. It is important to: (i) confirm the spreading of this particular viral strain, and potentially of strains with other deletions in the nsp1 protein, both in the population of asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic subjects, and (ii) correlate these changes in nsp1 with potential decreased viral pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Deleção de Sequência , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Viral , Geografia , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenilalanina/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Serina/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735620

RESUMO

The craniofacial developmental disorder Burn-McKeown Syndrome (BMKS) is caused by biallelic variants in the pre-messenger RNA splicing factor gene TXNL4A/DIB1. The majority of affected individuals with BMKS have a 34 base pair deletion in the promoter region of one allele of TXNL4A combined with a loss-of-function variant on the other allele, resulting in reduced TXNL4A expression. However, it is unclear how reduced expression of this ubiquitously expressed spliceosome protein results in craniofacial defects during development. Here we reprogrammed peripheral mononuclear blood cells from a BMKS patient and her unaffected mother into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiated the iPSCs into induced neural crest cells (iNCCs), the key cell type required for correct craniofacial development. BMKS patient-derived iPSCs proliferated more slowly than both mother- and unrelated control-derived iPSCs, and RNA-Seq analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and alternative splicing. Patient iPSCs displayed defective differentiation into iNCCs compared to maternal and unrelated control iPSCs, in particular a delay in undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RNA-Seq analysis of differentiated iNCCs revealed widespread gene expression changes and mis-splicing in genes relevant to craniofacial and embryonic development that highlight a dampened response to WNT signalling, the key pathway activated during iNCC differentiation. Furthermore, we identified the mis-splicing of TCF7L2 exon 4, a key gene in the WNT pathway, as a potential cause of the downregulated WNT response in patient cells. Additionally, mis-spliced genes shared common sequence properties such as length, branch point to 3' splice site (BPS-3'SS) distance and splice site strengths, suggesting that splicing of particular subsets of genes is particularly sensitive to changes in TXNL4A expression. Together, these data provide the first insight into how reduced TXNL4A expression in BMKS patients might compromise splicing and NCC function, resulting in defective craniofacial development in the embryo.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Atresia das Cóanas/patologia , Surdez/congênito , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/deficiência , Spliceossomos/fisiologia , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Células Clonais , Surdez/genética , Surdez/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Éxons/genética , Face/embriologia , Facies , Feminino , Cabeça/embriologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Crista Neural/citologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14004, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814791

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel evolutionary divergent RNA virus, is responsible for the present devastating COVID-19 pandemic. To explore the genomic signatures, we comprehensively analyzed 2,492 complete and/or near-complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains reported from across the globe to the GISAID database up to 30 March 2020. Genome-wide annotations revealed 1,516 nucleotide-level variations at different positions throughout the entire genome of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, nucleotide (nt) deletion analysis found twelve deletion sites throughout the genome other than previously reported deletions at coding sequence of the ORF8 (open reading frame), spike, and ORF7a proteins, specifically in polyprotein ORF1ab (n = 9), ORF10 (n = 1), and 3´-UTR (n = 2). Evidence from the systematic gene-level mutational and protein profile analyses revealed a large number of amino acid (aa) substitutions (n = 744), demonstrating the viral proteins heterogeneous. Notably, residues of receptor-binding domain (RBD) showing crucial interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and cross-reacting neutralizing antibody were found to be conserved among the analyzed virus strains, except for replacement of lysine with arginine at 378th position of the cryptic epitope of a Shanghai isolate, hCoV-19/Shanghai/SH0007/2020 (EPI_ISL_416320). Furthermore, our results of the preliminary epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infections revealed that frequency of aa mutations were relatively higher in the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences of Europe (43.07%) followed by Asia (38.09%), and North America (29.64%) while case fatality rates remained higher in the European temperate countries, such as Italy, Spain, Netherlands, France, England and Belgium. Thus, the present method of genome annotation employed at this early pandemic stage could be a promising tool for monitoring and tracking the continuously evolving pandemic situation, the associated genetic variants, and their implications for the development of effective control and prophylaxis strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Saúde Global , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Pareamento Incorreto de Bases , Sequência de Bases/genética , Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Deleção de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
6.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694143

