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2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1442, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explored the relationship between community social capital and cognitive impairment, with a focus on the buffering role of community social capital in the association between educational disadvantage and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. METHODS: We used data from two population-based, cross-sectional surveys targeting people aged ≥65 years in a suburban city of the Tokyo metropolitan area (n = 897; 49.8% men; average age = 74.4 years). Social capital included social support (emotional and instrumental support) and the strength of social networks (neighborly ties). To create district-level social capital indicators, we aggregated individual responses on social capital within each district. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Japanese version was used for the assessment of cognitive function. RESULTS: Using multilevel logistic regression analysis, we found that lower amounts of district-level emotional and instrumental support were associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment among men. For women, district-level emotional support was associated with a greater likelihood of cognitive impairment. Additionally, a strong district-level social network buffered the relationship between low education and cognitive impairment in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Community social capital appears to have a protective role in determining cognitive function in old age. Our findings may facilitate the development of new community-based strategies to combat dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Escolaridade , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Rede Social , Apoio Social , Tóquio/epidemiologia
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1179-1188, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184643

RESUMO

Los patrones dietéticos ricos en antioxidantes podrían contribuir a la prevención y el tratamiento de las fases previas de demencia. Los frutos secos tienen una apreciable carga antioxidante y hay evidencia de sus efectos beneficiosos sobre la incidencia de varias enfermedades crónicas y las tasas de mortalidad general. Además, son ricos en ácidos grasos polinsaturados, que también parecen desempeñar un papel positivo en la neurogénesis. El objetivo de esta revisión fue resumir la evidencia de los estudios relacionados con los efectos del consumo de frutos secos sobre la función cognitiva en personas adultas. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos publicados en PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science. Un total de 19 artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión (siete transversales, cuatro de cohortes y ocho experimentales), que fueron extraídos y revisados de forma independiente por dos revisores. La evidencia proveniente de los estudios transversales y de cohortes resultó incierta, por la disparidad de resultados y su riesgo de sesgo. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de estudios experimentales se observó un efecto protector del consumo de frutos secos sobre alguna dimensión de la función cognitiva, y la calidad metodológica de estos fue aceptable. Además, los efectos parecen independientes del tipo de fruto seco, la cantidad ingerida, la edad y el estado basal de los consumidores. En resumen, estos resultados sugieren que incluir el consumo diario moderado de algún fruto seco en la dieta saludable de las personas adultas podría tener efectos beneficiosos sobre su función cognitiva. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios observacionales longitudinales y experimentales bien diseñados, que proporcionen firmeza a esta evidencia, hasta la fecha sugestiva y de una calidad moderadamente baja


Antioxidant-rich diet patterns could contribute to the prevention and treatment of early stages of dementia. Nuts have an appreciable antioxidant load and there is evidence of their positive effects on several chronic diseases incidence and death rates. Moreover, they are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which might also play a positive role in neurogenesis. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from studies related to the effects of nut consumption on cognitive function among adults. We conducted a systematic search of articles published in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria (seven cross-sectional, four prospective cohorts and eight experimental); these were independently extracted and reviewed by two reviewers. The evidence from the cross-sectional and cohort studies was uncertain, due to the disparity of results and risk of bias. However, in most experimental studies a protective effect of nut consumption on some dimension of cognitive function was observed and the methodological quality of these studies was acceptable. In addition, the effects appear to be independent of nut type, amount of intake, age and baseline status of subjects. In summary, these results suggest that the inclusion of daily nut consumption in the healthy diet pattern of adults could have positive effects on their cognitive function. Nevertheless, more well-designed longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to provide strength to this suggestive evidence


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteínas de Nozes/administração & dosagem , Memória/fisiologia , Cognição , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Nozes , Demência/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle
4.
Biomed Res ; 40(4): 125-131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413233

