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1.
Maturitas ; 153: 48-60, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among adults. Over 35% of women worldwide report lifetime exposure to sexual violence. While psychosocial factors broadly have been linked to CVD risk, it is unclear if a history of sexual violence is associated with increased risk for CVD. This study employed quantitative meta-analysis to investigate the association between sexual violence and CVD risk. METHODS: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched through March 1, 2021. Included articles had a measure of sexual violence and at least one cardiovascular outcome (i.e., clinical CVD, subclinical CVD, select CVD risk factors) in women and men aged 18 years or older. Data were expressed as odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) extracted from fully-adjusted models. OR and HR effects were pooled separately, given the inability to statistically harmonize these effects and differences in interpretation, using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity of effects was tested using Cochran's Q test. RESULTS: Overall, 45 articles based on 830,579 adults (77.1% women) were included (113 individual effects expressed as OR and 9 individual effects expressed as HR). Results indicated that sexual violence was related to adult CVD risk (OR [95%CI] = 1.25 [1.11-1.40]; HR [95%CI] = 1.17 [1.05-1.31]). Results varied by outcome type and measurement, and timing of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with a history of sexual violence demonstrate greater CVD risk relative to those without this history. The results highlight the importance of addressing sexual violence in CVD risk reduction efforts.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256850, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473746

RESUMO

This paper examines the scope and characteristics of male-to-female intimate partner violence in southern rural Chiapas, Mexico, and its association with depression and anxiety symptoms, highlighting the role of partner controlling behaviors. Participants were selected by random sampling. One-hundred and forty-one women >15 years participated in the study. Data was obtained through an adapted version of the National Survey of the Dynamics of Household Relationships (ENDIREH) intimate partner violence scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression symptoms and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety symptoms. Quantitative results indicated a 66.4% lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual IPV among ever-partnered women 15 years or older (95% CI: 57.5-74.5%). Forty percent (95% CI: 32.0-49.7%) of them reported having experienced physical and/or sexual violence with high partner control (HC-IPV), and 25.8% (95% CI: 18.5-34.3%) reported having experienced physical and/or sexual violence with low or moderate partner control (MC-IPV). Lifetime experience of HC-IPV was significantly associated with moderate-severe depression symptoms (RR = 5.8) and suicidality (RR = 2.08). While partner alcohol abuse was associated with a 3.06 times higher risk of lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV, 30.9% of women mentioned that their partners were never drunk when violence occurred. Interestingly, high partner alcohol abuse was more frequent among women who reported HC-IPV compared to MC-IPV. Implications for global mental health practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , População Rural , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Aval. psicol ; 20(3): 341-351, jul.-set. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1345369

RESUMO

(AU)A Psicologia tem buscado compreender como ocorrem os processos de interesse e percepção sexual, contudo essa área ainda carece de estudos. Buscando compreender o estado da arte da área dos erros de percepção sexual, esta pesquisa realizou uma revisão integrativa da literatura utilizando o termo "sexual misperception" obtido do APA Thesaurus. Foram pesquisadas as bases PsycNet, Pubmed, Web of Science™, Lilacs, Wiley e Sage Journals. Foram obtidos, ao final dos processos de inclusão e exclusão, 19 artigos. Foi observada uma concentração das pesquisas nos Estados Unidos, com foco nas diferenças de gênero na percepção sexual. Outras variáveis investigadas estavam relacionadas ao consumo de álcool e comportamentos violentos. Os resultados apontam para poucas pesquisas realizadas nos contextos concretos e com elevada utilização de amostras WEIRD (ocidentais, com alto grau de alto escolaridade, de sociedades industrializadas, ricas e democráticas), as quais devem inspirar estudos em outras realidades. (AU)


Psychology tries to understand how the processes of sexual interest and perception occur however this area still needs further investigation. Focusing on understanding the state of the art in the field of ​​sexual perception errors, we carried out a systematic review of the literature using the term sexual misperception obtained from the APA Thesaurus. We reviewed the following databases; PsycNET, PubMed, Web of Science, Lilacs, Wiley, and Sage Journals. After the inclusion and exclusion processes, we obtained 19 articles. Most studies were performed in the United States, with a focus on gender differences in sexual perception. Other variables investigated were alcohol consumption and violent behavior. We identified a small number of studies carried out in real contexts, using exclusively WEIRD (white, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) samples, which should inspire studies in other realities. (AU)


