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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 414, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that collaborative and tailored approaches with external expertise are important to process implementations. We therefore performed a process evaluation of an intervention using participatory action research, tailored information provision, and external coaching to reduce inappropriate psychotropic drug use among nursing home residents with dementia. The process evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial assessing the utility of this approach. METHODS: We used Leontjevas' model of process evaluation to guide data collection and analysis, focusing on the relevance and feasibility, extent of performance, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Data on the relevance and feasibility and on the extent of performance were collected using a questionnaire targeting internal project leaders at nursing homes and our external coaches. Implementation barriers and facilitators were identified by individual semi-structured interviews. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to structure and describe the identified barriers and facilitators. RESULTS: The intervention was viewed positively, but it was also considered time consuming due to the involvement of many people and designing a tailored action and implementation plan was viewed as complex. The extent of performance differed between nursing homes. Delays in implementation and suboptimal execution of actions may have reduced effectiveness of the RID intervention in some nursing homes. Barriers to implementation were reorganizations, staff turnover, communication issues, unclear expectations, and perceived time pressures. Implementation also depended on the involvement and skills of key stakeholders, and organizations' readiness to change. Although external coaches stimulated implementation, their additional value was rated variably across organizations. CONCLUSIONS: Barriers to implementation occurred on several levels and some barriers appear to be inherent to the nursing home environment and could be points of leverage of future implementation trajectories. This underlines the importance of assessing and supporting organizations in their readiness to change. Sensitivity analyses, taking into account the week in which nursing homes started with implementation and the degree to which actions were implemented as intended, will be appropriate in the effect analyses of the trial.


Assuntos
Demência , Casas de Saúde , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Psicotrópicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(6): 737-745, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225596

RESUMO

The review summarizes the results of studies on the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of stress on the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative brain pathologies (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, etc.) and presents current information on the role of stress in the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, aggregation of beta-amyloid, and hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis involved in the hyperproduction of factors that contribute to the pathogenetic role of stress in neurodegeneration. The data on the participation of microglia in the effects of stress on the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases are presented.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Demência/etiologia , Demência/metabolismo , Demência/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Fosforilação , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 699, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people experience dementia at a rate three to five times higher than the general Australian population. Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) have a critical role to play in recognising symptoms of cognitive impairment, facilitating timely diagnosis of dementia, and managing the impacts of dementia. Little is known about the barriers and enablers to Aboriginal people receiving a timely dementia diagnosis and appropriate care once diagnosed. This study aims to explore, from the perspective of healthcare providers in the ACCHS sector across urban, regional and remote communities, the barriers and enablers to the provision of dementia diagnosis and care. METHODS: A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with staff members working in the ACCHS sector. Aboriginal Health Workers, General Practitioners, nurses, practice or program managers, and Chief Executive Officers were eligible to participate. Consenting ACCHS staff completed a telephone interview administered by a trained interviewer. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen staff from 10 ACCHSs participated. Most participants perceived their communities had a limited understanding of dementia. Symptoms of dementia were usually noticed by the GP or another healthcare worker at the ACCHS who had an ongoing relationship with the person. Most participants reported that their service had established referral pathways with either hospital-based geriatricians, geriatricians located with aged care assessment teams, or specialists who visited communities periodically. Key enablers to high quality dementia care included the use of routine health assessments as a mechanism for diagnosis; relationships within communities to support diagnosis and care; community and family relationships; comprehensive and holistic care models; and the use of tailored visual resources to support care. Key barriers to high quality care included: denial and stigma; dementia being perceived as a low priority health condition; limited community awareness and understanding of dementia; lack of staff education and training about dementia; and numerous gaps in service delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Substantially increased investments in supporting best-practice diagnosis and management of dementia in Aboriginal communities are required. ACCHSs have key strengths that should be drawn upon in developing solutions to identified barriers to care.


