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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 41, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop an education system using DVD video-based teaching materials or web-based learning to reduce sexual violence among teens in Japan. METHODS: During the first stage, June 2018 to March 2019, an education program using DVD video teaching materials was carried out at three high schools and four universities with research consent from the director of the facility. From 1337 high school students and first- and second-year university students, subjects in their teen years were targeted for analysis. A survey was conducted at baseline and after the DVD video teaching. During the second stage, November 2019 to March 2020, web-based learning using improved video teaching materials was developed and carried out. From the adolescents who participated in the web-based learning, subjects in their teen years were targeted for analysis. A survey was conducted at baseline and after the web-based learning. RESULTS: In the first stage, 876 students consented to and participated in the education using DVD video teaching materials and baseline and after surveys (collection rate 65.5%). Among these, the number of respondents in their teens both baseline and after education was 705 persons (valid response rate 80.4%). In the second stage, the number of respondents in their teens both baseline and after education was 250 respondents in their teens who received web-based learning using the improved video teaching materials (valid response rate 87.1%). The improvement effect of the two programs was observed in attitudes that lead to physical violence, attitudes that lead to mental violence, attitudes that promote healthy conflict resolution, and dangerous attitudes that lead to sexual violence from persons in the community or through the Internet. The web-based learning program achieved an improvement of preventive attitudes toward sexual violence. CONCLUSIONS: The education program using DVD video teaching materials or web-based learning may help prevent sexual violence among teens in Japan.


Assuntos
Internet , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Materiais de Ensino , Gravação em Vídeo , Adolescente , Discos Compactos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes
2.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(1): 106-116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555991

RESUMO

The issue of dating and sexual violence (DSV) on college campuses has received increased attention nationwide as a criminal justice and public health issue. College and university employed social workers play a critical role in preventing and responding to campus DSV through direct clinical services to students as well as prevention through educational programming and training. COVID-19 has negative implications for DSV student victims, as well as service delivery and accessibility. This paper examines the innovative methods used by university employed social work clinicians and educators to meet evolving mental health care needs and continue violence prevention services during COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/organização & administração
4.
Am Fam Physician ; 103(3): 168-176, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507052

RESUMO

Sexual violence is a major public health and human rights issue affecting more than 40% of women in the United States during their lifetimes. Although men and women experience sexual assault, women are at greatest risk. Populations uniquely impacted by sexual assault include adolescents; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer people; and active-duty military service members. Health consequences of sexual assault include sexually transmitted infections, risk of unintended pregnancy, high rates of mental health conditions (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder), and development of chronic medical conditions (e.g., chronic pelvic pain). Family physicians care for sexual assault survivors at the time of the assault and years after, and care should follow a survivor-centered and trauma-informed framework. Multiple organizations recommend screening all women for a history of sexual violence; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends only universal intimate partner violence screening in women of reproductive age. A validated tool, such as the Two-Question Screening Tool, can be implemented. Initial care should include treatment of physical injuries, prophylaxis for sexually transmitted infections, immunizations, and the sensitive management of psychological issues. Clinicians must comply with state and local requirements for the use of evidence-gathering kits. Many hospitals have developed collection protocols and employ certified Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners or Sexual Assault Forensic Examiners. Prevention of sexual violence requires a comprehensive approach to address individual, relational, community, and societal factors.


Assuntos
Currículo , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Guias como Assunto , Estupro/diagnóstico , Estupro/reabilitação , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Educação Médica Continuada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028499, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351083