RESUMO

To date, limited genetic changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome have been described. Here, we report a 382-nucleotide (nt) deletion in SARS-CoV-2 that truncates open reading frame 7b (ORF7b) and ORF8, removing the ORF8 transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) and eliminating ORF8 transcription. The earliest 382-nt deletion variant was detected in Singapore on 29 January 2020, with the deletion viruses circulating in the country and accounting for 23.6% (45/191) of SARS-CoV-2 samples screened in this study. SARS-CoV-2 with the same deletion has since been detected in Taiwan, and other ORF7b/8 deletions of various lengths, ranging from 62 nt to 345 nt, have been observed in other geographic locations, including Australia, Bangladesh, and Spain. Mutations or deletions in ORF8 of SARS-CoV have been associated with reduced replicative fitness and virus attenuation. In contrast, the SARS-CoV-2 382-nt deletion viruses showed significantly higher replicative fitness in vitro than the wild type, while no difference was observed in patient viral load, indicating that the deletion variant viruses retained their replicative fitness. A robust antibody response to ORF8 has been observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the emergence of ORF8 deletions may be due to immune-driven selection and that further deletion variants may emerge during the sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in humans.IMPORTANCE During the SARS epidemic in 2003/2004, a number of deletions were observed in ORF8 of SARS-CoV, and eventually deletion variants became predominant, leading to the hypothesis that ORF8 was an evolutionary hot spot for adaptation of SARS-CoV to humans. However, due to the successful control of the SARS epidemic, the importance of these deletions for the epidemiological fitness of SARS-CoV in humans could not be established. The emergence of multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains with ORF8 deletions, combined with evidence of a robust immune response to ORF8, suggests that the lack of ORF8 may assist with host immune evasion. In addition to providing a key insight into the evolutionary behavior of SARS-CoV-2 as the virus adapts to its new human hosts, the emergence of ORF8 deletion variants may also impact vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Sequência de Bases , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência , Replicação Viral
7.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 68, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged respiratory pathogen that has significantly impacted global human health. We wanted to rapidly characterise the transcriptomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic landscape of this novel coronavirus to provide a fundamental description of the virus's genomic and proteomic potential. METHODS: We used direct RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2 grown in Vero E6 cells which is widely used to propagate the novel coronavirus. The viral transcriptome was analysed using a recently developed ORF-centric pipeline. Allied to this, we used tandem mass spectrometry to investigate the proteome and phosphoproteome of the same virally infected cells. RESULTS: Our integrated analysis revealed that the viral transcripts (i.e. subgenomic mRNAs) generally fitted the expected transcription model for coronaviruses. Importantly, a 24 nt in-frame deletion was detected in over half of the subgenomic mRNAs encoding the spike (S) glycoprotein and was predicted to remove a proposed furin cleavage site from the S glycoprotein. Tandem mass spectrometry identified over 500 viral peptides and 44 phosphopeptides in virus-infected cells, covering almost all proteins predicted to be encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 genome, including peptides unique to the deleted variant of the S glycoprotein. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of an apparently viable deletion in the furin cleavage site of the S glycoprotein, a leading vaccine target, shows that this and other regions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins may readily mutate. The furin site directs cleavage of the S glycoprotein into functional subunits during virus entry or exit and likely contributes strongly to the pathogenesis and zoonosis of this virus. Our data emphasises that the viral genome sequence should be carefully monitored during the growth of viral stocks for research, animal challenge models and, potentially, in clinical samples. Such variations may result in different levels of virulence, morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Deleção de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Fosforilação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Inoculações Seriadas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Células Vero
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 18010-18017, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665440

RESUMO

Mutant phenotype analysis of bacteria has been revolutionized by genome-scale screening procedures, but essential genes have been left out of such studies because mutants are missing from the libraries analyzed. Since essential genes control the most fundamental processes of bacterial life, this is a glaring deficiency. To address this limitation, we developed a procedure for transposon insertion mutant sequencing that includes essential genes. The method, called transformation transposon insertion mutant sequencing (TFNseq), employs saturation-level libraries of bacterial mutants generated by natural transformation with chromosomal DNA mutagenized heavily by in vitro transposition. The efficient mutagenesis makes it possible to detect large numbers of insertions in essential genes immediately after transformation and to follow their loss during subsequent growth. It was possible to order 45 essential processes based on how rapidly their inactivation inhibited growth. Inactivating ATP production, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, or ribosome production blocked growth the fastest, whereas inactivating cell division or outer membrane protein synthesis blocked it the slowest. Individual mutants deleted of essential loci formed microcolonies of nongrowing cells whose sizes were generally consistent with the TFNseq ordering. The sensitivity of essential functions to genetic inactivation provides a metric for ranking their relative importance for bacterial replication and growth. Highly sensitive functions could represent attractive antibiotic targets since even partial inhibition should reduce growth.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Genes Essenciais , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Mutação , Taxa de Mutação , Deleção de Sequência
11.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1281-1294, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564135