Assuntos
Demência , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Idoso , Austrália , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044631, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, there has been an increase in the number of people with dementia. However, no study has examined the association between community-level social support and the onset of incident dementia using multilevel survival analysis. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: We analysed data pertaining to 15 313 (7381 men and 7932 women) community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older who had not accessed long-term care insurance and were living in Aichi Prefecture (seven municipalities) in Japan. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The association between community-level social support and onset of incident dementia was examined using the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, a prospective cohort study introduced in Japan in 2003. Incident dementia was assessed using Long-term Care Insurance records spanning 3436 days from the baseline survey. RESULTS: During the 10-year follow-up, the onset of incident dementia occurred in 1776 adults. Among older people, a 1% increase in community-level social support (in the form of receiving emotional support) was associated with an approximately 4% reduction in the risk of developing dementia, regardless of socio-demographic variables and health conditions (HR=0.96; 95% CI=0.94 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Receiving community-level social support in the form of emotional support is associated with a lower risk of developing incident dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD013540, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medications with anticholinergic properties are commonly prescribed to older adults. The cumulative anticholinergic effect of all the medications a person takes is referred to as the 'anticholinergic burden' because of its potential to cause adverse effects. It is possible that high anticholinergic burden may be a risk factor for development of cognitive decline or dementia. There are various scales available to measure anticholinergic burden but agreement between them is often poor. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether anticholinergic burden, as defined at the level of each individual scale, is a prognostic factor for future cognitive decline or dementia in cognitively unimpaired older adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from inception to 24 March 2021: MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and ISI Web of Science Core Collection (ISI Web of Science). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective and retrospective longitudinal cohort and case-control observational studies with a minimum of one year' follow-up that examined the association between an anticholinergic burden measurement scale and future cognitive decline or dementia in cognitively unimpaired older adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, and undertook data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and GRADE assessment. We extracted odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and linear data on the association between anticholinergic burden and cognitive decline or dementia. We intended to pool each metric separately; however, only OR-based data were suitable for pooling via a random-effects meta-analysis. We initially established adjusted and unadjusted pooled rates for each available anticholinergic scale; then, as an exploratory analysis, established pooled rates on the prespecified association across scales. We examined variability based on severity of anticholinergic burden. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 25 studies that met our inclusion criteria (968,428 older adults). Twenty studies were conducted in the community care setting, two in primary care clinics, and three in secondary care settings. Eight studies (320,906 participants) provided suitable data for meta-analysis. The Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale (ACB scale) was the only scale with sufficient data for 'scale-based' meta-analysis. Unadjusted ORs suggested an increased risk for cognitive decline or dementia in older adults with an anticholinergic burden (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.96) and adjusted ORs similarly suggested an increased risk for anticholinergic burden, defined according to the ACB scale (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 6.29). Exploratory analysis combining adjusted ORs across available scales supported these results (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.38 to 3.38), and there was evidence of variability in risk based on severity of anticholinergic burden (ACB scale 1: OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.29; ACB scale 2: OR 2.71, 95% CI 2.01 to 3.56; ACB scale 3: OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.41 to 7.61); however, overall GRADE evaluation of certainty of the evidence was low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is low-certainty evidence that older adults without cognitive impairment who take medications with anticholinergic effects may be at increased risk of cognitive decline or dementia.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Demência/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Viés , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/farmacologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 394, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There remains no effective intervention capable of reversing most cases of dementia. Current research is focused on prevention by addressing risk factors that are shared between cardiovascular disease and dementia (e.g., hypertension) before the cognitive, functional, and behavioural symptoms of dementia manifest. A promising preventive treatment is exercise. This study describes the methods of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that assesses the effects of aerobic exercise and behavioural support interventions in older adults at increased risk of dementia due to genetic and/or cardiovascular risk factors. The specific aims are to determine the effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance, explore the biological mechanisms that influence cognitive performance after exercise training, and determine if changes in cerebrovascular physiology and function persist 1 year after a 6-month aerobic exercise intervention followed by a 1-year behavioural support programme (at 18 months). METHODS: We will recruit 264 participants (aged 50-80 years) at elevated risk of dementia. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of four treatment arms: (1) aerobic exercise and health behaviour support, (2) aerobic exercise and no health behaviour support, (3) stretching-toning and health behaviour support, and (4) stretching-toning and no health behaviour support. The aerobic exercise intervention will consist of three supervised walking/jogging sessions per week for 6 months, whereas the stretching-toning control intervention will consist of three supervised stretching-toning sessions per week also for 6 months. Following the exercise interventions, participants will receive either 1 year of ongoing telephone behavioural support or no telephone support. The primary aim is to determine the independent effect of aerobic exercise on a cognitive composite score in participants allocated to this intervention compared to participants allocated to the stretching-toning group. The secondary aims are to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on a number of secondary outcomes and determine whether aerobic exercise-related changes persist after a 1-year behavioural support programme (at 18 months). DISCUSSION: This study will address knowledge gaps regarding the underlying mechanisms of the pro-cognitive effects of exercise by examining the potential mediating factors, including cerebrovascular/physiological, neuroimaging, sleep, and genetic factors that will provide novel biologic evidence on how aerobic exercise can prevent declines in cognition with ageing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03035851 . Registered on 30 January 2017.