RESUMO

Importance: Engaging adolescent boys and young men in preventing violence against women is a potentially impactful public health strategy. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based, gender-transformative program (ie, Manhood 2.0) on perpetration of gender-based violence by adolescent boys and young men. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this unblinded cluster randomized clinical trial, neighborhoods were designated as the unit of clustering (1:1 allocation). Three-month (ie, time point 2 [T2]) and 9-month (ie, time point 3 [T3]) follow-ups were conducted. The trial took place in 20 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods and 1 centrally located site with concentrated disadvantage. Pittsburgh-based adolescent boys and young men (ages 13 to 19 years) were recruited between July 27, 2015, and June 5, 2017, through youth-serving organizations and community-based alternatives to residential placement for juvenile justice-involved youth. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted from June 2018 to November 2019. Interventions: Manhood 2.0, an international program adapted for adolescent boys and young men in US urban communities, encourages these individuals to challenge gender norms that foster violence against women and unhealthy sexual relationships. Individuals in the control population received job-readiness training. Each program was 18 hours. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in participant-level perpetration of sexual violence (SV) or adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) at T3. Results: Among 866 participants, 465 individuals (54%) enrolled in 11 intervention clusters and 401 individuals (46%) enrolled in 10 control clusters. In the intervention group, 325 participants (70%) were analyzed at T2 and 334 participants (72%) were analyzed at T3; in the control group, 262 participants (65%) were analyzed at T2 and 301 participants (75%) were analyzed at T3. Mean (SD) age was 15.5 (1.6) years; 609 participants (70%) self-identified as non-Hispanic Black, and 178 (20%) self-identified as Hispanic, multiracial, or other race/ethnicity other than White. Among individuals in the intervention group, 296 participants (64%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at baseline, and 173 participants (52%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at T3. Among individuals in the control group, 213 participants (53%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at baseline, and 124 participants (41%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at T3). The difference in reduction between groups was not significant. There was no evidence of an intervention effect for the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 0.86-2.01; P = .20). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings from this evaluation of a community-based gender-transformative program for adolescent boys and young men did not show a significant intervention effect in reducing SV or ARA perpetration between Manhood 2.0 and a job-readiness control program. Combining gender-transformative approaches with job-readiness programs may be relevant for violence prevention in low-resource urban settings. Attention to improving implementation and strategies to sustain such community-based efforts are needed. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02427061.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Saúde Pública/métodos , Tratamento Domiciliar/métodos , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sports Health ; 12(4): 352-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510278

RESUMO

The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened a group of experts to develop a position statement addressing the problem of sexual violence in sport. The AMSSM Sexual Violence in Sport Task Force held a series of meetings over 7 months, beginning in July 2019. Following a literature review, the task force used an iterative process and expert consensus to finalize the position statement. The objective of this position statement is to raise awareness of this critical issue among sports medicine physicians and to declare a commitment to engage in collaborative, multidisciplinary solutions to reduce sexual violence in sport.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Esportes , Humanos , Papel do Médico , Medicina Esportiva , Estados Unidos
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009829, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 1 in 1000 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old display problematic or harmful sexual behaviour (HSB). Examples include behaviours occurring more frequently than would be considered developmentally appropriate; accompanied by coercion; involving children of different ages or stages of development; or associated with emotional distress. Some, but not all, young people engaging in HSB come to the attention of authorities for investigation, prosecution or treatment. Depending on policy context, young people with HSB are those whose behaviour has resulted in a formal reprimand or warning, conviction for a sexual offence, or civil measures. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are based on the idea that by changing the way a person thinks, and helping them to develop new coping skills, it is possible to change behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of CBT for young people aged 10 to 18 years who have exhibited HSB. SEARCH METHODS: In June 2019, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 12 other databases and three trials registers. We also examined relevant websites, checked reference lists and contacted authors of relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using parallel groups. We evaluated CBT treatments compared with no treatment, waiting list or standard care, irrespective of mode of delivery or setting, given to young people aged 10 to 18 years, who had been convicted of a sexual offence or who exhibited HSB. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We found four eligible RCTs (115 participants). Participants in two studies were adolescent males aged 12 to 18 years old. In two studies participants were males simply described as "adolescents." Three studies took place in the USA and one in South Africa. The four studies were of short duration: one lasted two months; two lasted three months; and one lasted six months. No information was available on funding sources. Two studies compared group-based CBT respectively to no treatment (18 participants) or treatment as usual (21 participants). The third compared CBT with sexual education (16 participants). The fourth compared CBT (19 participants) with mode-deactivation therapy (21 participants) and social skills training (20 participants). Three interventions delivered treatment in a residential setting by someone working there, and one in a community setting by licensed therapist undertaking a PhD. CBT compared with no treatment or treatment as usual Primary outcomes No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of primary outcomes (recidivism, and adverse events such as self-harm or suicidal behaviour). Secondary outcomes There was little to no difference between CBT and treatment as usual on cognitive distortions in general (mean difference (MD) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -11.54 to 14.66, 1 study, 18 participants; very low-certainty evidence), assessed with Abel and Becker Cognition Scale (higher scores indicate more problematic distortions); and specific cognitive distortions about rape (MD 8.75, 95% CI 2.83 to 14.67, 1 study, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence), measured with the Bumby Cardsort Rape Scale (higher scores indicate more justifications, minimisations, rationalisations and excuses for HSB). One study (18 participants) reported very low-certainty evidence that CBT may result in greater improvements in victim empathy (MD 5.56, 95% CI 0.94 to 10.18), measured with the Attitudes Towards Women Scale, compared with no treatment. One additional study also measured this, but provided no usable data. CBT compared with alternative interventions Primary outcomes One study (59 participants) found little to no difference between CBT and alternative treatments on post-treatment sexual aggression scores (MD 0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.37, very low-certainty evidence), assessed using Daily Behaviour Reports and Behaviour Incidence Report Forms. No study in this comparison reported the impact of CBT on any measure of our remaining primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes One study (16 participants) provided very low-certainty evidence that, compared to sexual education, mean cognitive distortions pertaining to justification or taking responsibility for actions (MD 3.27, 95% CI -4.77 to -1.77) and apprehension confidence (MD 2.47 95% CI -3.85 to -1.09) may be lower in the CBT group. The same study indicated that mean cognitive distortions pertaining to social-sexual desirability may be lower in the CBT group, and there may be little to no difference between the groups for cognitive distortions pertaining to inappropriate sexual fantasies measured with the Multiphasic Sex Inventory. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether CBT reduces HSB in male adolescents compared to other treatments. All studies had insufficient detail in what they reported to allow for full assessment of risk of bias. 'Risk of bias' judgements were predominantly rated as unclear or high. Sample sizes were very small, and the imprecision of results was significant. There is very low-certainty evidence that group-based CBT may improve victim empathy when compared to no treatment, and may improve cognitive distortions when compared to sexual education, but not treatment as usual. Further research is likely to change the estimate. More robust evaluations of both individual and group-based CBT are required, particularly outside North America, and which look at the effects of CBT on diverse participants.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Fantasia , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estupro/psicologia , Reincidência , Autoimagem , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais
8.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 19(6): 232-234, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516194