RESUMO

The tripartite motif (TRIM) gene family encodes diverse distinct proteins that play important roles in many biological processes. However, the molecular evolution and phylogenetic relationships of TRIM genes in primates are still elusive. We performed a genomic approach to identify and characterize TRIM genes in human and other six primate genomes. In total, 537 putative functional TRIM genes were identified and TRIM members varied among primates. A neighbor joining (NJ) tree based on the protein sequences of 82 human TRIM genes indicates seven TRIM groups, which is consistent with the results based on the architectural motifs. Many TRIM gene duplication events were identified, indicating a recent expansion of TRIM family in primate lineages. Interestingly, the chimpanzee genome shows the greatest TRIM gene expansion among the primates; however, its congeneric species, bonobo, has the least number of TRIM genes and no duplication event. Moreover, we identified a ~ 200 kb deletion on chromosome 11 of bonobos that results in a loss of cluster3 TRIM genes. The loss of TRIM genes might have occurred within the last 2 mys. Analysis of positive selection recovered 9 previously reported and 21 newly identified positively selected TRIM genes. In particular, most positive selected sites are located in the B30.2 domains. Our results have provided new insight into the evolution of primate TRIM genes and will broaden our understanding on the functions of the TRIM family.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Primatas/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Gorilla gorilla/genética , Humanos , Macaca/genética , Família Multigênica , Pan paniscus/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Deleção de Sequência
12.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1295-1304, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566991

RESUMO

Pichia pastoris is able to metabolize methanol via a specific MUT (methanol utilization) pathway. Based on the powerful AOX1 (Alcohol Oxidase 1) promoter, the P. pastoris expression system has become one of the most widely used eukaryotic expression systems. The molecular mechanisms of methanol metabolic regulation remain unclearly understood, so it is important to identify and develop new transcriptional regulators. Our previous studies suggested that the expression of SUT2 could be induced by methanol but is repressed by glycerol, which indicates that SUT2 may be involved in methanol metabolism through an unknown mechanism. SUT2 encodes a putative transcription factor-like protein harboring a Gal4-like Zn2Cys6 DNA-binding domain in Pichia pastoris, and its homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates sterol uptake and synthesis. This study shows that the overexpression of SUT2 promoted the expression of AOX1 and increases ergosterol content in cells. Furthermore, via truncation of the putative SUT2 promoter at diverse loci, the - 973 base pair (bp) to - 547 bp region to the ATG was shown to be the core element of the inducible promoter PSUT2, which strongly responds to the methanol signal. The transcriptional start site of SUT2, "A" at the 22nd bp upstream of ATG, was determined with 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. A forward-loop cassette was constructed with MXR1 (Methanol Expression Regulator 1, a positive transcription factor of PAOX1) promoted by PSUT2, enabling moderate elevation in the expression level of Mxr1 and high activity of PAOX1 without damaging cellular robustness further boosting the production of heterologous proteins. The PAOX1-driven expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in this novel system was improved by 18%, representing a promising method for extrinsic protein production. SUT2 may play roles in methanol metabolism by participating in sterol biosynthesis. PSUT2 was characterized as a novel inducible promoter in P. pastoris and a PSUT2-driven MXR1 forward-loop cassette was constructed to enhance the PAOX1 activity, laying a foundation for further development and application of P. pastoris expression system.


