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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46883

RESUMO

A Associação Alzheimer Portugal rege-se pelo princípio do Respeito Absoluto pelos Direitos Fundamentais à Liberdade e à Autodeterminação, e pelo princípio da Abordagem Centrada na Pessoa com Demência. A Doença de Alzheimer e outras formas de Demência são doenças progressivas e degenerativas com impactos profundos na pessoa e em quem a rodeia, e que determinam a perda gradual de capacidade.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Demência , Demência Frontotemporal
4.
Brain Nerve ; 71(11): 1236-1244, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722309

RESUMO

Recent papers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex in the Kii peninsula, Japan (Kii ALS/PDC), published since 2015, were reviewed The studies included transition element of scalp hair analysis, dopaminergic PET study, review of life style changes in the high incident area, neurotoxic BMAA analysis, a clinical report of a migration case, comprehensive neuropathological study, cerebellar tau pathology, nitrative stress in the central nervous system study, optinurin pathology in the spinal cord, and tau PET study. Tau PET was advocated to be a new useful tool for diagnosis, even in the early stage of ALS/PDC with tauopathy. The etiology of Kii ALS/PDC remainds unknown. There are patients and healthy residents within the same environment in the high incidence foci, therefore it is difficult to explain this result by exposure to environmental factors alone. From the genetic viewpoint, rare-disease and rare-variant model may be applied to Kii ALS/PDC. Because there was an immigrant who was diagnosed neuropathologically, and a drastic decrease of the prevalence in the past several decades in the high incident area, it is feasible that Kii ALS/PDC is a multifactorial disease caused by both risk genes and environmental factors. Identifying risk genes and environmental factors for Kii ALS/PDC may contribute to the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia
6.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 54(4): 541-550, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703779

RESUMO

Delirium superimposed on dementia is an acute medical illness that is difficult to diagnose because of the similarities of the symptoms to dementia. Delirium can contribute to the suffering of the patient as well as the family and caregiver. An initial holistic assessment of the patient is critical in establishing the cognitive baseline symptoms of delirium. Prevention of delirium can be assisted by ongoing reassessment of the patient for symptoms of delirium. The goal of treatment is to treat the underlying cause of the delirium.


Assuntos
Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/terapia , Demência/complicações , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Idoso , Humanos
7.
Med. U.P.B ; 38(2): 120-128, 17 de octubre de 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023407

RESUMO

Objetivo: se habla de enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) avanzada cuando la terapia convencional no proporciona control motor. Las alteraciones práxicas se han descrito en estos pacientes, como parte del deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL) desde etapas tempranas. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la diferencia entre las alteraciones práxicas y el subtipo de DCL en un grupo de pacientes con EP avanzada. Metodología: diseño observacional-analítico trasversal en pacientes con EP vistos en consulta para evaluación neuropsicológica en el año 2014. Se compararon las categorías diagnósticas según el predominio apráxico y se exploró si existía una relación entre alteraciones práxicas y predominio cortical posterior vs. frontosubcortical. Se categorizaron tres grupos: grupo 1) DCL monodominio no amnésico-predominio ejecutivo, grupo 2) DCL multidominio de predominio apráxico y ejecutivo y grupo 3) DCL multidominio ­con más de dos dominios cognitivos alterados­. Resultados: hubo mayor predominio de apraxias corporales y visuoconstruccionales en los grupos 2 y 3. Los hallazgos demuestran diferencias al comparar habilidades práxicas entre subgrupos (p<0.05), como también, un patrón de disminución gradual de rendimiento en pruebas según subtipo de DCL. No se encontró relación entre los grupos para los predominios corticales posteriores y frontosubcorticales en las praxias corporales. En el grupo 3 hubo niveles más altos de afectación cortical posterior que en el grupo 2, para praxias ideomotoras (derechas e izquierdas) e ideacionales. Hubo relación entre la presencia de apraxias visuocontruccionales y disfunción frontosubcortical (p<0.01) en los tres grupos. Conclusiones: los participantes con EP avanzada podrían presentar alteraciones práxicas que no son propias de un cuadro demencial, corroboramos que es posible la aparición apraxia en pacientes con DCL sin demencia, por lesiones leves de la corteza parietal que no explican pérdida funcional mayor.