La psicología ha buscado comprender cómo ocurren los procesos de interés y percepción sexual, sin embargo, esta área aún carece de estudios. Buscando comprender el estado del arte en el campo de los errores de percepción sexual, esta investigación llevó a cabo una revisión integradora de la literatura, utilizando el término sexual misperception obtenido del APA Thesauros. Se realizaron búsquedas en las siguientes bases de datos: PsycNet, Pubmed, Web of Science ™, Lilacs, Wiley y Sage Journals. Al finalizar los procesos de inclusión y exclusión, se obtuvieron 19 artículos. Se observó una concentración de investigación en los Estados Unidos con enfoque en las diferencias de género en la percepción sexual. Otras variables investigadas fueron el consumo de alcohol y el comportamiento violento. Se identificó un pequeño número de investigaciones realizadas en contextos reales y con alto uso de muestras WEIRD (occidentales, con alto grado de educación, sociedades industrializadas, ricas y democráticas), que deberían inspirar estudios en otras realidades. (AU)


Assuntos
Distorção da Percepção , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Individualidade
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254005, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Though there are several interventions evaluated over the past 25 years, significant knowledge gaps continue to exist regarding the effective prevention of sexual violence. This study explored the socio-economic and context-specific distinctive characteristics of husbands and wives on sexual autonomy and unwanted sexual experiences of currently married women in India. METHODOLOGY: We have utilized the recent round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4, 2015-16) data for this exploration. The NFHS-4 survey had adopted a stratified two-stage sample design to reach out to the survey households. A total of 63,696 couples are included in the analysis comprising of women of 15-49 years age and men of 15-54 years age. Multivariate techniques have been applied to understand the adjusted effects of socio-economic and demographic variables on control over their sexuality and sexual violence. RESULTS: Uneducated women married to uneducated men experienced more sexual violence and had less control over their sexuality than the other categories. The adjusted multivariate logistic model shows that educated husbands were significantly more likely to exercise control over their educated wives' sexuality (AOR = 0.88; CI:0.78-0.99). Women having older husbands were significantly less likely to be having no-control over own sexuality (AOR = 0.89; CI:0.83-0.95) and experienced sexual violence (AOR = 0.81; CI:0.70-0.95). Women having comparatively more-educated husbands were significantly less likely to experience sexual violence (AOR = 0.62; CI:0.47-0.81). Muslim women were significantly more likely to have no control overown sexuality. SC/ST women were significantly more likely to experience sexual violence (28%). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the factors associated with control over one's sexuality and preponderance to sexual violence: age, education, spouse working status, wealth status, husband's alcohol consumption, women autonomy, decision-making, and freedom for mobility. This study suggests that empowering women with education, creating awareness regarding reproductive health, and addressing their socio-economic needs to help them achieve autonomy and derive decision-making power.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Escolaridade , Casamento , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Autonomia Pessoal , Religião , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past years medical centres specifically addressed in gender-based violence have developed protocols for the collections of evidence useful in the courtroom, including accurate documentation of physical and psychological states of the victim and collection of samples. Previous studies showed an association between documented physical trauma and conviction but unfortunately, few studies in the recent literature analysed the factors that influence the legal outcome and final judgement. The present study focused on the elements that appeared of significance in the legal outcome, including medico-legal evaluation, source of the crime report and circumstance of the assault. METHODS: It was conducted a retrospective analysis of all the judgments issued by the Public Prosecutor's Office at a Court of a Metropolitan Italian city regarding sexual and domestic violence, from January 1st 2011 to 31st December 31st 2015. Examination regarded the demographic information of the victim and of the defendant, information on the crime, the circumstances of the aggression and medical information retrieved. Sentences were subsequently divided into two categories based on the legal outcome (conviction vs acquittal) and the different characteristics of the two sub-populations were compared to verify if there were variables significantly associated to the judge's final judgment. RESULTS: Over the 5 years taken into consideration, there have been 1342 verdicts regarding crimes of sexual violence (374 cases) and regarding abuses against family members or cohabitants (875): other 93 cases regarded both sexual violence and abuse. 66.3% ended in conviction of the offender and 33.7% in acquittal of the accused. Cases of conviction were more frequent when they involved: use of a weapon by the assailant, as well as if the assailant had a criminal record and had a history of drug abuse or other addictions; duration of proceeding less 22 months and a civil party involved; presence of clinical documentation together with other deposition in addition to victim's deposition; also frequent episodes of violence and application of precautionary measures were associated to conviction. CONCLUSIONS: Many factors seem able to influence the judge's judgment, although clearly each case must be singularly evaluated. The mere presence of medical documentation, without the support of other sources of evidence, such as the victim's statement or further declarations, however, is almost always not definitive for the verdict. Despite so, in cases where there are multiple sources of evidence, clinical documentation can provide useful elements and can give clues on the consistency between the history told and injuries observed.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Medicina Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Julgamento , Masculino , Exame Físico/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychol Assess ; 33(7): 581-595, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014750