Assuntos
Metanol/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxidase/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Deleção de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
13.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(5): 255-263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544910

RESUMO

Fusions of the Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) with different partner genes have been associated with various hematological disorders. Interestingly, the C-terminally truncated form of RUNX1 and RUNX1 fusion proteins are similarly considered important contributors to leukemogenesis. Here, we describe a 59-year-old male patient who was initially diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia, inv(16)(p13;q22)/CBFB-MYH11 (FAB classification M4Eo). He achieved complete remission and negative CBFB-MYH11 status with daunorubicin/cytarabine combination chemotherapy but relapsed 3 years later. Cytogenetic analysis of relapsed leukemia cells revealed CBFB-MYH11 negativity and complex chromosomal abnormalities without inv(16)(p13;q22). RNA-seq identified the glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kinase 2 (GRIK2) gene on 6q16 as a novel fusion partner for RUNX1 in this case. Specifically, the fusion of RUNX1 to the GRIK2 antisense strand (RUNX1-GRIK2as) generated multiple missplicing transcripts. Because extremely low levels of wild-type GRIK2 were detected in leukemia cells, RUNX1-GRIK2as was thought to drive the pathogenesis associated with the RUNX1-GRIK2 fusion. The truncated RUNX1 generated from RUNX1-GRIK2as induced the expression of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor on 32D myeloid leukemia cells and enhanced proliferation in response to G-CSF. In summary, the RUNX1-GRIK2as fusion emphasizes the importance of aberrantly truncated RUNX1 in leukemogenesis.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , DNA Antissenso/genética , Fusão Gênica/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/farmacologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Receptores de Ácido Caínico/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Translocação Genética/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/biossíntese , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/metabolismo
14.
J Virol ; 94(17)2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571797

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus first identified in December 2019. Notable features that make SARS-CoV-2 distinct from most other previously identified betacoronaviruses include a receptor binding domain and a unique insertion of 12 nucleotides or 4 amino acids (PRRA) at the S1/S2 boundary. In this study, we identified two deletion variants of SARS-CoV-2 that either directly affect the polybasic cleavage site itself (NSPRRAR) or a flanking sequence (QTQTN). These deletions were verified by multiple sequencing methods. In vitro results showed that the deletion of NSPRRAR likely does not affect virus replication in Vero and Vero-E6 cells; however, the deletion of QTQTN may restrict late-phase viral replication. The deletion of QTQTN was detected in 3 of 68 clinical samples and 12 of 24 in vitro-isolated viruses, while the deletion of NSPRRAR was identified in 3 in vitro-isolated viruses. Our data indicate that (i) there may be distinct selection pressures on SARS-CoV-2 replication or infection in vitro and in vivo; (ii) an efficient mechanism for deleting this region from the viral genome may exist, given that the deletion variant is commonly detected after two rounds of cell passage; and (iii) the PRRA insertion, which is unique to SARS-CoV-2, is not fixed during virus replication in vitro These findings provide information to aid further investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanisms and a better understanding of the NSPRRAR deletion variant observed here.IMPORTANCE The spike protein determines the infectivity and host range of coronaviruses. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has two unique features in its spike protein, the receptor binding domain and an insertion of 12 nucleotides at the S1/S2 boundary resulting in a furin-like cleavage site. Here, we identified two deletion variants of SARS-CoV-2 that either directly affect the furin-like cleavage site itself (NSPRRAR) or a flanking sequence (QTQTN), and we investigated these deletions in cell isolates and clinical samples. The absence of the polybasic cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2 did not affect virus replication in Vero or Vero-E6 cells. Our data indicate the PRRAR sequence and the flanking QTQTN sequence are not fixed in vitro; thus, there appears to be distinct selection pressures on SARS-CoV-2 sequences in vitro and in vivo Further investigation of the mechanism of generating these deletion variants and their infectivity in different animal models would improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of this virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Furina/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Conformação Proteica , Análise de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Células Vero , Replicação Viral
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008869, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569302

RESUMO

We investigate mutations in trß2, a splice variant of thrb, identifying changes in function, structure, and behavior in larval and adult zebrafish retinas. Two N-terminus CRISPR mutants were identified. The first is a 6BP+1 insertion deletion frameshift resulting in a truncated protein. The second is a 3BP in frame deletion with intact binding domains. ERG recordings of isolated cone signals showed that the 6BP+1 mutants did not respond to red wavelengths of light while the 3BP mutants did respond. 6BP+1 mutants lacked optomotor and optokinetic responses to red/black and green/black contrasts. Both larval and adult 6BP+1 mutants exhibit a loss of red-cone contribution to the ERG and an increase in UV-cone contribution. Transgenic reporters show loss of cone trß2 activation in the 6BP+1 mutant but increase in the density of cones with active blue, green, and UV opsin genes. Antibody reactivity for red-cone LWS1 and LWS2 opsin was absent in the 6BP+1 mutant, as was reactivity for arrestin3a. Our results confirm a critical role for trß2 in long-wavelength cone development.


