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1.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esquizofrenia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Demografia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia
2.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 13(3): 380-411, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920633

RESUMO

There has been much debate over the micro-level relationship between employment situations and fertility in Europe and Northern America. However, related research in East Asia is scant, although countries in this region have some of the lowest fertility rates in the world. Moreover, most studies analyse the employment-fertility relationship from a static perspective and only for women, which underemphasises life course dynamics and gender heterogeneity of employment careers and their fertility implications. Drawing on retrospective data from the 2017 Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSCS), this study explores women's and men's career trajectories between ages 18 and 40 in Taiwan using sequence cluster analyses. It also examines how career variations associate with different timing and quantum of birth. Empirical results show that economically inactive women experience faster motherhood transitions and have more children by age 40 than women with stable full-time careers. For men, having an unstable career associates with slower fatherhood transitions and a lower number of children. For both genders, self-employed people are the earliest in parenthood transitions and have the highest number of children by midlife. Our findings demonstrate sharp gender contrasts in employment careers and their diversified fertility implications in low-fertility Taiwan.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 561, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis presents several lineages each with distinct characteristics of evolutionary status, transmissibility, drug resistance, host interaction, latency, and vaccine efficacy. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as a new diagnostic tool to reliably inform the occurrence of phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and examine their relationship with patient demographic characteristics and multidrug-resistance development. METHODS: 191 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from a 2017/2018 Tanzanian drug resistance survey were sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform at Supranational Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in Uganda. Obtained fast-q files were imported into tools for resistance profiling and lineage inference (Kvarq v0.12.2, Mykrobe v0.8.1 and TBprofiler v3.0.5). Additionally for phylogenetic tree construction, RaxML-NG v1.0.3(25) was used to generate a maximum likelihood phylogeny with 800 bootstrap replicates. The resulting trees were plotted, annotated and visualized using ggtree v2.0.4 RESULTS: Most [172(90.0%)] of the isolates were from newly treated Pulmonary TB patients. Coinfection with HIV was observed in 33(17.3%) TB patients. Of the 191 isolates, 22(11.5%) were resistant to one or more commonly used first line anti-TB drugs (FLD), 9(4.7%) isolates were MDR-TB while 3(1.6%) were resistant to all the drugs. Of the 24 isolates with any resistance conferring mutations, 13(54.2%) and 10(41.6%) had mutations in genes associated with resistance to INH and RIF respectively. The findings also show four major lineages i.e. Lineage 3[81 (42.4%)], followed by Lineage 4 [74 (38.7%)], the Lineage 1 [23 (12.0%)] and Lineages 2 [13 (6.8%)] circulaing in Tanzania. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study show that Lineage 3 is the most prevalent lineage in Tanzania whereas drug resistant mutations were more frequent among isolates that belonged to Lineage 4.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Demografia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Filogenia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Dermatologie (Heidelb) ; 73(8): 620-624, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pruritus is a frequent phenomenon in patients in dermatology. The severity of pruritus often cannot be explained by the severity of the underlying disease or chronification processes alone. Especially then, demographic and psychological variables should also be considered as moderators of the intensity of pruritus. PURPOSE: Are there associations between sex, age, emotional and cognitive factors and pruritus intensity in patients with chronic pruritus (CP) and skin-healthy control subjects? MATERIAL AND METHODS: Recently published studies on the abovenamed moderators of pruritus were searched for in PubMed, collated and the results are summarized. RESULTS: It was found that women reported a higher intensity of pruritus than men. In addition, negative emotions such as fear, disgust, and anger are positively associated with pruritus in patients with CP. There are also associations between cognitive factors, such as attention, catastrophizing, and pruritus. CONCLUSION: The associations between both demographic and psychological factors and pruritus should be considered in the diagnostics and treatment of pruritus. A psychological intervention as a complementary treatment should be considered whenever patients report associations between psychological experiences and pruritus and/or automatic or extensive scratching.