Assuntos
Demência , Terapia por Exercício , Idoso , Encéfalo , Cognição , Demência/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26397, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is causing a huge medical and socioeconomic burden. Along with strategies to delay cognitive decline in dementia, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are major contributing factor to the burden of dementia, and have been an important clinical issue for successful management of dementia. However, pharmacological strategies such as antipsychotics raise concerns in terms of risk-to-benefit ratio in managing BPSD. Therefore, there is a need for an effective and safe alternative in BPSD management. From this point of view, various complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) are attracting attention in BPSD management. Therefore, the overview will make it possible to evaluate the feasibility of using CAM as a potential treatment strategy for BPSD in terms of evidence-based medicine. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Comprehensive searching will be performed in 13 bibliographic databases from their inception dates to November 2021. Systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses that examined the effectiveness and safety of CAM modalities including herbal medicine, acupuncture, acupressure, aromatherapy, meditation, and relaxation on BPSD, will be included. The methodological quality of included reviews will be assessed by using the A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews-2. Two independent researchers will conduct study search, study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment processes. RESULTS: The results of overview will be disseminated by the publication of a manuscript in a peer-reviewed journal or presentation at a relevant conference. CONCLUSION: The findings of this overview will help to solve the major public health problem related to dementia, and will provide patients with dementia, their caregivers, clinicians, and health policy makers credible evidence in mitigating the burden of dementia. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As this protocol is for an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, ethical approval is not required. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Science Framework registry (https://osf.io/g5f3m).