RESUMO

Many forensic assessment measures are developed and validated under research conditions but applied in the field, where professionals or paraprofessionals have varied training, unknown fidelity to administration procedures, and contextual pressures related to their institutions or legal system. Yet few studies examine the generalizability of psychometric properties of these scales as actually applied in field settings. This study examined 4,433 individuals assessed by probation officers on the Static-99R or STABLE-2007 sexual recidivism risk scales in British Columbia, Canada. Sexual, violent, and any recidivism were examined. Static-99R and STABLE-2007 had moderate accuracy in discriminating recidivists from non-recidivists, and both scales added incrementally in predicting all three outcomes (with Static-99R demonstrating higher accuracy). Organizing the items into constructs, sexual criminality, general criminality, and youthful stranger aggression incrementally predicted all three outcomes. For violent and any recidivism, the incremental effect of sexual criminality was in the negative direction (i.e., high sexual criminality was associated with relatively lower rates of violent and any recidivism). Calibration analyses indicated that recidivism rates were lower than what would be predicted by the norms for the scales. The current study also presented a meta-analysis of 15 field validity studies of Static-99R and 4 field validity studies of STABLE-2007. Results of the current study and meta-analysis support the field application of Static-99R and STABLE-2007, while emphasizing the importance of training and proper implementation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Testes Psicológicos , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Reincidência/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos
8.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(3): 228-231, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939378

RESUMO

This report describes a rare case of an adolescent female with a history of unspecified depressive disorder, disinhibited social engagement disorder, and significant history of sexual trauma at an early age, who initially presented with suicidal ideation. During the initial evaluation, the patient was found to have engaged in sexually predatory behavior toward younger boys, including solicitation and inappropriate sexual behavior. This report discusses relevant literature on the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment for this behavior among female adolescent sexual predators, as sex offenders are primarily thought to be men. General recommendations for health care professionals caring for female sexual offenders are addressed as well as the importance of early treatment and appropriate training for professionals. The patient has been deidentified.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Animais , Transtorno Depressivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(6): 1083-1090, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957654

RESUMO

Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death, and, in women, nearly half of all suicide deaths occur during their reproductive years. Suicide is associated with psychiatric illness, especially mood and anxiety disorders. Childhood adversities, such as physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and intimate partner violence increase the risk of suicide. Having more than one psychiatric disorder or comorbid substance use disorder also increases the risk of suicide. Substance use disorders can be the triggering factor for a suicide attempt among those who have a psychiatric condition and suicidal thoughts. Women attempt suicide three times more often than men, although they are less likely to complete suicide. Although the rate of suicide decreases in the perinatal period, pregnant women are more likely to use violent means. Women who complete suicide in the perinatal period are also more likely to be younger, married, and experiencing a depressive episode. For many women, the only encounter with the medical system they have might be in reproductive health care clinics. This means that their obstetrician-gynecologist has a unique opportunity to address women's mental health and enhance suicide prevention. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends screening for depression among perinatal women. Clinicians need to be aware that women with severe perinatal depression are at increased risk of suicide and that women with suicidal thoughts need careful monitoring, evaluation, and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Ginecologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Obstetrícia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Ideação Suicida
10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(5): 406-420, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder reputed for resistance to correctional and forensic mental health treatment and synonymous with being high risk for different recidivism outcomes; it is not readily associated with an abundance of positive qualities or protective factors. Research has yet to examine the presence of protective factors as a function of psychopathy in correctional samples and the risk-relevance of protective factors for high-psychopathy men. METHOD: The present study examined the association of psychopathy and protective factors to recidivism in a Canadian sample of 461 men who attended sexual-offense-specific treatment and followed up nearly 10-year postrelease. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, The Hare psychopathy-checklist-revised, 1991; Hare, Manual for the revised psychopathy checklist, 2003) and the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF; de Vogel et al., The International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 2011, 10, 171) were rated from institutional files and recidivism data were obtained from official criminal records. RESULTS: PCL-R scores were inversely related to SAPROF scores; however, even men scoring high on the PCL-R made significant pre-post changes on protective factors. PCL-R and SAPROF scores predicted sexual, violent, and general recidivism; treatment-related changes in protective factors, controlling for PCL-R score, were significantly associated with decreased violent recidivism. CONCLUSIONS: Protective factors can and do change with purposive change agents (e.g., correctional treatment), even among individuals with substantial psychopathic traits. The role and risk relevance of protective factors in sexual violence risk assessment and management with high psychopathy clientele are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Canadá , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Reincidência , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1829-1840, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895999