RESUMO

The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened a group of experts to develop a Position Statement addressing the problem of sexual violence in sport. The AMSSM Sexual Violence in Sport Task Force held a series of meetings over 7 months, beginning in July 2019. Following a literature review, the task force used an iterative process and expert consensus to finalize the position statement. The objective of this position statement is to raise awareness of this critical issue among sports medicine physicians and to declare a commitment to engage in collaborative, multidisciplinary solutions to reduce sexual violence in sport.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Esportes , Consenso , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30(4): 291-292, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516236

RESUMO

The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) convened a group of experts to develop a Position Statement addressing the problem of sexual violence in sport. The AMSSM Sexual Violence in Sport Task Force held a series of meetings over 7 months, beginning in July 2019. Following a literature review, the task force used an iterative process and expert consensus to finalize the Position Statement. The objective of this Position Statement is to raise awareness of this critical issue among sports medicine physicians and to declare a commitment to engage in collaborative, multidisciplinary solutions to reduce sexual violence in sport.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Esportes , Humanos , Estados Unidos
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 674, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against women and girls is a public health epidemic. Campus-based research has found bystander programmes show promise as effective primary prevention of sexual violence. However, evidence regarding domestic violence and abuse bystander prevention specifically, and in community settings generally, is still in development. Further, research has predominantly emanated from the US. Examining proof of concept in differing cultural contexts is required. This study evaluates the feasibility and potential for effectiveness of a domestic violence and abuse bystander intervention within UK general communities-Active Bystander Communities. METHODS: Participants recruited opportunistically attended a three-session programme facilitated by experts in the field. Programme feasibility was measured using participant attendance and feedback across nine learning objectives. Myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, behavioural intent and bystander behaviours were assessed using validated scales at baseline, post-intervention, and four-month follow-up. Results were examined for potential backlash. Analyses used a paired sample t-test and effect size was quantified with Cohen's d. RESULTS: 58/70 participants attended all programme sessions. Participant feedback consistently rated the programme highly and significant change (p ≤ 0·001) was observed in the desired direction across behavioural intent, bystander efficacy, and myth acceptance scores at post and follow-up. Effect size was generally large and, with the exception of Perception of Peer Myth Acceptance, improved at follow-up. Backlash was minimal. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first UK-based study to examine the potential of bystander intervention as a community-level intervention for domestic violence and abuse. Findings are promising and indicate the translatability of the bystander approach to domestic violence and abuse prevention as well as community contexts. This is likely to be of great interest to policymakers and may help shape future community-based interventions. Further research is now needed using experimental designs engaging diverse community audiences.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
12.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(5): 22, 2020 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285306