Assuntos
Emoções , Prurido , Ira , Doença Crônica , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prurido/epidemiologia
9.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 467, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918351

RESUMO

Mentorship in science is crucial for topic choice, career decisions, and the success of mentees and mentors. Typically, researchers who study mentorship use article co-authorship and doctoral dissertation datasets. However, available datasets of this type focus on narrow selections of fields and miss out on early career and non-publication-related interactions. Here, we describe Mentorship, a crowdsourced dataset of 743176 mentorship relationships among 738989 scientists primarily in biosciences that avoids these shortcomings. Our dataset enriches the Academic Family Tree project by adding publication data from the Microsoft Academic Graph and "semantic" representations of research using deep learning content analysis. Because gender and race have become critical dimensions when analyzing mentorship and disparities in science, we also provide estimations of these factors. We perform extensive validations of the profile-publication matching, semantic content, and demographic inferences, which mostly cover neuroscience and biomedical sciences. We anticipate this dataset will spur the study of mentorship in science and deepen our understanding of its role in scientists' career outcomes.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas , Mentores , Pesquisadores , Demografia , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272344, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921378

RESUMO

Promoting mental health addresses a global societal challenge. Nature connectedness, or relatedness to natural systems, is associated with increased well-being and mental health. Among urban populations, nature connectedness has been reported as lower. Nature connectedness in urban settings has been somewhat overlooked by researchers. This cross-sectional online study addressed this issue by identifying socio-demographic predictors of urban nature connectedness among 165 students, aged 20 to 40, from the Technical University of Munich. Analysis of the data from 153 female university students was conducted using ordinal regressions, (a) separately and (b) merged with their 12 male counterparts. A separate gender analysis for males could not be performed, due to sample size limitations. Although access to nature and a considerable nature dose in terms of frequency and duration of nature contact were noted, possibly achieved through the engagement in outdoor activities, urban nature connectedness was rather low. Results showed that urban nature connectedness was negatively predicted by living in a rural area and positively predicted by engagement in outdoor activities and increased hours per week spent in nature. This information can help researchers operationalize the construct of urban nature connectedness. Furthermore, it can aid the development of interventions aimed at promoting urban nature connectedness, by encouraging urban inhabitants to (repeatedly) get in contact with and spend time in provided high-quality urban nature (e.g., during outdoor activities). To draw conclusions about causality, further research is required to identify a clear cause-effect relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and urban nature connectedness. Based on a researched dose-response relationship, a(n) (inter)national recommendation for the duration of nature contact should be established to promote urban nature connectedness and, therewith, health in urban inhabitants. Future research should also investigate further potential individual influencing factors, as well as gender and within/between-country differences among urban inhabitants.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1466, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding non-epidemiological factors is essential for the surveillance and prevention of infectious diseases, and the factors are likely to vary spatially and temporally as the disease progresses. However, the impacts of these influencing factors were primarily assumed to be stationary over time and space in the existing literature. The spatiotemporal impacts of mobility-related and social-demographic factors on disease dynamics remain to be explored. METHODS: Taking daily cases data during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the US as a case study, we develop a mobility-augmented geographically and temporally weighted regression (M-GTWR) model to quantify the spatiotemporal impacts of social-demographic factors and human activities on the COVID-19 dynamics. Different from the base GTWR model, the proposed M-GTWR model incorporates a mobility-adjusted distance weight matrix where travel mobility is used in addition to the spatial adjacency to capture the correlations among local observations. RESULTS: The results reveal that the impacts of social-demographic and human activity variables present significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity. In particular, a 1% increase in population density may lead to 0.63% more daily cases, and a 1% increase in the mean commuting time may result in 0.22% increases in daily cases. Although increased human activities will, in general, intensify the disease outbreak, we report that the effects of grocery and pharmacy-related activities are insignificant in areas with high population density. And activities at the workplace and public transit are found to either increase or decrease the number of cases, depending on particular locations. CONCLUSIONS: Through a mobility-augmented spatiotemporal modeling approach, we could quantify the time and space varying impacts of non-epidemiological factors on COVID-19 cases. The results suggest that the effects of population density, socio-demographic attributes, and travel-related attributes will differ significantly depending on the time of the pandemic and the underlying location. Moreover, policy restrictions on human contact are not universally effective in preventing the spread of diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Demografia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
12.
Syst Rev ; 11(1): 134, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system with an increasing worldwide prevalence. Since 1993, more than 15 disease-modifying immunotherapies (DMTs) have been licenced and have shown moderate efficacy in clinical trials. Based on the heterogeneity of the disease and the partial effectiveness of therapies, a personalised medicine approach would be valuable taking individual prognosis and suitability of a chosen therapy into account to gain the best possible treatment effect. The primary objective of this review is to assess the differential treatment effects of all approved DMTs in subgroups of adults with clinically isolated syndrome or relapsing forms of MS. We will analyse possible treatment effect modifiers (TEM) defined by baseline demographic characteristics (gender, age), and diagnostic (i.e. MRI measures) and clinical (i.e. relapses, disability level) measures of MS disease activity. METHODS: We will include all published and accessible unpublished primary and secondary analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 12 months investigating the efficacy of at least one approved DMT, with placebo or other approved DMTs as control intervention(s) in subgroups of trial participants. As the primary outcome, we will address disability as defined by the Expanded Disability Status Scale or multiple sclerosis functional composite scores followed by relapse frequency, quality of life measures, and side effects. MRI data will be analysed as secondary outcomes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, CENTRAL and major trial registers will be searched for suitable studies. Titles and abstracts and full texts will be screened by two persons independently using Covidence. The risk of bias will be analysed based on the Cochrane "Risk of Bias 2" tool, and the certainty of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. Treatment effects will be reported as rate ratio or odds ratio. Primary analyses will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Meta-analyses will be carried out using random-effects models. DISCUSSION: Given that individual patient data from clinical studies are often not available, the review will allow to analyse the evidence on TEM in MS immunotherapy and thus support clinical decision making in individual cases. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021279665 .