RESUMO

Juveniles referred for adjudicative competence evaluations make up a subset of youth involved in the juvenile justice system. Among those referred for adjudicative competence evaluations, a significant number involve youth with current or past charges for sexual offenses. This study examines the profiles of youth with sexual offense charges who have been referred for competence evaluations at a state psychiatric hospital for children and adolescents. Differences between the characteristics of youth with and without sexual offenses were explored, and predictors of competence opinions were examined among the subset of youth with current or prior sexual charges (juveniles with sexual offenses, or JSOs). Findings indicated that youth with sexual offenses have several demographic, cognitive, clinical, and legal differences from youth without sexual offenses. Although youth with sexual offenses were less likely to be opined competent, presence of a sexual offense was not a predictor of competence opinions after controlling for other factors. Predictors of competence among JSOs were found to be similar to those among youth referred for competence evaluations in general. Primary diagnosis of an autism-related disorder was a unique predictor of being opined not competent among the JSO subgroup, but not the overall sample. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed.


Assuntos
Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Psicologia Forense , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 334, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some women avoid sexual intercourse during pregnancy due to the physiological changes they undergo during this period as well as their fear of causing harm to the fetus and to themselves, which can lead to problems in sexual health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a sexual health education package on the dimensions of sexual health in pregnant women. METHODS: This randomized, longitudinal, clinical trial was carried out in 2018-2019 on 154 pregnant women in early to late pregnancy who presented to comprehensive health centers in Rasht, Iran, and were divided into three groups: Group A or the training group (50 participants), Group B or the self-training group (53 participants), and Group C or the control group (51 participants). The study tools included the Pregnancy Sexual Response Inventory (PSRI), the Sexual Quality of Life-Female (SQOL-F) and the Sexual Violence Questionnaire. The dimensions of sexual health were examined before beginning each intervention in each trimester of pregnancy and then at the end of pregnancy using these questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests, namely the Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Cochrane's test, and the repeated measures ANOVA at a significance level of P < 0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the mean total scores of SQOL-F and PSRI in the three groups at baseline. As for the intergroup results, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean score of SQOL-F and PSRI at the end of pregnancy. The mean scores of PSRI and SQOL-F in the training group (Group A) increased from the beginning to the end of pregnancy compared to the control and self-training groups. As for the intergroup comparisons, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean total scores of sexual violence among the pregnant women in the different groups in the third trimester of pregnancy and at the end of the third trimester. Although sexual violence was not statistically significant, the number of sexually-violated women in the training group decreased during the training period compared to the self-training and control groups. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the intervention group compared to the control group revealed the effectiveness of the sexual health education package in terms of improvement in the dimensions of sexual health. According to the results, in order to maintain and promote the sexual health of pregnant women, health care providers are recommended to offer sexual health training during pregnancy along with other health care services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20190427043398N1 ; the trial was registered on June 2, 2019. (retrospective registration).