Assuntos
Visão de Cores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes erbA/genética , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores beta dos Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Opsinas dos Cones/genética , Opsinas dos Cones/metabolismo , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Mutação INDEL , Larva , Modelos Animais , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/patologia , Retina/citologia , Retina/patologia , Deleção de Sequência , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 329: 108662, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505890

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen whose biofilm formation and desiccation tolerance may contribute to its survival in the food industry. L. monocytogenes possesses three cold-shock domain family proteins (CspA, CspB and CspD) known to be essential for adaptation against various food-relevant stress conditions including cold growth. The role of Csps in desiccation tolerance and biofilm formation was investigated in csp mutants as well as twenty-one other wild-type (WT) strains. Mutants with a single (ΔcspA) or multiple (ΔcspAB, ΔcspAD and ΔcspABD) deletions of csp genes, in a desiccation sensitive WT background (L. monocytogenes EGD-e) were immotile and exhibited an elevated desiccation tolerance compared to the parent strain. However, deletion of cspA in the more desiccation resistant food and outbreak related L. monocytogenes strains 568 and 08-5578 had no impact on desiccation tolerance although compared to the parent strains the mutants were also immotile. A correlation between lower motility and higher desiccation tolerance was observed among the 20 WT strains (Spearman rank correlation, rs = -0.56, p = 0.01), although exceptions occurred indicating that multiple factors influence the diverse desiccation tolerance among L. monocytogenes strains. Expression of cspA was upregulated in WT EGD-e, 568 and 08-5578 strains after desiccation for seven days, while the 568 and 08-5578 ΔcspA mutants expressed elevated levels of cspD and cspB (>30 fold higher) compared to their WTs. This indicates that upregulation of the other csps compensates for the deleted cspA gene. Although biofilm formation was improved in all EGDe csp mutants relative to the WT strain, the opposite was observed for 568 and 08-5578 WT strains and their cspA deletion mutants. Only motile strains formed biofilm in the peg lid assay but a significant negative correlation (rs = -0.60, p = 0.01) was seen between higher motility and higher biofilm formation of WT strains. In conclusion, the survival of L. monocytogenes strains in the food processing environment may depend on the control of motility, which is a necessity for biofilm formation but disadvantageous for desiccation survival.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas e Peptídeos de Choque Frio/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos de Choque Frio/genética , Dessecação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Deleção de Genes , Deleção de Sequência
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574176

RESUMO

In the BACHD mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD), deletion of the N17 domain of the Huntingtin gene (BACHDΔN17, Q97) has been reported to lead to nuclear accumulation of mHTT and exacerbation of motor deficits, neuroinflammation and striatal atrophy (Gu et al., 2015). Here we characterized the effect of N17 deletion on dorsolateral striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in BACHDΔN17 (Q97) and BACWTΔN17 (Q31) mice by comparing them to MSNs in wildtype (WT) mice. Mice were characterized on a series of motor tasks and subsequently whole cell patch clamp recordings with simultaneous biocytin filling of MSNs in in vitro striatal slices from these mice were used to comprehensively assess their physiological and morphological features. Key findings include that: Q97 mice exhibit impaired gait and righting reflexes but normal tail suspension reflexes and normal coats while Q31 mice do not differ from WT; intrinsic membrane and action potential properties are altered -but differentially so- in MSNs from Q97 and from Q31 mice; excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents exhibit higher amplitudes in Q31 but not Q97 MSNs, while excitatory synaptic currents occur at lower frequency in Q97 than in WT and Q31 MSNs; there is a reduced total dendritic length in Q31 -but not Q97- MSNs compared to WT, while spine density and number did not differ in MSNs in the three groups. The findings that Q31 MSNs differed from Q97 and WT neurons with regard to some physiological features and structurally suggest a novel role of the N17 domain in the function of WT Htt. The motor phenotype seen in Q97 mice was less robust than that reported in an earlier study (Gu et al., 2015), and the alterations to MSN physiological properties were largely consistent with changes reported previously in a number of other mouse models of HD. Together this study indicates that N17 plays a role in the modulation of the properties of MSNs in both mHtt and WT-Htt mice, but does not markedly exacerbate HD-like pathogenesis in the BACHD model.