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Demografia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
13.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 732, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The survival of patients with lung cancer has substantially increased in the last decade by about 15%. This increase is, basically, due to targeted therapies available for advanced stages and the emergence of immunotherapy itself. This work aims to study the situation of biomarker testing in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Thoracic Tumours Registry (TTR) is an observational, prospective, registry-based study that included patients diagnosed with lung cancer and other thoracic tumours, from September 2016 to 2020. This TTR study was sponsored by the Spanish Lung Cancer Group (GECP) Foundation, an independent, scientific, multidisciplinary oncology society that coordinates more than 550 experts and 182 hospitals across the Spanish territory. RESULTS: Nine thousand two hundred thirty-nine patients diagnosed with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 2106 and 2020 were analysed. 7,467 (80.8%) were non-squamous and 1,772 (19.2%) were squamous. Tumour marker testing was performed in 85.0% of patients with non-squamous tumours vs 56.3% in those with squamous tumours (p-value < 0.001). The global testing of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 was 78.9, 64.7, 35.6% respectively, in non-squamous histology. PDL1 was determined globally in the same period (46.9%), although if we focus on the last 3 years it exceeds 85%. There has been a significant increase in the last few years of all determinations and there are even close to 10% of molecular determinations that do not yet have targeted drug approval but will have it in the near future. 4,115 cases had a positive result (44.5%) for either EGFR, ALK, KRAS, BRAF, ROS1, or high PDL1. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of a national project and standard protocol in Spain that regulates the determination of biomarkers, the situation is similar to other European countries. Given the growing number of different determinations and their high positivity, national strategies are urgently needed to implement next-generation sequencing (NGS) in an integrated and cost-effective way in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Demografia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604580, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35814734