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Gestantes , Qualidade de Vida , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Gestantes/educação , Gestantes/psicologia , Educação Sexual/métodos , Educação Sexual/normas , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Ensino
13.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(5): 393-405, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914570

RESUMO

Objective: Although there is evidence that the positive impact of multisystemic therapy for problem sexual behaviors (MST-PSB) reaches as far as young adulthood, the longer-term effects of MST-PSB into midlife are unknown. The present study examined criminal and civil court outcomes for sexually offending youths who participated on average 24.9 years earlier in a clinical trial of MST-PSB (Borduin et al., Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2009, 77, p. 26). Method: Participants were 48 individuals who were originally randomized to MST-PSB or usual community services (UCS) and were at high risk of continued criminality. Arrest, incarceration, and civil suit data were obtained in middle adulthood when participants averaged 39.4 years of age. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses showed that MST-PSB participants had 85% fewer sexual offenses and 70% fewer nonsexual offenses than did UCS participants. In addition, MST-PSB participants were sentenced to 46% fewer days of incarceration and had 62% fewer family-related civil suits. Moreover, the favorable effects of MST-PSB on participants' crimes and civil suits were mediated by improved peer and family relations during treatment. Conclusion: The current study represents the longest and most comprehensive follow-up to date of an MST-PSB clinical trial and demonstrates that the positive effects of an evidence-based youth treatment for sexual crimes can last well into adulthood. Implications of the findings for policymakers, service providers, and researchers are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criminosos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nurs Outlook ; 69(3): 458-470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While some barriers to PTSD treatment engagement among veterans are well-identified, e.g., stigma, little is known about the barriers to VA PTSD treatment-seeking among women veterans who experienced military sexual trauma (MST) decades ago. PURPOSE: To explore the barriers to PTSD treatment-seeking of women veterans with PTSD related to MST experienced prior to 2000. METHOD: Data were collected from women veterans (n = 14) who had experienced MST and sought VA PTSD treatment. Data analyses utilized a constructivist grounded theory approach. FINDINGS: The context of the MST experience, including the military environment at the time, the era in which they experienced MST and the response of others to their reporting or disclosure of MST created decades-long barriers to PTSD treatment-seeking. DISCUSSION: Understanding institutional betrayal as a barrier to PTSD treatment-seeking among women veterans who experienced MST decades ago is necessary to develop effective targeted outreach and programs for this population.


Assuntos
Traição/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , United States Department of Defense , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Sexual/psicologia , Trauma Sexual/terapia , Estados Unidos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248396, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence against women has been one of the most prominent issue and a major public health concern. It is a principle violation of basic human rights and has both physical and mental effect on the victim. This study focuses on married and unmarried girls aged 15 to 19 years, belonging to Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India. This study attempts to examine depression level among married and unmarried girls who have faced violence against them. With the unprecedented growth in social networking, online digital platform and its accessibility, the study also brings out the pertinent aspect of internet based violence and its psychological outcome on adolescent girls. Hence, the study can be seen as an important and needed value addition to the existing pool of knowledge on the subject. METHODS: The study uses Understanding the lives of adolescents and young adults (UDAYA) project data for Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Depressive symptoms among adolescent girl is the outcome variable of the study. Descriptive statistic and bivariate analysis has been used to get to preliminary results. Chi-squared test is used to test the significant of variables. Further, multi-variate analysis (logistic regression) was used. RESULTS: Almost 29, 23 and 26 percent of married adolescent girls had faced emotional, physical and sexual violence respectively. It was found that about five per cent of unmarried and eight per cent of married girls had high depressive symptoms. It was found that unmarried adolescent girls who had witnessed their father beating mother were 71 percent more likely to suffer from higher depressive symptoms [OR: 1.71, 1.09-2.69]. Adolescents who faced perpetrated bullying had 90 per cent [OR: 1.90, 1.32-2.72] and 86 per cent [OR: 1.86, 0.98-3.52] higher likelihood to suffer from higher depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The study goes beyond intimate partner violence and includes various covariates to explain the association between violence and depressive symptoms among married and unmarried adolescents. Hence, more inclusive policies are needed to address the issue of violence against women as the spectrum of the violence is expanding with time.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Casamento/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765044

