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2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 129-135, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915348

RESUMO

Tetanus is a potentially preventable neurological infectious disorder with paucity of literature in Bangladesh. We aimed to see the demography and symptom profile of tetanus cases managed at the Infectious disease Hospital Sylhet. This hospital based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted within the time period of January to December 2012 among 50 consecutive admitted patients in the Infectious Disease Hospital, Sylhet, Bangladesh who were diagnosed as a case of tetanus and fulfilling the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Neonatal tetanus was considered as exclusion criteria and clinical diagnosis of tetanus was considered as the tetanus. Data were collected purposively with pretested predesigned questionnaire. Data were processed manually and analyzed with the help of SPSS Version 16.0. The mean±SD age was 33.00±16.8 years, ranging from 10 to 70 years. Among the 50 respondents, 72.0% were male, 50% from lower class, 34% were students and 30.0% had their educational status of primary level, 60.0% from rural social background. Trismus was found in 98.0% of the cases, rigidity in 96.0% cases, body ache in 94.0% cases, dysphagia in 92.0% cases, neck pain in 78.0% cases, dysarthria in 92.0% cases, reflex spasm in 66.0% cases, opisthotonus in 46.0% cases and urinary retention in 26.0% cases. In this study rural male people with lower socioeconomic status individuals were mostly affected with trismus, rigidity, body ache and dysphagia symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Tétano/diagnóstico , Trismo/etiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tétano/complicações , Tétano/epidemiologia , Tétano/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Trismo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 242-253, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742858

RESUMO

Dispersal evolution impacts the fluxes of individuals and hence, connectivity in metapopulations. Connectivity is therefore decoupled from the structural connectedness of the patches within the spatial network. Because of demographic feedbacks, local selection also drives the evolution of other life history traits. We investigated how different levels of connectedness affect trait evolution in experimental metapopulations of the two-spotted spider mite. We separated local- and metapopulation-level selection and linked trait divergence to population dynamics. With lower connectedness, an increased starvation resistance and delayed dispersal evolved. Reproductive performance evolved locally by transgenerational plasticity or epigenetic processes. Costs of dispersal, but also changes in local densities and temporal fluctuations herein are found to be putative drivers. In addition to dispersal, demographic traits are able to evolve in response to metapopulation connectedness at both the local and metapopulation level by genetic and/or non-genetic inheritance. These trait changes impact the persistence of spatially structured populations.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Demografia , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(4): 341-352, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801441

RESUMO

Objectives: Description of the qualifications of psychotherapy-training candidates in Austria at the beginning of their training. Methods: Psychotherapists in training in Austria were interviewed at the beginning of their training concerning their socio-demographic background and prior education. These background data were collected using the Trainee Background Information Form (TBIF), which was designed by the Society for Psychotherapy Research Interest Section on Therapist Training and Development (SPRISTAD). Results: The group of 197 psychotherapy trainees from Austria consists largely of women, of persons with high school education and with a satisfactory, financially secure life situation. One-third of them show a "second career" pattern, which is in line with the predominantly part-time training programs in Austria. A high percentage of the candidates have previous professional experience in the psychosocial field. Conclusions: As this is a pilot study, results can be seen as a starting point for further research in psychotherapy training and competence development. In discussing the findings, both national conditions and opportunities for future interdisciplinary research are considered.


Assuntos
Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicoterapia/educação , Psicoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Áustria , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
5.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 924-931, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856442