RESUMO

Objectives: China has experienced an ongoing urbanisation that associated with spatial transformation and personal changes, which are expected to have direct or indirect impacts on migrants' health and well-being. This study aims to investigate their life satisfaction and the significant influences. Method: A quantitative research strategy was adopted, with the questionnaire survey towards 877 migrants across Hangzhou and Ningbo cities. Descriptive statistics showed migrants' life satisfaction, socio-demographic characteristics and urbanisation features. Three logistic regression models examined key factors that influenced life satisfaction. Results: Over one third of migrants were unsatisfied with their life. They mainly received education lower than high school and had an annual household income less than 60k. Comparatively, migrants, who worked in formal sectors, moved into resettlement communities and adapted to city life, tended to have higher levels of life satisfaction. Conclusion: There should be an improvement in migrants' life satisfaction. This could be achieved by building up their educational level and financial capability. Meanwhile, positive actions such as professional training are required to maximise their participation in formal sectors as well as community life.


Assuntos
Migrantes , China , Demografia , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , População Urbana , Urbanização
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The extent to which physical therapy (PT) is used after meniscectomy is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which PT is implemented after meniscectomy and to identify factors associated with its utilization. METHODS: The Mariner PearlDiver database was queried to identify patients who underwent uncomplicated meniscectomy. The number of PT visits for each patient was tabulated. Logistic regressions were used to compare demographic factors associated with no use of PT and use of nine or more PT visits. RESULTS: In total, 92,291 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 72.21% did not use PT and 27.8% used 1 or more PT visits. Of the patients who used PT, 19.76% had 1 to 8 PT visits and 8.03% had 9 or more PT visits. Older age and noncommercial insurance types were associated with no PT use. Male sex, Medicaid, and Medicare were associated with markedly lower odds of increased PT utilization. CONCLUSION: PT is used in the minority of the time after meniscectomy. Among patients who do use PT, however, notable variation exists in the amount of PT visits used. Patient age, sex, insurance status, and geographic variables were independently associated with PT utilization.


Assuntos
Medicare , Meniscectomia , Idoso , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 49, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation within the first hour after birth are key recommendations to promote breastfeeding. In Mexico, the National Survey of Demographic Dynamics 2018, known by its Spanish acronym ENADID, collected information about breastfeeding practices. The ENADID survey is probabilistic and allows results to be generalized to the entire population in Mexico. METHODS: Information from a public database featuring 26,587 mother-baby pairs was analyzed by proportions, means and associations, as well as machine learning methods, to conduct a comparison among the pairs according to immediate skin-to-skin contact after delivery status. RESULTS: Skin-to-skin contact was described by 78.7% of the mothers and was associated with receiving an explanation regarding how to give breastmilk or the breast to the baby immediately following birth [Odds ratio (OR) 6.46; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 6.02, 6.97], initiating breastfeeding in the first hour of life (OR 2.01; 95% CI (1.84, 2.18) and a breastfeeding duration of ≥ 6 months (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.25). The breastfeeding duration, in days, was greater in the group with skin-to-skin contact than in the group without skin contact. CONCLUSIONS: In Mexico, immediate and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact between newborns and their mothers should be facilitated. Support should be provided to mothers to favor skin-to-skin contact and breasting initiation during the first hour of life, ideally through an empathic explanation by trained health personnel. Future research should focus on the evaluation of strategies to modify maternity services to facilitate immediate skin-to-skin contact after delivery and develop training programs for health personnel to support the initiation of breastfeeding during the first hour of life.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , México , Parto , Gravidez
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805399