Assuntos
Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Corpo Estriado/patologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Dendritos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/química , Proteína Huntingtina/fisiologia , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Doença de Huntington/fisiopatologia , Coxeadura Animal/genética , Coxeadura Animal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/fisiologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Domínios Proteicos , Reflexo Anormal/genética , Reflexo Anormal/fisiologia , Deleção de Sequência
18.
Hum Genet ; 139(11): 1417-1427, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488466

RESUMO

An inverted duplication with a terminal deletion (inv-dup-del) is one of the complex constitutional structural rearrangements that can occur in a chromosome. Although breakages of dicentric chromosome have been suggested, the precise mechanism of this is yet to be fully understood. In our present study, we investigated the genomic structure of 10 inv-dup-del cases to elucidate this mechanism. Two recurrent 8p inv-dup-del cases harbored a large copy-number-neutral region between the duplication and deletion in common. Although the other non-recurrent cases did not appear to have this copy-number-neutral region, refined sequencing analysis identified that they contained a small intervening region at the junction between the inverted and non-inverted segment. The size of this small intervening region ranged from 1741 to 3728 bp. Combined with a presence of microhomology at the junction, a resolution of the replication fork stalling through template switching within the same replication fork is suggested. We further observed two cases with mosaicism of the dicentric chromosome and various structural rearrangements related to the dicentric chromosome. Refined analysis allowed us to identify different breakpoints on the same chromosome in the same case, implicating multiple rounds of U-type formation and its breakage. From these results, we propose that a replication-based mechanism generates unstable dicentric chromosomes and that their breakage leads to the formation of inv-dup-dels and other related derivative chromosomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Replicação do DNA/genética , Humanos , Mosaicismo
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1457-1466, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543353

RESUMO

Taiwan experienced two waves of imported infections with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed at investigating the genomic variation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Taiwan and compared their evolutionary trajectories with the global strains. We performed culture and full-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 strains followed by phylogenetic analysis. A 382-nucleotides deletion in open reading frame 8 (ORF8) was found in a Taiwanese strain isolated from a patient on February 4, 2020 who had a travel history to Wuhan. Patients in the first wave also included several sporadic, local transmission cases. Genomes of 5 strains sequenced from clustered infections were classified into a new clade with ORF1ab-V378I mutation, in addition to 3 dominant clades ORF8-L84S, ORF3a-G251V and S-D614G. This highlighted clade also included some strains isolated from patients who had a travel history to Turkey and Iran. The second wave mostly resulted from patients who had a travel history to Europe and Americas. All Taiwanese viruses were classified into various clades. Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan revealed a new ORF8-deletion mutant and a virus clade that may be associated with infections in the Middle East, which contributed to a better understanding of the global SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Haemophilus parainfluenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Pandemias , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Deleção de Sequência , Taiwan , Viagem , Células Vero , Cultura de Vírus , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 459-471.e4, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553192

RESUMO

Transcription factors (TFs) that bind common DNA motifs in vitro occupy distinct sets of promoters in vivo, raising the question of how binding specificity is achieved. TFs are enriched with intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Such regions commonly form promiscuous interactions, yet their unique properties might also benefit specific binding-site selection. We examine this using Msn2 and Yap1, TFs of distinct families that contain long IDRs outside their DNA-binding domains. We find that these IDRs are both necessary and sufficient for localizing to the majority of target promoters. This IDR-directed binding does not depend on any localized domain but results from a multitude of weak determinants distributed throughout the entire IDR sequence. Furthermore, IDR specificity is conserved between distant orthologs, suggesting direct interaction with multiple promoters. We propose that distribution of sensing determinants along extended IDRs accelerates binding-site detection by rapidly localizing TFs to broad DNA regions surrounding these sites.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequência Conservada , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/química , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/metabolismo , Modelos Estatísticos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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