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus has been recognized as medical mushroom since ancient time, but its scientific evidence for human health has been still uncertain. In this study, we tested a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group comparative study to evaluate the improvement of the cognitive functions by taking supplements containing fruiting body of H. erinaceus for 12 weeks. We performed three kinds of tests: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Benton visual retention test, and Standard verbal paired-associate learning test (S-PA). MMSE alone showed that oral intake of H. erinaceus significantly improved cognitive functions and prevented from the deterioration. We speculate that various chemical compounds, including hericenones, in the mushroom have multiple effects to the brain neural networks and improve cognitive functions. Oral intake of H.erinaceus is safe and convenient method for dementia prevention so far.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cognição , Demência , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Demência/fisiopatologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(8): 570-574, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384075

RESUMO

Problem: The measures for long-term care prevention that the Japanese government had introduced in 2006 were unsuccessful because of the failures to identify high-risk individuals and to enrol enough participants in the community prevention programme. Approach: The Japanese government shifted its primary strategy from a high-risk strategy to a community-based population strategy in 2015, by reforming the Long-term Care Insurance Act. This act is focusing on community-based care and social determinants of health. The Act and the government's plans for long-term care prevention are inspired by a social participation intervention called ikoino saron, that is gathering salons for people older than 65 years. These salons, managed by local volunteers, are held once or twice a month in communal spaces within walking distance of community members' homes and have a low participation fee. At the gatherings, older people can meet and interact with others through enjoyable, relaxing and sometimes educational programmes. Local setting: Japan has the world's largest ageing population, with 27.7% (35.2 million/126.7 million) of people older than 65 years. Relevant changes: Studies have shown that participation in the salons was associated with a halved incidence in long-term care needs and about one-third reduction in the risk of dementia onset. Evidence also suggests that financially vulnerable older adults were more likely to participate in such interventions. In 2017, 86.5% (1506/1741) of the Japanese municipalities had implemented the salons. Lessons learnt: Integrated care for long-term care prevention should consider interventions targeting the whole community in addition to high-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Envelhecimento Saudável , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Masculino , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
6.
Psychiatriki ; 30(2): 142-155, 2019.
Artigo em Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425142

RESUMO

Τhe rate of patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment or any type of dementia has been constantly on the rise. Considering that no effective treatment of dementia has been discovered to date and that drug use can have numerous side effects, there is an urgent need for the application of alternative, non-pharmacological interventions. To this end, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical activity on the cognitive impairment of the elderly, and its use as a form of non-pharmacological intervention for the treatment of dementia. Taking a review of the relevant literature, as its data collection method, this study examined peer-reviewed papers published between 2010 and 2018 that met the criteria for their inclusion. The articles were drawn from three electronic databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science), and were examined with regard to the populations under consideration, research design, type of intervention programs and assessment tools applied. The vast majority of these research papers tend to support that physical activity offers significant benefits to people suffering from Alzheimer's disease or other dementias. Specifically, it helps stabilize and improve cognitive function as well as reduce and delay the onset of severe neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, confusion, apathy, etc. In addition, physical exercise plays an important role in improving the executive functioning of patients with dementia, increasing autonomy in their everyday activities and reducing the risk of falls. In conclusion, recent research shows physical activity to be a promising intervention for the prevention and non-pharmacological treatment of dementia in that it contributes to the improvement of patients' quality of life. However, results vary according to the particularly characteristics of the exercise under review, such as type, intensity, frequency, and duration. It is therefore important to gain both awareness and understanding of the specific factors that give physical activity its therapeutic potential leading to the development of exercise programs designed specially to treat dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Doença de Alzheimer/reabilitação , Cognição , Demência/prevenção & controle , Demência/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Nervenarzt ; 90(9): 921-925, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, approximately 1.6 million people are currently suffering from dementia. The prevalence of the disease is expected to double by 2060. To date there is no treatment that can prevent the onset of dementia. For this reason, the development of prevention strategies for cognitive decline and dementia is crucial. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of studies on dementia prevention by treatment of arterial hypertension. Overview of current multidomain interventional studies on dementia prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: Whereas in three previous randomized controlled trials on antihypertensive treatment a reduction of dementia risk could not be found, the recent SPRINT-MIND study demonstrated a reduced risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in the trend for dementia by intensified hypotensive treatment. Multidomain interventional studies suggest preventive effects, particularly in specific risk groups and also highlight the challenge of adherence to lifestyle modifications. CONCLUSION: The treatment of modifiable risk factors can have a preventive effects on cognitive decline and dementia. More research is needed to identify subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefits.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/complicações , Demência/prevenção & controle , Alemanha , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16931, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441882