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of Chinese generic imatinib with branded imatinib as frontline therapy in adults with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) (Frontline group) , and to explore the efficacy and safety of Chinese generic imatinib in CML-CP patients switching from branded imatinib (Switching group) . Methods: Frontline group: Data of adults with newly diagnosed CML-CP receiving Chinese generic imatinib (Xinwei(®)) or branded imatinib (Glivec(®)) between October 2013 and August 2018 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Switching group: Data of adults diagnosed with CML-CP who received branded imatinib and then switched to Chinese generic imatinib after achieving at least complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: Frontline group: In total, 409 adult patients receiving Chinese generic imatinib (n=201) or Glivec (n=208) were included in this study. Median age was 42 years (range, 18-83 years) . Comparison of baseline showed significant difference on demographic characteristics among two cohorts: lower education level (P<0.001) , and divorced or widowed status (P=0.004) and rural household registration (P<0.001) were more common in the generic imatinib cohort than those in the Glivec cohort. There was no significant difference on age, gender, Sokal risk score, WBC and HGB between the 2 cohorts. With a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 3-62 months) , there was no significant difference on the 3-year cumulative incidence of achieving CCyR (97.5% vs 94.5%, P=0.592) , major molecular response (MMR) (84.3% vs 93.1%, P=0.208) , molecular response(4.0) (MR(4.0)) (42.7% vs 41.7%, P=0.277) , molecular response(4.5) (MR(4.5)) (25.4% vs 33.0%, P=0.306) as well as the 3-year probabilities of failure free survival (FFS) (76.7% vs 81.0%, P=0.448) , progression free survival (PFS) (91.8% vs 96.3%, P=0.325) and overall survival (OS) (95.8% vs 98.5%, P=0.167) between the generic and branded imatinib cohorts. Multivariate analysis showed the type of imatinib was not associated with treatment responses and outcomes. The incidences of adverse effects were comparable in the 2 cohorts. Switching group: In total, 39 patients switching from branded imatinib to Chinese generic imatinib after achieving at least CCyR were included in this study. Median age was 42 years (range, 23-80 years) . With a median follow-up of 39 months (range, 6-63 months) , molecular responses were maintained in 23 (58.9%) patients and improved in 12 (39.8%) patients. Adverse effects were tolerable. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics might influence the choice of the type of TKI used in CML-CP patients. There was a comparable efficacy and safety between the Chinese generic imatinib and the branded imatinib in adults with newly diagnosed CML-CP under standard management and closely monitoring. Patients could safely switch from the branded imatinib to the Chinese generic imatinib.


Assuntos
Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos , Demografia , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Science ; 366(6472)2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857447

RESUMO

Allgeier and Cline suggest that our model overestimates the contributions of cryptobenthic fishes to coral reef functioning. However, their 20-year model ignores the basic biological limits of population growth. If incorporated, cryptobenthic contributions to consumed fish biomass remain high (20 to 70%). Disturbance cycles and uncertainties surrounding the fate of large fishes on decadal scales further demonstrate the important role of cryptobenthic fishes.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Animais , Biomassa , Demografia , Peixes , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
Science ; 366(6472)2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857452

RESUMO

Brandl et al (Reports, 21 June 2019, p. 1189) report that cryptobenthic fishes underpin coral reef ecosystem function by contributing ~60% of "consumed fish" biomass and ~20% of production. These results are artifacts of their simulation. Using their data and model, we show that cryptobenthic species contribute less than 4% to fish production, calling into question the extent to which they contribute to the high productivity of coral reefs.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Animais , Biomassa , Demografia , Peixes
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e17175, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860944

RESUMO

Annual pancreatic tumor incidence rates have been increasing. We explored pancreatic tumor incidence trends by treatment and clinicopathologic features.Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) was retrieved to evaluate temporal trends and pancreatic cancer rates from 2000 to 2015. Joinpoint regression analyses were carried out to examine trend differences.Overall, the incidence of pancreatic cancer was on the increase. The initial APC increased at a rate of 2.22% from 2000 to 2012, and increased from 2012 to 2015 at a rate of 9.05%. Joinpoint analyses revealed that trends within different demographics of pancreatic cancer showed different characteristics. The rate of pancreatic cancer also varied with histologic types. In addition, the trends by cancer stage showed significant increase incidences of stage I and II pancreatic cancer from 2000 to 2013 (stage I: APC: 2.71%; stage II: APC: 4.87%). Incidences of patients receiving surgery increased from 2000 to 2008 (APC: 7.55%), 2008 to 2011 (APC: 2.17%) and then there was a significant acceleration from 2011 to 2015 (APC: 10.51%). The incidence of cases in stage II receiving surgery increased significantly from 2004 to 2009 (APC: 9.28%) and 2009 to 2013 (APC: 2.57%). However, for cases in stage I, the incidence of cases with surgery decreased significantly since 2009 (APC: -4.14%). Patients undergoing surgical treatment without chemotherapy and radiotherapy had the higher rates compared with those who received other combined treatments.Pancreatic cancer has been increasing overall, but patterns differ by demographics and clinicopathologic features. Efforts to identify and treat more eligible candidates for curative therapy could be beneficial.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Demografia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pancreatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884760