Objective: We talk about advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) when conventional therapy does not provide motor control. Praxis alterations have been described in these patients as part of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from early stages. The objective of this work is to determine the difference between praxis alterations and the subtype of DCL in a group of patients with advanced PD. Methodology: cross-sectional observational-analytical design in patients with PD examined in consultation for neuropsychological evaluation in 2014. The diagnostic categories were compared according to the apraxic predominance. In addition, we explored if there was a relationship between praxis alterations and posterior cortical vs. frontosubcortical predominance. Three groups were categorized: group 1) Non-amnestic-executive monodomain DCL, group 2) Apraxic and executive dominance multi-domain DCL, and group 3) Multi-domain DCL ­with more than two altered cognitive domains­. Results: there was a greater predominance of body and visuoconstructional apraxies in groups 2 and 3. The findings show differences when comparing praxical abilities between subgroups (p <0.05), as well as a pattern of gradual performance decrease in tests according to subtype of DCL. No relationship was found between the groups for posterior cortical and frontosubcortical predominance in body praxias. There were higher levels of posterior cortical involvement in group 3 than in group 2, for ideomotor praxias (right and left) and ideational praxias. There was a relationship between the presence of visuocontructional apraxias and frontosubcortical dysfunction (p <0.01) in the three groups. Conclusions: Participants with advanced PD could present praxis alterations that are not characteristic of dementia. We confirm that apraxia is possible in patients with MCI without dementia, due to minor lesions of the parietal cortex that do not explain major functional loss.


Objetivo: se fala de Mal de Parkinson (MP) avançado quando a terapia convencional não proporciona controle motor. As alterações práxicas se há descrito nestes pacientes, como parte do deterioro cognitivo leve (DCL) desde etapas precoces. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar a diferença entre as alterações práxicas e o subtipo de DCL em um grupo de pacientes com MP avançado. Metodologia: desenho observacional-analítico transversal em pacientes com MP vistos em consulta para avaliação neuropsicológica no ano de 2014. Se compararam as categorias diagnósticas segundo o predomínio apráxico e se explorou si existia uma relação entre alterações práxicas e predomínio cortical posterior vs. frontosubcortical. Se categorizaram três grupos: grupo 1) DCL monodomínio não amnésico-predomínio executivo, grupo 2) DCL multidomínio de predomínio apráxico e executivo e grupo 3) DCL multidomínio ­com mais de dois domínios cognitivos alterados­. Resultados: houve maior predomínio de apraxias corporais e visuoconstruccionais nos grupos 2 e 3. As descobertas demostram diferenças ao comparar habilidades práxicas entre subgrupos (p<0.05), como também, um padrão de diminuição gradual de rendimento em provas segundo subtipo de DCL. Não se encontrou relação entre os grupos para os predomínios corticais posteriores e frontosubcorticais nas praxias corporais. No grupo 3 houve níveis mais altos de afetação cortical posterior que no grupo 2, para praxias ideomotoras (direitas e esquerdas) e ideacionais. Houve relação entre a presença de apraxias visuocontruccionais e disfunção frontosubcortical (p<0.01) nos três grupos. Conclusões: os participantes com MP avançado poderiam apresentar alterações práxicas que não são próprias de um quadro demencial, corroboramos que é possível o aparecimento apraxia em pacientes com DCL sem demência, por lesões leves da córtex parietal que não explicam perda funcional maior.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Adulto , Demência , Disfunção Cognitiva , Neuropsicologia
8.
Brain Nerve ; 71(10): 1061-1070, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588050

RESUMO

Due to the recent rapid increase in the number of elderly people in the world, health management and maintenance in elderly people have become important issues. Centenaria, who are older than 100 years, tend to stay independent in their daily life with maintenance of cognitive function until the later stage of their life compared with elderly people who die earlier. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of centenarians, the genetic risk and protective factors for longevity, and intersections between research on centenarians and dementia research.