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide a review and synthesis of the sexual offense treatment change literature with implications for dynamic sexual violence risk assessment and management. An argument is presented for the need for a dynamic approach in research and practice, and that for change to be prognostic, such changes need to be risk relevant and to come from credible change agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Extant research demonstrates that changes on psychologically meaningful dimensions of risk and need (e.g., sexual deviance; attitudes and cognitions; anger, aggression, and hostility) tend to be associated with reductions in sexual and other forms of recidivism; however, changes in domains less germane to risk and need tend not to be (e.g., empathy, mental health and well-being). Formalized dynamic sexual offense risk measures can be administered at multiple time points to reliably measure changes in sexual violence risk. Change information can then be used systematically to adjust risk appraisals. The extant literature supports the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk. Working toward the routine assessment of change with psychometrically sound measures, and integrating this information into risk management interventions, can not only improve lives and reduce sexual violence but is an ethical and human responsibility.


Assuntos
Transtornos Parafílicos , Delitos Sexuais , Agressão , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to estimate the prevalence, severity and identify predictors of violence among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in informal settlement areas of Nairobi, Kenya, selected for DREAMS (Determined Resilient Empowered AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe) investment. METHODS: Data were collected from 1687 AGYW aged 10-14 years (n = 606) and 15-22 years (n = 1081), randomly selected from a general population census in Korogocho and Viwandani in 2017, as part of an impact evaluation of the "DREAMS" Partnership. For 10-14 year-olds, we measured violence experienced either in the past 6 months or ever using a different set of questions from those used for 15-22 year-olds. Among 15-22 year-olds we measured prevalence of violence, experienced in the past 12 months, using World Health Organization (WHO) definitions for violence typologies. Predictors of violence were identified using multivariable logit models. RESULTS: Among 606 girls aged 10-14 years, about 54% and 7% ever experienced psychological and sexual violence, respectively. About 33%, 16% and 5% experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence in the past 6 months. The 10-14 year old girls who engaged in chores or activities for payment in the past 6 months, or whose family did not have enough food due to lack of money were at a greater risk for violence. Invitation to DREAMS and being a non-Christian were protective. Among 1081 AGYW aged 15-22 years, psychological violence was the most prevalent in the past year (33.1%), followed by physical violence (22.9%), and sexual violence (15.8%). About 7% experienced all three types of violence. Severe physical violence was more prevalent (13.8%) than moderate physical violence (9.2%). Among AGYW aged 15-22 years, being previously married/lived with partner, engaging in employment last month, food insecure were all risk factors for psychological violence. For physical violence, living in Viwandani and being a Muslim were protective; while being previously married or lived with a partner, or sleeping hungry at night during the past 4 weeks were risk factors. The odds of sexual violence were lower among AGYW aged 18-22 years and among Muslims. Engaging in sex and food insecurity increased chances for sexual violence. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of recent violence among AGYW is high in this population. This calls for increased effort geared towards addressing drivers of violence as an early entry point of HIV prevention effort in this vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Abuso Físico/prevenção & controle , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Prevalência , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Parcerias Público-Privadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gender-based violence is a global public health crisis, which has health, social, and economic impacts on survivors. In Ghana, responding to and preventing sexual violence on university campuses, has become a priority area. However, data are lacking on the healthcare provider response to students who have experienced sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to conduct a situational analysis to better understand the healthcare provider response to sexual violence in Cape Coast, Ghana. METHODS: First, an observational facility assessment about healthcare services for survivors of sexual violence was conducted at two hospitals serving university students in Cape Coast, Ghana. Next, healthcare providers at the two hospitals completed: 1) a 113-item questionnaire about healthcare services, knowledge, and attitudes related to sexual violence and 2) in-depth semi-structured interviews describing their experiences providing healthcare to survivors of sexual violence. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were computed, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. RESULTS: Both sites lacked supplies, including pre-packed rape kits, post-exposure HIV prophylaxis, and informational handouts on medications and support services for survivors. Further, healthcare providers lacked training on gender-based violence, including best practices for caring for survivors and evidence collection procedures. Providers described the clinical management for survivors of sexual violence, including providers' role in reporting sexual violence to authorities, medical forensic exams, reproductive and sexual health services, and referral for mental healthcare. Finally, providers described a number of barriers to survivors accessing post-assault healthcare, including stigma and structural barriers, such as cost of medical supplies and lack of privacy within the healthcare facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The current healthcare response to sexual violence in Ghana is limited by lack of supplies, knowledge, and training for healthcare providers. Personal and structural barriers may prevent survivors from accessing needed healthcare following sexual violence.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(3): 735-746, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002715