RESUMO

The issues of assessing medical and demographic processes and improving public health are very actual in Russia. The article analyzes the current state and regional characteristics of medical and demographic development using the example of the Republic of Dagestan. The positive tendency of the main fertility indicators was determined, including the analysis of the age structure of the population and population size alterations.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Demografia , Serviços de Saúde , Daguestão , Dinâmica Populacional , Federação Russa
10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884762

RESUMO

The demand for research in the context of identifying the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the medical and demographic indicators of individual regions is conditioned by continuing deterioration of the health status of population of the subjects of the Russian Federation, which occurs under the influence of unfavorable environmental factors. The purpose of research is to carry out comprehensive analysis of the medical and demographic indicators of population health of the region in 2012-2017, taking into account the influence of regional health factors. Materials and methods. The study applied such research techniques as the Pearson's correlation analysis with matrix construction. The processing was performed using the software Statistica 6.0. To test the hypothesis of normal distribution, the Shapiro-Wilk criterion was applied. The significance of differences was determined by the Student's criterion. The differences were considered statistically significant with p<0.05. The study used data of the State statistical Report of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation in 2012-2017. The results. The study established that the Trans-Baikal Krai is characterized by a decrease in population size up to 1.9%, a decrease in the birth rate up to 18.5%, a significant decrease in natural growth, an average mortality rate and an increase in life expectancy by 4.89%. According to the Human Development Reports, the Trans-Baikal Krai takes the 76th position among the regions of the Russian Federation. The comprehensive assessment of the socio-economic conditions of the region allowed to identify the factors with the maximum degree of influence on the condition of public health, among which the resource characteristics of the regional health system are of significant importance, that determines the need for long-term study of the effect of these indicators on the level of regional health.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Expectativa de Vida , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Demografia , Humanos , Mortalidade , Federação Russa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765528

RESUMO

The article presents technique of calculation of the planned volume of outpatient care consumed by population of the subject of the Russian Federation considering demographic structure and level of morbidity. The formulas are presented developed for calculating financial costs of outpatient care and treatment in day hospital to be included into of mandatory health insurance program.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Morbidade , Federação Russa
12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765530

RESUMO

One demographic indicator is the structure of mortality by cause. Analysis of the causes of death allows you to define the fight against the disease, efforts should be focused to reduce mortality and on the effectiveness of measures against those or other diseases. The basis of information about the causes of death is a medical certificate of death, filling it depends on the correct diagnosis, the choice of the original cause of death, coding, as well as on policy documents aimed at reducing mortality from a particular cause. In the Russian Federation, in contrast to the countries of the European region, there is a fairly high proportion of inaccurately marked conditions, which account for 6.9% of all causes (in 2010 - 5%), the main reason for this is «old age¼, which ranks 4th among the leading causes of death (5% of all causes, in 2010 - 2.8%), as well as damage with uncertain intentions, which are on the 7th rank place of the leading causes of death (2.3% of all causes, in 2010 - 2%).


Assuntos
Mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Demografia , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Federação Russa
13.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 60(4): 241-250, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761876

RESUMO

The postgraduate training course at the Department of Orthodontics of Tokyo Dental College, which started in April 1975, comprises a 3-year curriculum aimed at fostering orthodontic specialists. A system of Accreditation for Orthodontists was introduced by the Japan Orthodontic Society in 1990, since which time, this postgraduate training course has also sought to provide the basic training required to obtain such certification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics of the students on this course and the current work status of its graduates by means of a questionnaire-based survey. The results revealed that, when the fortieth intake of students graduated in March 2017, the total number completing the course had reached 326. The annual mean number of students on this course was 8.2, and recent years have seen a marked increase in the number of women enrolling. In total, 37.5% of the questionnaire respondents had opened orthodontic clinics; 14.8% had opened general dentistry clinics; and 42.6% were working as employees. In addition, 46.2% had an additional place of employment other than their principal place of employment, mainly at a general dentistry clinic. Regarding the field of treatment, 82.4% provided solely orthodontic treatment. We believe that this may because all the responders had completed the postgraduate orthodontics course. The rate of earning accreditation as an orthodontist was high (82.4%), with no difference in the rate of acquisition between men and women. The rate of qualification as a Board-certified orthodontist was 17.9%, with the rate of acquisition by women approximately half of that by men. The number of female orthodontists is rising, and no difference was observed between sexes in the rate of acquiring accreditation as an orthodontist. Women were found to be lagging behind men, however, in regard to the rate of advancement to masters/PHD programs; qualifying as a Board-certified orthodontist; opening an orthodontic practice; and number of days worked. These findings suggest that there are differences in regard to the actual working conditions among the alumni of our postgraduate orthodontic training course, and that these differences are sex-based.