RESUMO

This study aims to describe the socio-demographic profile of so-called "key workers" during the first lockdown in France and to assess their potential occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 under routine, pre-pandemic working conditions. We used the French list of essential jobs that was issued during the first lockdown to identify three subgroups of key workers (hospital healthcare, non-hospital healthcare, non-healthcare). Based on the population-based "Conditions de travail-2019" survey, we described the socio-demographic composition of key workers and their potential work-related exposures (to "infectious agents," "face-to-face contact with the public," and "working with colleagues") using modified Poisson regression. In general, women, clerical and manual workers, workers on temporary contracts, those with lower education and income, and non-European immigrants were more likely to be key workers, who accounted for 22% of the active population. Non-healthcare essential workers (57%) were the most socially disadvantaged, while non-hospital healthcare workers (19%) were polarized at both extremes of the social scale; hospital healthcare workers (24%) were intermediate. Compared to non-key workers, all subgroups had greater exposure to infectious agents and more physical contact with the public. This study provides evidence of accumulated disadvantages among key workers concerning their social background, geographical origin, and potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exposição Ocupacional , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Demografia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805757

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a devastating, global public health crisis. Public health systems in the United States heavily focused on getting people to adhere to preventive behaviors, and later, to get vaccinated. January through May of 2021 was a critical and volatile time period for COVID-19 cases, deaths, and expanding vaccination programs coinciding with important political and social events which will have a lasting impact on how the public views science, places trust in our government, and views individual rights. Having collected almost 1400 surveys, our goal was to assess vaccine behavior, explore attitudes toward receiving the vaccine, and identify trusted information sources. More than 83% of our survey respondents said they were at least partially vaccinated. Of 246 unvaccinated, 31.3% were somewhat or extremely likely to get vaccinated when available. Their two most common concerns were vaccine effectiveness (41.1%) and safety (40.2%). Significant differences were observed between respondents who were likely to be vaccinated in the future and those who were hesitant on three of five demographic variables. Our data provide unique insight into the history of behavior and motivations related to COVID-19 vaccines-what will be seen as a "wicked problem" for years to come.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Anormalidades Urogenitais , Vacinas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Demografia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos , Vacinação , Hesitação Vacinal
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption has negative effects not only on the drinkers' health but also on others around them. Previous studies suggest that excessive alcohol consumption can be related to a combination of factors such as age, family background, religiosity, etc. Investigating and clarifying these roots of alcohol consumption is crucial so that the right type of interventions can be designed in a specific and targeted manner. OBJECTIVES: This work was conducted as a systematic review to reveal the factors associated with alcohol consumption and to heighten the understanding of the differences among various communities and segments of the population regarding their usage of alcohol. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar was performed. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were included in the review after excluding irrelevant records and duplicates. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption patterns can be associated with several factors related to communities and individuals, and our review revealed demographic factors, including age and proximity to alcohol outlets, as well as social factors, including family background, socioeconomic background, and religious influence. These findings can be used to establish a guideline for further studies in understanding alcohol consumption patterns among individuals according to their personal characteristics and sociocultural backgrounds.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Demografia , Humanos
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 798298, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774565

RESUMO

The generational economy-which is that aspect of the economy that pertains to the economic activities of, and the economic relationships between, different ages and generations-can be evaluated on the basis of a number of different criteria. The most critical of these include the financial sustainability of the generational economy, the intergenerational inequality that the generational economy creates, and the material living standards associated with the generational economy. How the generational economy performs in terms of these three criteria is, moreover, shaped by underlying processes of demographic and economic change. This paper examines how the Australian generational economy can be expected to perform in coming decades in terms of financial sustainability, intergenerational inequality, and material living standards. How the performance of the Australian generational economy is shaped by variations in fertility, mortality, overseas migration, and labour-income growth is also assessed. The results reported in the paper indicate that, because of population aging, consumption can only grow at a substantially lower rate than labour income if financial sustainability is to be maintained. These results also suggest that increasing overseas migration is a distinctly useful policy tool for meeting the challenges posed by population aging, since increasing overseas migration both increases material living standards and decreases intergenerational inequality.


Assuntos
Renda , Austrália , Demografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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