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While trigger warnings have garnered significant debate, few studies have investigated how students typically respond to potentially triggering material. METHOD: In this study, three hundred and fifty-five undergraduate students from four universities read a passage describing incidences of both physical and sexual assault. Longitudinal measures of subjective distress, PTSD symptoms, and emotional reactivity were taken. RESULTS: Greater than 96% of participants read the triggering passage even when given a non-triggering alternative to read. Of those who read the triggering passage, those with triggering traumas did not report more distress although those with higher PTSD scores did. Two weeks later, those with trigger traumas and/or PTSD did not report an increase in trauma symptoms as a result of reading the triggering passage. CONCLUSIONS: Students with relevant traumas do not avoid triggering material and the effects appear to be brief. Students with PTSD do not report an exacerbation of symptoms two weeks later as a function of reading the passage.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Leitura , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Autorrelato , Universidades
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248566, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally violence is a matter of public health concern with severe physical and mental health implications and social consequences. Evidence suggest that adolescents have an elevated risk of exposure to physical and sexual violence. However, there is a lack of nationally representative research on violence and its associated factors in Nepal to inform interventions. This paper attempts to find the factors associated with various forms of physical and sexual violence among school-going adolescents in Nepal. METHODS: We analysed the cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2015. The GSHS survey applied a two-stage cluster sampling process to select a representative sample of 7 to 11 grade students from 74 schools across the country. We applied logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with physical and sexual violence. RESULTS: Out of the total 6,529 participants, 45.24% of them faced a physical attack, 39.25% were involved in a physical fight, and 11.65% were victims of sexual violence in the survey administered between 7 August 2015 to 14 March 2016. In a multiple regression analysis, the age of participants, parental supervision, feeling unsafe at school, and the number of close friends were found to be associated with a physical attack. Participants who were bullied, had multiple sex partners, and had received corporal punishment in school had a higher engagement in a physical fight. Likewise, school grade, having parents who understand the problems, having multiple sex partners, and corporal punishment at school were associated with instances of sexual violence. CONCLUSION: The study identified multiple factors associated with experiences of physical attacks, involvement in a physical fight, and sexual violence among school-going adolescents. This study results can have important implications for school administration, parents, and policymakers alike to plan appropriate anti-violence strategies and interventions. Since various forms of violence share some common risk factors, a comprehensive strategy could be worth considering to prevent such acts of violence.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal , Psicologia do Adolescente , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia
18.
Aval. psicol ; 20(1): 111-121, jan.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1249050

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar diferenças no perfil criminal de autores de violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes (AVS) considerados psicopatas e não psicopatas. Participaram 30 reeducandos cumprindo pena em regime fechado, que foram divididos em dois grupos: G1, composto pelos AVS considerados psicopatas (PCL-R ≥ 30); e G2, composto pelos AVS considerados não psicopatas (PCL-R < 30). Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado o Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R), e as análises foram feitas por meio de estatísticas descritiva e comparativa. Os resultados apontaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao tempo de pena, à quantidade de fuga e rebelião, assim como o número de processos e de vítimas, mostrando que os AVS psicopatas são mais indisciplinados e têm mais chances de reincidir criminalmente do que os não psicopatas, e que, comumente, costumam vitimizar mais pessoas e cometer uma maior variedade de crimes do que os não psicopatas. (AU)


The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in the profiles of sex offenders considered psychopaths and non-psychopaths that committed crimes against children and adolescents. The subjects of this study were 30 re-educated criminals serving a prison sentence, organized into two groups: G1, consisting of sex offenders considered psychopaths (PCL-R ≥ 30); and G2, consisting of non-psychopaths (PCL-R <30). The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) was used to collect data, and the analyses were performed using descriptive and comparative statistics. The results presented significant differences between the two groups in terms of the amount of time spent in incarceration, the quantity of prison breaks and rebellions, and the number of cases and victims. This shows that psychopathic sex offenders are more undisciplined and more recidivists than non-psychopaths, and that they often victimize more people and commit a greater variety of crimes than non-psychopaths. (AU)


El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar diferencias en el perfil criminal de los autores de violencia sexual contra niños y adolescentes (AVS) considerados psicópatas y no psicópatas. Participaron 30 reclusos con sentencia de régimen cerrado, organizados en dos equipos. G1, compuesto por los AVS considerados psicópatas (PCL-R ≥ 30); y G2, formado por los AVS, considerados no psicópatas (PCL-R < 30). Para la recopilación de datos, se utilizó el Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), y los análisis se realizaron utilizando estadísticas descriptivas y comparativas. Los resultados señalaron distinciones significativas entre los grupos con relación al tiempo de condena, la cantidad de fugas y rebeliones; así como el número de demandas y de víctimas; demostrando que los AVS psicópatas son más indisciplinados y tienen más probabilidades de reincidir al crimen, además de victimizar a más personas y cometer a una mayor variedad de delitos que los no psicópatas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Estatística , Reincidência/psicologia
19.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 52(1): 7-26, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201646