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that statin users have a lower risk of new-onset dementia (NOD) compared nonusers. However, other studies have shown opposite results. In this study, we investigated the association between the use of statins and the development of NOD.This was a longitudinal cohort study using data from claim forms submitted to the Taiwanese Bureau of National Health Insurance. The study included patients with NOD and non-NOD subjects from January 2002 to December 2013. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) of NOD associated with statin use, whereas nonuser subjects were used as a reference group.A total of 19,522 NOD cases were identified in 100,610 hyperlipidemic patients during the study period. The risk of NOD, after adjusting for sex, age, comorbidities, and concurrent medication, was lower among statin users than nonusers (HR 0.95, 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.94-0.96; P < .001). The adjusted HRs for NOD were 1.53 (95% CI, 1.45-1.62), 0.63 (95% CI, 0.57-0.71), and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.30-0.38) when the cumulative defined daily doses ranged from 28 to 365, 366 to 730, and more than 730 relative to nonusers, respectively.We concluded that statin use is associated with a decreased NOD risk. The protective effect of statins for NOD seemed to be related to high exposure to statins. This study also highlights that high exposure to statins has a dose-response effect on lowering NOD risk.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Demência/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(17): 1212-1217, 2019 08.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454844

RESUMO

The prevalence of dementias is on the rise, increases exponentially with age and constitutes a major healthcare burden nationally and worldwide. Dementias are clinically heterogeneous and encompass numerous etiologies. Noteworthy, late onset dementias are closely related to vascular and metabolic risk factors in midlife. Cardiometabolic risk factors commonly precede the onset of cognitive decline for decades. This opens a huge window for prevention. Given the lack of established pharmacological options for treatment of most dementias, preventive strategies are of utmost importance. Several factors have been identified that have the potential to preserve a healthy metabolic phenotype and to attenuate the onset of late onset dementias. Evidence exists for low-risk lifestyle factors including a real food dietary pattern, an adequate supply with long chain omega-3 fatty acids, regular physical activity and restorative sleep, with multimodal concepts showing the greatest cumulative benefit.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Demência , Doenças Metabólicas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Demência/complicações , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 215-222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468400

RESUMO

It has been reported that taurine intake in the past may have a positive effect on present cognitive function in the elderly. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the need to develop an elderly-friendly home meal replacement (EF-HMR) containing taurine for the prevention of dementia in Korean adults aged 40-84 years. Study subjects included 481 adults 40-49 years group, 319 adults 50-64 years group, and 181 elderly group (65-84 years old) residing in Seoul and its metropolitan area, Korea. Data were collected from adults aged 40-64 years by self-administered questionnaires and from elderly through face-to-face interviews. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0. The level of need for EF-HMR was significantly higher in 40-49 years and 50-64 years groups compared to the elderly group (p < 0.001). With regard to the preferred EF-HMR taste, the needs for less salty (p < 0.01) and less sweet (p < 0.001) foods were significantly higher in 40-49 years group compared to the elderly group. The main factors of consideration in the development of EF-HMR were nutrition, taste, and freshness. The level of need for EF-HMR containing taurine was significantly lower in those 40-49 years and 50-64 years groups compared to the elderly group (p < 0.01). If an EF-HMR containing taurine for prevention of dementia was developed, willingness to buy such a food was significantly higher in the elderly group than in those 40-49 years and 50-64 years groups (p < 0.01). Regarding cooked EF-HMR containing taurine, semi-prepared and ready-made meals were preferred in 71.1% and 25.4% in 40-49 years group, 69.6% and 22.6% in 50-64 years group, and 47.0% and 33.7% in the elderly group, respectively (p < 0.001). EF-HMR containing taurine sales unit sizes containing 3 servings or 1 serving was preferred by 37.2% and 26.3% of all subjects. The preferred places to purchase EF-HMR (in descending order of super-supermarket (mart), supermarket, and convenience store) were the same among the age groups. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the diversity present in the needs and purchasing characteristics of adults involved purchasing EF-HMR containing taurine, and there is a need to develop age-specific customized products for the elderly and for Korean adults 40-64 years old.