Assuntos
Demência/genética , Longevidade , Fatores de Proteção , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17279, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This protocol for a systematic review describes the methods that will be used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological interventions for patients with dementia. METHODS: We will search ALOIS, the specialized register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), without language or publication status restrictions. Additional separate searches will be run in many of the above six databases to ensure the most up-to-date results are retrieved.The study selection and data extraction will be performed independently by two authors and only randomized controlled trials will be included. The risk of bias will be assessed independently by two authors following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We will use RevMan software and random-effects models to assess the heterogeneity and data synthesis.If any plan for documenting important protocol amendments changes, the researchers will make a revision agreement and then register the modification on PROSPERO. CONCLUSION: Through this systematic review, a comprehensive understanding of current non-pharmacological interventions on dementia will be available. Meanwhile, it will provide basic evidence for further clinical research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required because no individual patient's data are included in this paper. This study will be disseminated through conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019136435.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4752, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients seen at a dementia outpatient clinic. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted by medical record review searching data on sex, race, age, schooling level, and diagnosis of patients seen from 2008 to 2015. RESULTS: A total of 760 patients were studied, with a predominance of female (61.3%; p<0.0001). The mean age was 71.2±14.43 years for women and 66.1±16.61 years for men. The most affected age group was 71 to 80 years, accounting for 29.4% of cases. In relation to race, 96.3% of patients were white. Dementia was diagnosed in 68.8% of patients, and Alzheimer's disease confirmed in 48.9%, vascular dementia in 11.3%, and mixed dementia in 7.8% of cases. The prevalence of dementia was 3% at 70 years and 25% at 85 years. Dementia appeared significantly earlier in males (mean age 68.5±15.63 years). As to sex distribution, it was more frequent in women (59.6%) than in men (40.4%; p<0.0001; OR=2.15). People with higher schooling level (more than 9 years) had a significantly younger age at onset of dementia as compared to those with lower schooling level (1 to 4 years; p=0.0007). CONCLUSION: Most patients seen in the period presented dementia, and Alzheimer was the most prevalent disease. Women were more affected, and men presented young onset of the disease. Individuals with higher schooling level were diagnosed earlier than those with lower level.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 249-257, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of dementia training programs in hospital settings is steadily increasing. The way training sessions are designed influences the way the learning content is implemented in practice. To develop a successful training it is important to meet the needs of the target group; however, not much is known about staff preferences and expectations relevant to future dementia training programs in hospitals in Germany and Greece. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this survey was to explore staff training needs relevant to the topic of dementia, in general hospitals in Germany and Greece. This study analyzed the interests of staff members, preferences and expectations with respect to dementia training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive survey based on a 54-item questionnaire conducted with 61 nursing staff, head nurses and physicians (Germany: n = 25, Greece: n = 36) recruited from 5 hospitals (Germany: n = 3, Greece: n = 2). Parts of the questionnaire explored participants' previous education regarding dementia and their expectations towards future dementia programs. RESULTS: Although staff attendance in educative programs was high in the last 5 years for both countries, participation in dementia training programs was low (Germany 24%, Greece 5.5%). Additionally, the great majority of participants were willing to be trained in future dementia training programs (Germany 96%, Greece 100%). Employees from both countries expect increased clinical skills as a result of participation in such training programs. In Greece, staff members hope for better handling of people with dementia, while in Germany, concrete practical advice is preferred. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a strong willingness to participate in further dementia training programs where not only theoretical knowledge is provided but also practical advice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Demência , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alemanha , Grécia , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Médicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 264-272, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acutely ill older patients with cognitive impairment represent a major subgroup in acute care hospitals. In this context, communication plays a crucial role for patients' well-being, healthcare decisions, and medical outcomes. As validated measures are lacking, we tested the psychometric properties of an observational instrument to assess Communication Behavior in Dementia (CODEM) in the acute care hospital setting. As a novel feature, we were also able to incorporate linguistic and social-contextual measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional mixed methods study that focused on the occurrence of elderspeak during care interactions in two German acute care hospitals. A total of 43 acutely ill older patients with severe cognitive impairment (CI group, Mage ± SD = 83.6 ± 5.7 years) and 50 without cognitive impairment (CU group, Mage ± SD = 82.1 ± 6.3 years) were observed by trained research assistants during a standardized interview situation and rated afterwards by use of CODEM. RESULTS: Factor analysis supported the expected two-factor solution for the CI group, i.e., a verbal content and a nonverbal relationship aspect. Findings of the current study indicated sound psychometric properties of the CODEM instrument including internal consistency, convergent, divergent, and criterion validity. CONCLUSION: CODEM represents a reliable and valid tool to examine the communication behavior of older patients with CI in the acute care hospital setting. Thus, CODEM might serve as an important instrument for researcher and healthcare professionals to describe and improve communication patterns in this environment.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/instrumentação , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comunicação , Cuidados Críticos , Demência/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Alemanha , Hospitais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 291-296, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, the question arises as to why the dementia sensitivity of acute care hospitals is still so uncommon even though the first concepts were successfully tested more than 20 years ago. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to describe implementation barriers in an overview and to show ways to a better practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The results presented are based on a document analysis, the evaluation of focus groups and network meetings as well as on interviews with experts within the framework of a study for the Robert Bosch Foundation. In addition, the results of an earlier investigation of the iso institut for the German Alzheimer Society are included. RESULTS: Based on the experience gained in model projects, typical barriers for a dementia-sensitive orientation on individual, work organizational and superordinate levels are described. The systematization of the barriers provides a starting point for overcoming these hurdles. In addition, a number of success factors for the implementation of good practice can be worked out from the projects. It has been found to be crucial to work on the attitude of staff towards people with cognitive impairments and to adapt processes to the special needs of this patient group. In this context, management and a professionally sound structuring of change processes play a key role. DISCUSSION: In the future, managers and employees in acute care hospitals will be able to find a wide range of suggestions in comprehensive guidelines from the iso-Institute on the modular implementation of dementia-sensitive hospitals, which is backed up by tried and tested and effective aids to action, instruments, process descriptions, etc. The guidelines will also be available in the form of a comprehensive list of recommendations.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Assistência à Saúde , Demência , Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Competência Clínica , Cuidados Críticos , Grupos Focais , Alemanha , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 258-263, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive disorders such as dementia are common among older adults admitted to general hospitals. They can complicate treatment leading to longer hospitalization and worse outcomes. They often remain underdiagnosed as the busy routine of the hospital does not enable efficient screening and available screening instruments are not suitable for the hospital environment. Computerized cognitive testing (CCT) has been proposed as an efficient screening method as it can be employed by nonspecialists, such as nurses while featuring automatic scoring and interpretation of results. OBJECTIVE: This study validated a newly developed questionnaire for measuring the attitudes of Greek nurses towards computerized dementia screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire was validated in a sample of 212 undergraduate psychology students and subsequently administered to a sample of 19 nurses working in a general hospital. Reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha (= 0.762). Factor analysis revealed the existence of a single factor (acceptability-feasibility) that accounted for 33.73% of variance with an eigenvalue of 3.036. RESULTS: The total score of all the items loading on the single factor (acceptability-feasibility) was calculated. Scores ranged between 10 and 40 with the average score for the validation group being 29.33 (SD = 4.89) and the average score for the nurses' group being 29.50 (SD = 3.20). DISCUSSION: The questionnaire has acceptable reliability. Results indicate that acceptability-feasibility is high in both groups and there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Demência/diagnóstico , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
JAMA ; 322(16): 1589-1599, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638686