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Demência/terapia , Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(6): e26462, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep is essential for one's health and quality of life. Wearable technologies that use motion and temperature sensors have made it possible to self-monitor sleep. Although there is a growing body of research on sleep monitoring using wearable devices for healthy young-to-middle-aged adults, few studies have focused on older adults, including those living with dementia. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the impact of age and dementia on sleep detection through movement and wrist temperature. METHODS: A total of 10 younger adults, 10 healthy older adults, and 8 older adults living with dementia (OAWD) were recruited. Each participant wore a Mi Band 2 (accemetry-based sleep detection) and our custom-built wristband (actigraphy and wrist temperature) 24 hours a day for 2 weeks and was asked to keep a daily sleep journal. Sleep parameters detected by the Mi Band 2 were compared with sleep journals, and visual analysis of actigraphy and temperature data was performed. RESULTS: The absolute differences in sleep onset and offset between the sleep journals and Mi Band 2 were 39 (SD 51) minutes and 31 (SD 52) minutes for younger adults, 49 (SD 58) minutes and 33 (SD 58) minutes for older adults, and 253 (SD 104) minutes and 161 (SD 94) minutes for OAWD. The Mi Band 2 was unable to accurately detect sleep in 3 healthy older adults and all OAWDs. The average sleep and wake temperature difference of OAWD (1.26 °C, SD 0.82 °C) was significantly lower than that of healthy older adults (2.04 °C, SD 0.70 °C) and healthy younger adults (2.48 °C, SD 0.88 °C). Actigraphy data showed that older adults had more movement during sleep compared with younger adults and that this trend appears to increase for those with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The Mi Band 2 did not accurately detect sleep in older adults who had greater levels of nighttime movement. As more nighttime movement appears to be a phenomenon that increases in prevalence with age and even more so with dementia, further research needs to be conducted with a larger sample size and greater diversity of commercially available wearable devices to explore these trends more conclusively. All participants, including older adults and OAWD, had a distinct sleep and wake wrist temperature contrast, which suggests that wrist temperature could be leveraged to create more robust and broadly applicable sleep detection algorithms.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Demência , Idoso , Demência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Sono , Temperatura , Punho
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 401, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to two-thirds of dementia care is provided by family caregivers who often experience high burden, little support and adverse health outcomes. Enabling and supporting family caregivers to provide care at home prevents early institutionalisation of the person with dementia and alleviates the economic burden of dementia in the long term. General practitioners (GPs), as the first point of contact, have a key role in identifying and managing burden and care needs of family caregivers. However, in routine care, this opportunity is often limited by time constraints and even if caregiver needs are recognised, detailed information about regionally available support and advice on healthcare services is often lacking. METHODS: This is a cluster randomised, controlled trial investigating the clinical use and cost-effectiveness of a digitally supported care management programme for caregivers of people with dementia (PwD). Five hundred family caregivers will be randomised at GP offices, specialist practices and memory clinics, with about n=250 participants per arm. Participants are eligible if they are the primary family caregiver of a PwD, are at least 18 years of age and provide informed consent. Participants in the intervention group will receive an individualised care management plan, which will be carried out by qualified study nurses in collaboration with the treating GP. All participants will receive a baseline assessment and a 6-months follow-up assessment. Participants in the wait-list control group will receive usual care. Starting at the 6 months' follow-up, the former controls will also receive an individualised management plan. Primary outcomes are the number of unmet needs (incl. the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly, CANE) and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview, ZBI), social support (Lubben Social Network Scale, LSNS), the use of medical and non-medical services (Questionnaire for the Use of Medical and Non-Medical Services, FIMA) and resource utilisation (Resource Utilisation in Dementia, RUD). The primary analysis will be based on intention-to-treat. Between- and within-group analyses and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to estimate the effect of the tablet PC-based care management programme. This trial is funded by the German Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) Innovation Fund. DISCUSSION: The findings of this trial will be useful in informing and improving current healthcare system structures and processes to support family dementia caregivers within routine care practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04037501 . Registered on 30 July 2019.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(6): e25891, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information and communication technologies are tools that are able to support cognitive functions, monitor health and movements, provide reminders to maintain residual memory abilities, and promote social support, especially among patients with dementia. Among these technologies, embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are seen as screen-based entities designed to stimulate human face-to-face conversation skills, allowing for natural human-machine interaction. Unfortunately, the evidence that such agents deliver care benefits in supporting people affected by dementia and their caregivers has not yet been well studied. Therefore, research in this area is essential for the entire scientific community. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the usability and acceptability of the virtual agent Anne by people living with dementia. The study is also designed to assess the ability of target users to use the system independently and receive valuable information from it. METHODS: We conducted a 4-week trial that involved 20 older adults living with dementia and 14 family caregivers in home environment settings in Italy. This study used a mixed methods approach, balancing quantitative and qualitative instruments to gather data from users. Telemetry data were also collected. RESULTS: Older users were particularly engaged in providing significant responses and participating in system improvements. Some of them clearly discussed how technical problems related to speech recognition had a negative impact on the intention to use, adaptiveness, usefulness, and trust. Moreover, the usability of the system achieved an encouraging score, and half of the sample recognized a role of the agent Anne. This study confirms that the quality of automatic speech recognition and synthesis is still a technical issue and has room for improvement, whereas the touch screen modality is almost stable and positively used by patients with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the ability of target users to use the system independently in their home environment; overall, the involved participants shared good engagement with the system, approaching the virtual agents as a companion able to support memory and enjoyment needs. Therefore, this research provides data that sustain the use of ECAs as future eHealth systems that are able to address the basic and higher-level needs of people living with dementia. This specific field of research is novel and poorly discussed in the scientific community. This could be because of its novelty, yet there is an urgent need to strengthen data, research, and innovation to accelerate the implementation of ECAs as a future method to offer nonpharmacological support to community-dwelling people with dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Telemedicina , Idoso , Cuidadores , Comunicação , Humanos , Itália
11.
Nervenarzt ; 92(7): 721-728, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181051