Assuntos
Demência/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Fortificados , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , República da Coreia
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 335-347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468412

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects on the cognitive function of the elderly with dementia, after consumption of menus developed to prevent dementia. For the purpose of this study, we developed two menus incorporating lotus seeds and taurine which are known to be effective in preventing dementia: tea supplemented with taurine and lotus seed (TATL) and scorched glutinous rice water supplemented with taurine and lotus seed (SATL). The most optimized supplement was determined through sensory evaluation, and was served with the normal diet for 4 weeks. The subjects of this study were 46 elderly women with dementia, divided into three groups: 16 subjects in the taurine supplement group (TG), 15 subjects in the taurine and lotus seeds supplement group (TLG), and 15 subjects in the control group (CG). Cognitive function was assessed by comparing the scores of MMSE-DS (Mini-Mental State Examination-Dementia Screening) before and after dietary supplementation, with higher scores indicating better cognitive functions. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 for Windows. The total score of MMSE-DS before supplementation SATL was not significantly different between CG (14.1 points), TG (14.2 points), and TLG (13.8 points). However, after consuming the SATL supplement, the total score of TG (16.7 points) and TLG (16.9 points) significantly increased (p < 0.01). In particular, in the case of TG, a significant increase was observed in the score for 'Judgment and abstract thinking' (p < 0.05). An increased tendency was also observed for scores of 'Place orientation' (p = 0.071) and 'Ability to execute' (p = 0.054), although statistically not significant. In the case of TLG, score of 'Place orientation' and 'Judgment and abstract thinking' was significantly increased (p < 0.05). These results show that dietary taurine supplementation has positive effects on the cognitive function (MMSE-DS) of elderly women with dementia. There-fore, it is necessary to include dietary taurine supplementation for the treatment and prevention of dementia. In addition, it is necessary to develop and supply a variety of menus containing taurine.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos
12.
BMJ ; 366: l4414, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the Life Simple 7 cardiovascular health score at age 50 and incidence of dementia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Civil service departments in London (Whitehall II study; study inception 1985-88). PARTICIPANTS: 7899 participants with data on the cardiovascular health score at age 50. EXPOSURES: The cardiovascular health score included four behavioural (smoking, diet, physical activity, body mass index) and three biological (fasting glucose, blood cholesterol, blood pressure) metrics, coded on a three point scale (0, 1, 2). The cardiovascular health score was the sum of seven metrics (score range 0-14) and was categorised into poor (scores 0-6), intermediate (7-11), and optimal (12-14) cardiovascular health. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident dementia, identified through linkage to hospital, mental health services, and mortality registers until 2017. RESULTS: 347 incident cases of dementia were recorded over a median follow-up of 24.7 years. Compared with an incidence rate of dementia of 3.2 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 4.0) per 1000 person years among the group with poor cardiovascular health, the absolute rate differences per 1000 person years were -1.5 (95% confidence interval -2.3 to -0.7) for the group with intermediate cardiovascular health and -1.9 (-2.8 to -1.1) for the group with optimal cardiovascular health. Higher cardiovascular health score was associated with a lower risk of dementia (hazard ratio 0.89 (0.85 to 0.95) per 1 point increment in the cardiovascular health score). Similar associations with dementia were observed for the behavioural and biological subscales (hazard ratios per 1 point increment in the subscores 0.87 (0.81 to 0.93) and 0.91 (0.83 to 1.00), respectively). The association between cardiovascular health at age 50 and dementia was also seen in people who remained free of cardiovascular disease over the follow-up (hazard ratio 0.89 (0.84 to 0.95) per 1 point increment in the cardiovascular health score). CONCLUSION: Adherence to the Life Simple 7 ideal cardiovascular health recommendations in midlife was associated with a lower risk of dementia later in life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Demência/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Demência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 154: 116-123, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279960