RESUMO

Adolescence is a high-risk time for perpetration of different forms of peer-based violence including harassment, bullying, and sexual assault. Research documents a number of important risk factors but less understood are protective factors like sense of mattering or how combinations of strengths may reduce perpetration risk. The current study examined how protective factors (i.e., positive social norms), including a diversity of strengths (termed poly-strengths), influenced the perpetration of harassment, bullying, and sexual assault for young people, while accounting for the use of alcohol both cross-sectionally and over time. Youth (N = 2232, 52.6% female) in grades 7-10 enrolled in a study using active parental consent (53% response rate) and completed online surveys in school that asked about bullying and harassment, alcohol use, positive social norms related to violence prevention, and a composite of intra-personal strengths. Follow-up surveys took place 6 months later (N = 2150). Logistic regression analyses examined how social norms and poly-strengths influenced odds of perpetration after accounting for demographic variables and the risk factor of alcohol use. Use of alcohol increased the odds of perpetrating all forms of violence. Strengths were significantly related to lower perpetration at Time 1 but not Time 2. Positive social norms reduced perpetration at both time points. The findings suggest adolescent perpetration of bullying, harassment, and sexual violence is lower in the presence of positive social norms over time and more proximally, in the presence of a diverse strengths portfolio. Prevention efforts that incorporate positive social norms and alcohol reduction strategies may reduce peer violence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Normas Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Psicologia do Adolescente , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Apoio Social , Espiritualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(7): 941-947, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To improve care for victims of sexual assault, specialized assault centers have been developed globally, providing medical, psychological and legal care in one place. Our assault center serves a large population in the center of Israel. In 2010, we initiated a program aimed to prevent assaults among minors and to encourage early referral of victims to the center. The goal of the current study was to assess the impact of this program by comparing the characteristics of sexual assaults before and after the program's initiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a historic cohort study of all victims of sexual assaults who were treated in our center between October 2000 and November 2017. A comparison was performed between victims treated before and after January 2010 (early vs. late study period), when the prevention program was initiated. The program mainly included lectures in middle and high schools, and workshops for police investigators. RESULTS: Overall, 3941 victims of sexual assault were treated in our center during the study period. Most victims were females (90.5%). Mean age was 23.0 ± 11.0 years. Most victims were single (93.1%), and approximately half knew their perpetrator before the assault. Compared with the early study period, in the late study period we observed a decrease in the rate of minor victims (31.9% vs. 24.7%, respectively, P < .001) and an increase in the rate of victims who arrived to the center within 3 days of the assault (P = .001). However, we observed higher rates of multiple-perpetrator assaults (16.7% vs. 21.9%, respectively, P < .001), alcohol use (29.2% vs. 40.1%, respectively, P < .001), and drug use (7.2% vs. 9.0%, respectively, P = .04). Moreover, in the late study period, fewer victims were willing to press charges (79.5% vs. 64.4%, respectively, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Our prevention program might have contributed to reducing the rate of sexual assaults among minors and shortened the time interval between the assault and victim's arrival to the center. Nonetheless, more efforts should be taken to reduce the involvement of alcohol and drugs in sexual assaults and to encourage victims to press charges.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 29(1): 9-18, ene. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190381

RESUMO

New intervention approaches are required for dating violence (DV) prevention, given the limited results of existing programs in achieving behavioral changes. The main objective of this study was to explore the effect of a brief, single-session intervention aimed at promoting an incremental theory of personality (ITP) on dating violence perpetration (DVP) and dating violence victimization (DVV). A double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel groups (experimental vs. control) was conducted. Participants were 123 adolescents (53.7% females, Mage = 15.20, SD = 0.99). Assessment measures were administered one week prior to the intervention, and six months and one year after the intervention. The results of the hierarchical linear models showed that the interaction between time and condition was statistically significant for DVP, showing a significant decrease both in traditional and cyber dating abuse in the experimental condition. The ITP intervention had no effect on DVV. Our findings suggest that the ITP intervention decreases the perpetration of aggressive acts toward the dating partner and support the idea that strategies aimed at preventing peer conflict may also prevent DVP. Increasing our empirical evidence about the efficacy of a one-hour self-applied intervention is of great relevance for moving forward in the prevention of DV