RESUMO

El presente trabajo tiene por objeto conocer los ajustes de procedimiento que se desarrollan durante los procesos judiciales ante hechos constitutivos de abuso o agresión sexual cuando la víctima presenta una discapacidad intelectual o del desarrollo (DID). Además, analiza las características de víctimas con DID y agresores, aportando información adicional sobre el proceso de denuncia. Para ello, se analizaron un total de 56 sentencias resueltas en un periodo de cuatro años (2014-2018), extrayendo informa­ción objetiva de las mismas con respecto a los aspectos más relevantes referidos a la víc­tima, el delito, el agresor y al proceso judicial. Del análisis realizado podemos concluir la existencia de multitud de obstáculos que aún siguen presentes en la práctica judicial española, siendo necesaria una formación exhaustiva de las personas vinculadas a los sistemas procesales en aspectos referidos a esta discapacidad: la víctima declara en reite­radas ocasiones, especialmente cuando se juzga un delito de agresión sexual, sin ningún tipo de adaptación o apoyo profesional. Señalamos asimismo la necesidad de evaluar la huella psicológica que pudiera presentar la víctima, así como desterrar mitos con respec­to a las discapacidades del desarrollo que dificultan el derecho a acceder y participar en los procedimientos judiciales en condiciones de igualdad


The following paper aims to analyze the provision of procedural accom­modations during the legal process to victims of sexual abuse or sexual assault with an intellectual or developmental disability (IDD). It also examines the characteristics of victims with IDD and their aggressors, providing additional information on the re­porting process. To this end, a total of 56 sentences resolved over a period of four years (2014-2018) were analyzed, extracting objective information regarding the most relevant aspects of the crime committed, the victim, the aggressor, and the legal process. The obtained results showed the existence of different obstacles that are still present in the Spanish jurisprudence, requiring an appropriate training for those working in the field of administration of justice: the victim declares repeatedly, especially when a crime of sexual assault is being judged, and without any type of accommodation or professional support. We also point out the need to evaluate the psychological consequences that the victim may experience, and to dispel myths regarding developmental disabilities that hinder access and participation in legal proceedings under equal conditions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Populações Vulneráveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/legislação & jurisprudência , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Decisões Judiciais , Vítimas de Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Espanha
20.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 304(2): 385-393, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527173

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sexual violence is a global health problem. We aimed to evaluate the association between self-reported history of sexual violence and parturients' health behaviors, focusing on routine gynecological care, and mental well-being. METHODS: This was a retrospective questionnaire-based study, including mothers of newborns delivered at the "Soroka" University Medical Center (SUMC). Participants were asked to complete three validated questionnaires, including: screening for sexual violence history (SES), post-traumatic stress disorder (PDS) and post-partum depression (EPDS). Additionally, a demographic, pregnancy and gynecological history data questionnaire was completed, and medical record summarized. Multiple analyses were performed, comparing background and outcome variables across the different SES severity levels. Multivariable regression models were constructed, while adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: The study included 210 women. Of them, 26.3% (n = 57) reported unwanted sexual encounter, 23% (n = 50) reported coercion, 1.8% (n = 4) assault and attempted rape, and 1.4% (n = 3) reported rape. A significant association was found between sexual violence history and neglected gynecological care, positive EPDS screening, and reporting experiencing sexual trauma. Several multivariable regression models were constructed, to assess independent associations between sexual violence history and gynecological health-care characteristics, as well as EPDS score. Sexual violence history was found to be independently and significantly associated with a negative relationship with the gynecologist, avoidance of gynecological care, sub-optimal routine gynecological follow-up, and seeking a gynecologist for acute symptoms (adjusted OR = 0.356; 95% CI 0.169-0.749, adjusted OR = 0.369; 95% CI 0.170-0.804, adjusted OR = 2.255; 95% CI 1.187-4.283, and adjusted OR = 2.113; 95% CI 1.085-4.111, respectively), as well as with the risk of post-partum depression (adjusted OR = 4.46; 95% CI 2.03-9.81). All models adjusted for maternal age and ethnicity. CONCLUSION: Sexual violence history is extremely common among post-partum women. It is independently associated with post-partum depression, neglected gynecological care, a negative relationship with the gynecologist, and with reporting of experiencing sexual trauma. Identifying populations at risk and taking active measures, may reduce distress and improve emotional well-being and family function.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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