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the effect of oral diabetes medication on the risk of dementia in an elderly cohort with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims data from 2002 to 2013. Elderly subjects (60 years of age or older) with and without type 2 diabetes were included; patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes were further divided into the oral diabetes medication group and no-medication group. RESULTS: Among 278,290 patients with type 2 diabetes, 56,587 developed dementia (20.3%) over 11 years of follow-up. Type 2 diabetes was associated with a 1.69-fold increased risk of dementia (95% CI 1.66-1.72). Among patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, the risk of dementia was lower in the oral diabetes medication group than in the no-medication group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% CI 0.77-0.81). Lower risk of dementia was particularly noticeable in all of the combination therapy groups and especially lower in the combination therapy group treated with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (aHR 0.48, 95% CI 0.45-0.51). CONCLUSION: Overall, the use of oral diabetes medication in type 2 diabetes patients significantly decreased the risk of dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
14.
Brain Nerve ; 71(7): 751-758, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289248

RESUMO

Using AI for dementia diagnosis is still in research stage, however some of the work points to the development of new medical devices. One is a voxel-based morphometry analysis of brain atrophy, and a brain network analysis using a resting state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. The other is an application to detect dementia in daily life using "IoT" technology. As it has been determined that elderly people's dementia is closely related to lifestyle, the use of AI in the diagnosis is to predict the possibility of dementia in the preclinical stage and to link it to prevention, rather than to provide a definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Demência/diagnóstico , Idoso , Atrofia , Encéfalo/patologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 678, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The total number of people with dementia is increasing worldwide, due to our aging society. Without a disease-modifying drug available, risk reduction strategies are to date the only promising way to reduce dementia incidence in the future. Substantial evidence exists that lifestyle factors contribute to the risk of dementia, such as physical exercise, mental activity and (non-)smoking. Still, most people seem unaware of a relationship between lifestyle and brain health. This paper investigates dementia literacy and knowledge of modifiable risk and protective factors of dementia in a Dutch population-based sample. METHODS: An online-survey was carried out among 590 community-dwelling people between 40 and 75 years old in the Province of Limburg, the Netherlands. The total group comprises both of a provincial sample (n = 381) and a sample of three specific districts within the province (n = 209). Dementia awareness and knowledge about 12 risk and protective factors was assessed with items derived from the British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, supplemented with custom items developed by the research team. RESULTS: The majority of participants (56%) were unaware of a relationship between lifestyle and dementia risk. Most individuals identified low cognitive activity, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet as dementia risk factors. Particular gaps in knowledge existed with regard to major cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease. Although the level of awareness varied by age and level of education, most people (70%) were eager to learn more about the topic of brain health, and indicated to be interested in using eHealth (54%) to measure or improve brain health. CONCLUSIONS: Most people still are unaware of the relation between lifestyle and brain health, indicating the need for public health campaigns. Increasing awareness in the general population about the presence of modifiable dementia risk and protective factors is a crucial first step prior to implementation of preventative measures. Targeting specific subgroups, such as individuals with low socioeconomic status and low health literacy, is essential for the reach and effect of a prevention campaign. Outcome of this study was the rationale for an awareness campaign in The Netherlands, called "MijnBreincoach" ("MyBraincoach").


Assuntos
Conscientização , Encéfalo , Demência , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Demência/etiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 36(2): 85-88, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187723

RESUMO

The purpose of this Editorial is to summarise the key recommendations of the Lancet Commission on Dementia Prevention, Intervention, and Care, reporting on the best available evidence to date on what we can do to prevent and intervene for dementia. We briefly describe the new life-course model of dementia prevention incorporating nine modifiable risk factors and their potential effect in reducing individuals' risk of dementia. We also summarise the recommendations of the report about which pharmacological, psychological, and social interventions are effective, and improve outcomes for people with dementia and their families. Recent developments highlight that there is good potential for the prevention of dementia. Progress in evidence-based approaches indicate the potential for dementia care to be of high-quality and widely accessible. Acting upon this knowledge now will reduce the global burden of dementia and improve the lives of people living with dementia and their families.