La necesidad de nuevos enfoques de intervención para la prevención de la violencia en el noviazgo (VN) deriva de las limitaciones de los programas existentes para lograr cambios conductuales. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de una intervención breve -de una sesión- dirigida a promover una teoría incremental de la personalidad, sobre la perpetración (PVN) y victimización (VVN) de violencia en el noviazgo. Se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado doble ciego con dos grupos paralelos (experimental vs. control). Los participantes fueron 123 adolescentes (53,7% mujeres, Medad = 15.20, DT = 0.99). Las medidas de evaluación se administraron una semana antes de la intervención, seis meses después de la intervención y un año después de la intervención. Los resultados de los modelos lineales jerárquicos mostraron que la interacción entre el tiempo y la condición fue estadísticamente significativa para la PVN, mostrando una disminución significativa tanto en el abuso tradicional como en el ciberacoso en la pareja en la condición experimental. La intervención no tuvo ningún efecto para la VVN. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la intervención disminuye la perpetración de actos agresivos hacia la pareja y apoyan la idea de que las estrategias dirigidas a prevenir conflictos entre iguales pueden también prevenir la PVN. El incremento de evidencia empírica sobre la eficacia de una intervención autoaplicable de una hora de duración es de gran relevancia para avanzar en la prevención de la VN


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Personalidade , Psicoterapia Breve/instrumentação , Cyberbullying/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Determinação da Personalidade , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
18.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199214

RESUMO

La prueba preconstituida es un buen instrumento jurídico de protección a los menores de edad en el proceso penal, a la vez que garantiza los derechos fundamentales y la preservación del testimonio. El cómo se realice y el momento en que se practica es crucial para que tenga validez en base a los referidos objetivos. En este trabajo se propone una "valoración técnica de la pertinencia sobre la toma de declaración a niños, niñas y adolescentes como prueba preconstituida", entendida como criterios de oportunidad, adecuación y conveniencia


The pre-constituted evidence is a good legal instrument for the protection of minors in criminal proceedings, at the same time as it guarantees fundamental rights and the preservation of testimony. How and when it is performed is crucial for its validity, based on the objective references. This work proposes a "technical assessment of belonging on the pre-constituted proof of children, infants and adolescents", understood as criteria of opportunity, adequacy and coexistence


La prova preconstituïda és un bon instrument jurídic de protecció als menors d'edat en el procés penal, al mateix temps que garanteix els drets fonamentals I la preservació del testimoni. El com es realitzi I el moment en què es practiqui és crucial perquè tingui validesa en base als referits objectius. En aquest treball es proposa una "valoració tècnica de la pertinença sobre la presa de declaració a nens, nenes I adolescents com a prova preconstituïda", entesa com a criteris d'oportunitat, adequació I convivència


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/diagnóstico , Violência/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
19.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 33(1): 79-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable advance and growth in the evidence base for psychological interventions as treatment for sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID), there remains limited evidence to support their effectiveness. This systematic review seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions on reducing reoffending rates for sex offenders with ID. METHODS: A search of ten electronic databases, grey literature and reference lists was conducted using PRISMA methodology. RESULTS: A number of studies appeared to establish positive treatment outcomes, demonstrated by improvements in attitudinal change, victim empathy and sexual knowledge. However, reductions in sexual reoffending during the follow-up period were not consistent across the studies. No studies with an adequate control comparison were identified during the search. CONCLUSIONS: The current review provides limited evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for sex offenders with ID, while also highlighting the need for further research.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Deficiência Intelectual , Psicoterapia , Delitos Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Humanos , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle
20.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 33(3): 302-306, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874315

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the impact of an interprofessional graduate student-led sexual education curriculum on sexual self-efficacy, perceived importance of sexual consent, and willingness to intervene against sexual violence in the high-risk population of detained youths. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Medical, nursing, social work, and physician assistant students implemented a 3-session, comprehensive sexual health curriculum for detained youths (n = 253). INTERVENTIONS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The curriculum from Son et al (2017) was adapted to include a more targeted curriculum on consent and safe relationships. Youths completed pre- and postintervention assessments that evaluated their sexual self-efficacy and violence-related beliefs and behaviors. RESULTS: Detained youths completing the curriculum showed statistically significant increases in the sexual self-efficacy (P < .001), view of the importance of consent (P < .001), and willingness to intervene (P = .0027). The subset of male individuals and adolescents aged 17-19 years achieved statistically significant improvement in each category; adolescents aged 12-14 years did not. Female participants showed statistically significant improvement in sexual self-efficacy scores only. CONCLUSIONS: The curriculum addressing topics of consent and sexual violence was effective in improving detained youths' belief in their ability to safely navigate a sexual encounter and their attitudes toward sexual assault. Additional research on gender- and age-specific programming and the long-term impact on sexual health risk behaviors is needed.


Assuntos
Autoeficácia , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
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