RESUMO

Importance: Worldwide, 47 million people live with dementia and, by 2050, the number is expected to increase to 131 million. Observations: Dementia is an acquired loss of cognition in multiple cognitive domains sufficiently severe to affect social or occupational function. In the United States, Alzheimer disease, one cause of dementia, affects 5.8 million people. Dementia is commonly associated with more than 1 neuropathology, usually Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular pathology. Diagnosing dementia requires a history evaluating for cognitive decline and impairment in daily activities, with corroboration from a close friend or family member, in addition to a thorough mental status examination by a clinician to delineate impairments in memory, language, attention, visuospatial cognition such as spatial orientation, executive function, and mood. Brief cognitive impairment screening questionnaires can assist in initiating and organizing the cognitive assessment. However, if the assessment is inconclusive (eg, symptoms present, but normal examination findings), neuropsychological testing can help determine whether dementia is present. Physical examination may help identify the etiology of dementia. For example, focal neurologic abnormalities suggest stroke. Brain neuroimaging may demonstrate structural changes including, but not limited to, focal atrophy, infarcts, and tumor, that may not be identified on physical examination. Additional evaluation with cerebrospinal fluid assays or genetic testing may be considered in atypical dementia cases, such as age of onset younger than 65 years, rapid symptom onset, and/or impairment in multiple cognitive domains but not episodic memory. For treatment, patients may benefit from nonpharmacologic approaches, including cognitively engaging activities such as reading, physical exercise such as walking, and socialization such as family gatherings. Pharmacologic approaches can provide modest symptomatic relief. For Alzheimer disease, this includes an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor such as donepezil for mild to severe dementia, and memantine (used alone or as an add-on therapy) for moderate to severe dementia. Rivastigmine can be used to treat symptomatic Parkinson disease dementia. Conclusions and Relevance: Alzheimer disease currently affects 5.8 million persons in the United States and is a common cause of dementia, which is usually accompanied by other neuropathology, often cerebrovascular disease such as brain infarcts. Causes of dementia can be diagnosed by medical history, cognitive and physical examination, laboratory testing, and brain imaging. Management should include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches, although efficacy of available treatments remains limited.


Assuntos
Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Memantina/efeitos adversos , Memantina/uso terapêutico , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 243-248, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602507

RESUMO

The use of freedom-depriving measures (physical and medicinal restraints) in people with cognitive impairment or dementia in clinical care settings is of ongoing importance. At the same time, these coercive measures are not only heavily debated but also in most cases ethically questionable from the perspective of the ethics of human dignity. Usually, the ethical evaluation of freedom-depriving measures follows classical paradigms of medical ethics, such as the Principles of Biomedical Ethics by Beauchamp and Childress. To enrich the debate at this point, the ethical category of embodiment ("Leiblichkeit" ) is introduced and discussed after a short summary of the ethical problem at hand. The phenomenon of the living body that has received increasingly more attention in several sciences since the proclaimed "corporeal turn" enables new perspectives towards human dignity, freedom and deprivation of freedom: freedom-depriving measures do not take place in an invisible realm of ideas but are directly applied to the psychophysical unity that is the living body of a person. Thus, freedom-depriving measures are an intervention into the bodily autonomy of the human being and the personal freedom that is manifested in the living body. The concept of the living body ("Leib") that is applied here, signifies more than just a physical object and is especially apt to capture the (inter)subjective dimension that has to be taken into account here. Finally, it will have to be investigated whether the use of medicinal restraints represents an especially serious interference into the sphere of human embodiment. Once introduced into the debate on freedom-depriving measures in clinical care, the category of embodiment can warrant decisive new emphases.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/ética , Demência/terapia , Liberdade , Direitos do Paciente/ética , Autonomia Pessoal , Respeito , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Ética Médica , Humanos
17.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(Suppl 4): 282-290, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2015, the Hospice and Palliative Care Act has defined the entitlement of nursing home residents to preventive planning in the final phase of their lives. Nevertheless, the advance care planning (ACP) concept has not yet been sufficiently researched in Germany. The deficient evidence on this topic appears to be even more considerable in connection with dementia. The necessity of such a discussion increases exponentially when dementia is diagnosed, not only for the person affected but also for their relatives and other caregivers and companions. OBJECTIVE: With respect to people with dementia, documents by a prominent German ACP provider were assessed as being insufficient by the authors. The aim of the pilot study presented here was to modify a questionnaire (value anamnesis) frequently used in the national context in order to apply it to this vulnerable group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The value anamnesis was modified in 11 steps and pre-tested on people with dementia in an early stage. The focus of the document is on attitudes towards life, death and life-prolonging measures. The modification process was carried out in an iterative process based on the grounded theory according to Strauss and Corbin. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The stepwise adaptation of the document has created a practicable and low-threshold approach that also enables the vulnerable group of people with dementia to comprehensively deal with existential issues and to exchange views on them. This catalogue of questions is used as a basis document for the subsequent main study: here the life attachment of people with dementia is explored and thus a new perspective is placed on ACP.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Demência/psicologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
18.
Life Sci ; 237: 116932, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606384