RESUMO

People with dementia often require medical and nursing care and are regularly confronted with the need to make decisions in this respect; however, in practice uncertainty often exists as to whether a person with dementia is capable of providing consent, what procedures should be used to obtain informed consent, how to provide the necessary information and how capacity to consent can be assured. By providing structured practical recommendations, the S2k guidelines "Consent of persons with dementia to medical treatment" (coordinated by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies of Germany, AWMF, registration number 108-001) provide a first attempt to summarize and update the relevant medical, legal, ethical and psychological requirements that should be satisfied in this respect. This article enables insights into the guidelines and an overview of the most important recommendations.


Assuntos
Demência , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Alemanha , Humanos , Competência Mental , Princípios Morais , Resolução de Problemas
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 396, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional performance-based measurements of mobility fail to recognize the interaction between the individual and their environment. Life-space (LS) forms a central element in the broader context of mobility and has received growing attention in gerontology. Still, knowledge on LS in the nursing home (NH) remains sparse. The aim of this study was to identify LS trajectories in people with dementia from time of NH admission, and explore characteristics associated with LS over time. METHODS: In total, 583 people with dementia were included at NH admission and assessed biannually for 3 years. LS was assessed using the Nursing Home Life-Space Diameter. Association with individual (age, sex, general medical health, number of medications, pain, physical performance, dementia severity, and neuropsychiatric symptoms) and environmental (staff-to-resident ratio, unit size, and quality of the physical environment) characterises was assessed. We used a growth mixture model to identify LS trajectories and linear mixed model was used to explore characteristics associated with LS over time. RESULTS: We identified four groups of residents with distinct LS trajectories, labelled Group 1 (n = 19, 3.5%), Group 2 (n = 390, 72.1%), Group 3 (n = 56, 10.4%), Group 4 (n = 76, 14.0%). Being younger, having good compared to poor general medical health, less severe dementia, more agitation, less apathy, better physical performance and living in a smaller unit were associated with a wider LS throughout the study period. CONCLUSION: From NH admission most NH residents' LS trajectory remained stable (Group 2), and their daily lives unfolded within their unit. Better physical performance and less apathy emerged as potentially modifiable characteristics associated with wider LS over time. Future studies are encouraged to determine whether LS trajectories in NH residents are modifiable, and we suggest that future research further explore the impact of environmental characteristics.


Assuntos
Demência , Casas de Saúde , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
13.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(7): 324-330, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144721