Assuntos
Demência/prevenção & controle , Humanos
17.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212755

RESUMO

With the rapid growth in the aging population, there has been a subsequent increase in the rates of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). To combat these increases in ADRD, scientists and clinicians have begun to place an increased emphasis on preventative methods to ameliorate disease rates, with a primary focus area on dietary intake. Protein/amino acid intake is a burgeoning area of research as it relates to the prevention of ADRD, and consumption is directly related to a number of disease-related risk factors as such low-muscle mass, sleep, stress, depression, and anxiety. As a result, the role that protein/amino acid intake plays in affecting modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline has provided a robust area for scientific exploration; however, this research is still speculative and specific mechanisms have to be proven. The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of protein and amino acids and the preventative roles they play with regard to ADRD, while providing future recommendations for this body of research. Additionally, we will discuss the current recommendations for protein intake and how much protein older adults should consume in order to properly manage their long-term risk for cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/prevenção & controle , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212979

RESUMO

As it is not easy to modify lifestyle, it is important to examine the effect of social capital (SC), which does not require behavior modifications, on dementia prevention. This study aimed to clarify gender differences in the relationship between cognitive function and individual SC among people living in a rural area in Japan. We used the Shimane Center for Community-based Healthcare Research and Education (CoHRE) study data from 2011 to conduct a cross-sectional analysis. The analysis included 491 participants, aged 40 years or older, who had undergone medical examinations in two rural towns in Japan. Both cognitive SC and structural SC were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cognitive function levels as binary outcomes. We found a significant association between cognitive function and individual cognitive SC in men (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.43-6.78), and found that cognitive function was associated with structural SC in women (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.08-3.31). This study showed that the relationship between cognitive function and individual SC differed by gender. These results suggest that it is important to approach dementia prevention differently in men and women.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência/prevenção & controle , Demência/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: dementia is one of the main causes of disability and dependency among the older population worldwide, producing physical, psychological, social and economic impact in those affected, caregivers, families and societies. However, little is known about dementia protective factors and their potential benefits against disease decline in the diagnosed population. Cognitive stimulating activities seem to be protective factors against dementia, though there is paucity in the scientific evidence confirming this, with most publications focusing on prevention in non-diagnosed people. A scoping review was conducted to explore whether chess practice could mitigate signs, deliver benefits, or improve cognitive capacities of individuals diagnosed with dementia through the available literature, and therefore act as a protective factor. METHODS: twenty-one articles were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS: the overall findings stress that chess could lead to prevention in non-diagnosed populations, while little has been shown with respect to individuals already diagnosed. However, some authors suggest its capacity as a protective factor due to its benefits, and the evidence related to the cognitive functions associated with the game. CONCLUSION: although chess is indirectly assumed to be a protective factor due to its cognitive benefits, more studies are required to demonstrate, with strong evidence, whether chess could be a protective factor against dementia within the diagnosed population.


Assuntos
Demência/prevenção & controle , Jogos Recreativos , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 75, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modifying lifestyle risk factors for dementia is a public health priority. Motivation for change is integral to the modification of health-related risk behaviours. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the previously validated tool entitled 'Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale' (MCLHB-DRR) for use in the UK. METHODS: A sample of 3,948 individuals aged 50 and over completed the 27-item MCLHB-DRR online. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored via Exploratory Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with Oblimin rotation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the factor structure using chi-square (χ2), the goodness-of-fit index (GFI), the comparative fit index (CFI), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) and Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) as fit indices to evaluate the model fit. Internal consistency (Cronbach α) was measured for the final scale version. RESULTS: Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) resulted in a parsimonious 10-item, two-factor structure (5 items each, factor loadings > 0.3) that explained 52.83% of total variance. Based on the Pattern Matrix, Factor 1 was labelled "Positive Cues to Action" and Factor 2 was labelled "Negative Cues to Action". After addressing some errors in covariances, CFA showed a good fit where all fit indices were larger than 0.90 (GFI = 0.968, CFI = 0.938) and smaller than 0.08 (RMSEA = 0.072, RMR = 0.041). The standardized coefficients of Factor 1 and Factor 2 ranged from 0.30 to 0.73 and were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The final scale showed moderate to high reliability scores (Factor 1 α = 0.809; Factor 2 α = 0.701; Overall α = 0.785). CONCLUSIONS: The new MOCHAD-10 (Motivation to Change Behaviour for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale) is a short, reliable and robust two-factor, 10-item clinical tool for use in preventative health care and research to evaluate motivation to change lifestyle for dementia risk reduction.


Assuntos
Demência/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
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