RESUMO

The prevalence of dementia worldwide is growing at an alarming rate. A number of studies and meta-analyses have provided evidence for increased risk of dementia in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) as compared to persons without MS. However, there are some reports demonstrating a lack of association between MS and increased dementia risk. In this review, taking into account the potential role of individual MS components in the pathogenesis of MS-related cognitive dysfunction, we considered the underlying mechanisms in arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity. The pathogenesis of dementia in MS is multifactorial, involving both vascular injury and non-ischemic neuronal death due to neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative and ischemic lesions do not simply coexist in the brain due to independent evolution, but rather exacerbate each other, leading to more severe consequences for cognition than would either pathology alone. In addition to universal mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction shared by all MS components, other pathogenetic pathways leading to cognitive deficits and dementia, which are specific for each component, also play a role. Examples of such component-specific pathogenetic pathways include central insulin resistance and hypoglycemia in diabetes, neuroinflammation and adipokine imbalance in obesity, as well as arteriolosclerosis and lipohyalinosis in arterial hypertension. A more detailed understanding of cognitive disorders based on the recognition of underlying molecular mechanisms will aid in the development of new methods for prevention and treatment of devastating cognitive problems in MS.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Pflege ; 32(6): 353-363, 2019.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640470

RESUMO

Tracking systems in people with dementia in long-term care - an integrative review Abstract. Schlüsselwörter: Tracking-Systeme, Überwachungssysteme, Personenortung, Demenz, stationäre Langzeitpflege Tracking systems in people with dementia in long-term care - an integrative review Background: Tracking systems are used increasingly in long-term care settings. However, their use is controversial. AIM: This paper examines how tracking systems are used to monitor people with dementia in long-term care facilities and what the consequences are for both residents and staff. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in the PubMed, CINAHL, Livivo, ScienceDirect data bases and a hand search also took place. Included were studies, reviews and research reports in German and English from 2013 onwards. RESULTS: A total of eight references were included in the analysis. The results point to an ambivalent use of tracking systems in nursing. Nursing professionals face challenges in the areas of trust and distrust as well as autonomy and security. For residents, this means new opportunities for mobility and self-determination, but also more pressure due to continuous monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the current debate on the use of tracking systems for people with dementia in long-term care settings concentrates mostly on the economic aspects, whereas aspects of person-centered care, ethical conflicts or the experience of those affected are given less attention. A core finding is that the use of technology changes the work processes and roles of professional carers.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Sistemas de Identificação de Pacientes , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração
20.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020419, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656607

RESUMO

Background: Mental health disorders (MHD) are leading causes of disabilities. Awareness of MHD in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is crucial to both health care professionals and general community if those affected by MHD are to be allowed to live in dignity and be socially included, rather than being treated as outcasts or witches, as is presently the case. Therefore, this review aims to map and summarise the extent to which awareness of MHD and dementia in SSA challenges stigmatisation issues. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO). A content analysis of selected studies was performed. Findings on awareness challenges and stigmatisation were identified and categorised. Results: A total of 230 publications were screened, 25 were selected for this review. The results demonstrate strong supernatural beliefs influencing peoples' perceptions of diseases. These perceptions promote stigmatising attitudes towards people with MHD and dementia. The education level correlated with stigmatising attitudes, whereby higher educated people were less likely to distance themselves socially from people with MHD and from people living with dementia (PwD). Astonishingly, even people educated in health issues (eg, nurses, medical practitioners) tended to have strong beliefs in supernatural causations of diseases, like witchcraft, and hold negative attitudes towards MHD and PwD. Conclusions: This review provides some evidence on the influence of traditional beliefs on MHDs in SSA. Those beliefs are powerful and exist in all segments in SSA-communities, promoting superstitious perceptions on diseases and stigmatisation. Awareness and education campaigns on MHD are absolutely mandatory to reduce stigmatisation.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , África ao Sul do Saara , Humanos , Preconceito , Estereotipagem
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