RESUMO

People have consumed alcohol for centuries. Most clinicians who work with people who have dementia acknowledge that alcohol may cause or exacerbate dementia's symptoms. Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) has been recognized since the 1960s, but clinicians rarely use this diagnosis. Regardless, it is common and develops pursuant to long-term excessive alcohol consumption. It may, in some cases, evolve into Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Diagnosis can be obscured if patients are not truthful about their alcohol consumption. Often, friends or family provide a better picture of the patient's alcohol history than patients do themselves. Thiamine treatment may prevent or improve symptoms. Abstinence from alcohol is critical, but it is difficult for older people with long histories of heavy drinking. Consultant pharmacists can help the heath care team develop nuanced care plans for patients who have ARD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Demência , Síndrome de Korsakoff , Idoso , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Demência/induzido quimicamente , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 351, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial issues, such as social isolation and loneliness among older adults and people with dementia, continue to pose challenges with a rapidly aging population worldwide. Social robots are a rapidly emerging field of technology, developed to help address the psychosocial needs of this population. Although studies have reported positive findings regarding their psychosocial benefits, their implementation in real-world practice remains a challenge. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors affecting their implementation. The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the barriers and facilitators affecting the implementation of social robots for older adults and people with dementia. METHOD: The Arksey and O'Malley approach with methodological enhancement by Levac et al. was used to guide the conduct of this review. Seven electronic databases were searched. In addition, hand searching and backward citation tracing was conducted. Three independent reviewers were involved in the screening and data charting process. Findings were synthesised and categorised into the five domains outlined in the Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research (CFIR). RESULTS: A total of 53 studies were included in the final review. Most of the included studies were based in participants' homes and in care facilities. Barriers and facilitators were mapped onto 18 constructs in the five domains of the CFIR. The most frequently cited barriers were mapped to the constructs within the domain of "Intervention characteristics", where issues such as the complexity of using the technology and technical obstacles impeded implementation. Most facilitators were mapped onto the domain "Patient needs and resources". Overall, existing research are disproportionately focused on the internal validity (i.e. characteristics) of social robots, and there is significantly less research investigating their external validity, such as organisational or wider contextual factors that can affect their implementation in real-world practice. CONCLUSION: This review has identified and synthesised the breadth of evidence on the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of social robots for older adults and people with dementia. Future research should pay more attention to investigating the contextual factors, using an implementation framework, to identify barriers and facilitators to guide the implementation of social robots.


Assuntos
Demência , Robótica , Idoso , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Solidão , Interação Social , Isolamento Social
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073398

RESUMO

To evaluate the trend of healthcare utilization among patients with dementia (PwD) in different post-diagnosis periods, Taiwan's nationwide population database was used in this study. PwD were identified on the basis of dementia diagnoses during 2002-2011. We further subdivided the cases into 10 groups from the index year to the 10th year after diagnosis. The frequency of emergency department visits and hospitalizations, the length of stay, outpatient and department visits, and the number of medications used were retrieved. The Joinpoint regression approach was used to estimate the annual percent change (APC) of healthcare utilization. The overall trend of healthcare utilization increased with the progression of dementia, with a significant APC during the first to second year after diagnosis (p < 0.01), except that the frequency of outpatient visits showed a decreasing trend with a significant APC from the first to fifth year. All sex- and age-stratified analyses revealed that male gender and old age contributed to greater use of healthcare services but did not change the overall trend. This study provides a better understanding of medical resource utilization across the full spectrum of dementia, which can allow policymakers, physicians, and caregivers to devise better care plans for PwD.


Assuntos
Demência , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidadores , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 280: 114072, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077879

RESUMO

Along with the rapid increase in older adult population in South Korea, the management of dementia is becoming important. Higher dementia prevalence inevitably leads to an excessive burden on medical expenditure throughout one's life, so the catastrophic health expenditure for dementia should be protected in the aspect of both nation and family. Therefore, this study attempted to estimate the lifetime medical expenditures (LE) of older adults with dementia, and confirmed if the long-term care insurance (LTCI) is effective in reducing their medical expenses. The study analyzed LE of adults, aged over 70 years, using a cohort database and simulated the total LE per capita. In order to compare the differences in LE due to dementia, propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. As of 2015, the total LE per capita for older adults with dementia and without dementia was estimated to be 76,973 thousand won ($65,427) and 31,105 thousand won ($26,439). Older adults with dementia had 2.4 times more expenditure than those without dementia. In particular, the LE per capita for hospitalization of dementia patients was 63,945 thousand won ($54,353), which was about 5 times higher than LE per capita for outpatient treatment. In addition, as a result of confirming the political effectiveness of LTCI, the LE for older adults with dementia, who had not used the long-term care service (LTCS), was estimated to be about 85,769 thousand won ($72,904). Conversely, LTCS users were estimated to spend 70,487 thousand won ($59,914), which means that LTCS non-users spent about 22% more on total LE than LTCS users. Non-users spent about half of their LE after the age of 80. Based on these findings, this study confirmed that the LTCI system had the desired effect of reducing the total LE for older adults with dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Gastos em Saúde , Idoso , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo , Assistência de Longa Duração , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e050948, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145022

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This research project addresses the lack of screening tools for the early detection of high-risk individuals for long-term care, through four individual studies.Study 1 investigates the predictive ability of the 'Kihon Check List', study 2 the 'Cognitive Function instrument' and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) and study 3 the 'Cognitive Function instrument' and EQ-5D as well as the 'Frail Kenshin' health check-up, for incident long-term care certification over a follow-up period of up to 4 years. This is the first large prospective study to evaluate the predictive ability of these tools for the outcome measure long-term care certification. The last subsection of this project study four aims to explore a mixed methods intervention for delaying the need for long-term care. This section is purely exploratory, looking for clues for further studies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Baseline data have been collected through local government programs, as well as through postal self-reported questionnaires. The primary outcome variable for all studies is long-term care certification data. Statistical analysis will be carried out using Kaplan-Meier, Multiple Cox regression as well as logistic regression. CONCLUSION: This project hopes to identify tools effective in predicting long-term care need. This will enable identification of citizens that are of higher risk for long-term care in the near future. This subset of high-risk individuals can in the future be addressed for extra support/intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All studies have been approved by respective institutional ethical committees and the WHO ethical committee ERC.0002899. In addition, all studies conform to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki and are conducted in accordance with Japan's 'Ethical Guidelines for Medical and Health Research Involving Human Subjects'. All findings will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000023283.


Assuntos
Demência , Assistência de Longa Duração , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276911

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impeded face-to-face health and social care delivery for people living with dementia and their carers. Interruption of meaningful activity engagement along with increased social isolation is known to be associated with loss of skills, increased loneliness, physical deterioration and decline in cognition and mood in people with dementia. To ensure continuity of care for people living with dementia, for whom multimodal, non-pharmacological intervention programmes were being provided, there was an urgent need to adopt a remote delivery model. Guidance on digitally delivered assessment and care specific to non-pharmacological interventions for dementia is lacking. Adoption of technology-enabled care for people with dementia requires overcoming barriers to technology use, adaptation of therapeutic guidelines, adaptation of communication methods and carer support. Despite these challenges, therapists successfully transitioned from in-person to digital delivery of therapeutic interventions with associated benefits of continued meaningful activity engagement discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Demência , Cuidadores , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1161-1171, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188459

RESUMO

Purpose: Information and communication technology (ICT)-based training devices for older adults' care related to dementia are being developed to enhance older adults' cognitive functions. Older adults who require bicycle training devices can improve muscle strength and balance of lower limbs by continuously contracting and relaxing lower-limb muscles and improving cognitive function to prevent dementia. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of an ICT-based multicomponent program on body composition and cognitive function in older adults. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled intervention test on 20 people over the age of 60 (exercise group: n = 10; control: n = 10), the multicomponent program was applied to the exercise group twice per week, once per day for 12 weeks, at 30 min per session, whereas the control group was advised to maintain their usual daily activities. Results: Comparing body composition changes and cognitive function changes before and after intervention exhibited statistically significant differences in skeletal muscle mass (P=0.01) and modified Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive score (P=0.01) between the two groups. Conclusion: It can be difficult to be engaged in a simple repetitive exercise program. Therefore, to meet older adults' interests and expectations, a customized ICT-based multicomponent program, which can improve body composition and cognitive function in older adults and is believed to help prevent dementia, is recommended. Trial Registration: UMIN000042129 (https://www.umin.ac.jp/english/).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Informática Médica/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa
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