Assuntos
Ortodontia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Sociedades Odontológicas , Tóquio
14.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(11): 922-931, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) occurs in 2% of African-American adolescents but only 0.15% of white adolescents. First molars and incisors are affected by rapid onset and progression. METHODS: This nonsystematic critical review evaluated published data for LAgP and chronic periodontitis (CP), focusing on potential differences in epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, genetics, and response to therapy. RESULTS: LAgP differs from CP by localization to incisors and first molars, early onset and rapid progression in adolescents and young adults, and a 10-fold higher prevalence in populations of African or Middle Eastern origin, often with strong familial aggregation. The bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and hyperresponsive neutrophils are frequently observed. Antibiotic and nonsurgical therapies are highly effective. CONCLUSIONS: LAgP differs in many ways from the far more common CP that affects older adults. The substantial evidence of dissimilarities summarized in this review strongly supports the classification of LAgP as a distinct form of periodontitis. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Classifying LAgP as a distinct subcategory of periodontitis will encourage future research and does not conflict with the newly proposed "staging and grading" system. The silent onset and rapid progression of LAgP make early diagnosis and frequent follow-up with patients essential for effective treatment.


Assuntos
Periodontite Agressiva , Periodontite Crônica , Adolescente , Idoso , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Demografia , Humanos , Dente Molar , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 305, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC) has emerged as a primary approach to health care. This care focuses on the cultural diversity of the patients rather than the views of the health care professionals. PC-CSHC enables the patient to feel comfortable, respected, and trusted in the health care delivery process. As users of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) rarely inform their conventional health care providers of such use, the providers need to identify the users of T&CM themselves to avoid negative interaction with conventional medicine and to be able to provide them with PC-CSHC. Since the patterns of traditional medicine (TM) use are different to those of complementary medicine (CM), the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, and the health- and sociodemographic associations for visits to TM- and CM providers in an urban population. METHOD: The data were collected through two self-administrated questionnaires from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study, a population-based cohort study conducted in 2015-2016. All inhabitants of Tromsø aged 40 or above were invited (n = 32,591) and n = 21,083 accepted the invitation (response rate 65%). Pearson chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were used to describe differences between the groups whereas binary logistic regressions were used for adjusted values. RESULTS: The results revealed that 2.5% of the participants had seen a TM provider, 8.5% had seen a CM provider whereas 1% had visited both a TM and a CM provider during a 12-month period. TM users tended to be older, claim that religion was more important to them, have poorer economy and health, and have lower education compared to CM users. We found that more than 90% of the participants visiting T&CM providers also used conventional medicine. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of the participants in this study employed parallel health care modalities including visits to conventional, traditional, and complementary medicine providers. To offer patient-centered culturally sensitive health care that is tailored to the patients' treatment philosophy and spiritual needs, conventional health care providers need knowledge about, and respect for their patients' use of parallel health care systems.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Medicina Tradicional/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Religião , Confiança
16.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020434, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777658

RESUMO

Background: Scientific literature has provided clear evidence of the profound impact of sexual violence on women's health, such as somatic disorders and mental adverse outcomes. However, consequences related to obstetric complications are not yet completely clarified. This study aimed to assess the association of lifetime exposure to intimate partner sexual violence with eclampsia. Methods: We considered all the seven Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) that included data on sexual violence and on signs and symptoms suggestive of eclampsia for women of reproductive age (15-49 years). We computed unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) to evaluate the risk of suggestive eclampsia by ever subjected to sexual violence. A sensitivity analysis was conducted restricting the study population to women who had their last live birth over the 12 months before the interview. Results: Self-reported experience of sexual violence ranged from 3.7% in Mali to 9.2% in India while prevalence of women reporting signs and symptoms compatible with eclampsia ranged from 14.3% in Afghanistan to 0.7% in the Philippines. Reported sexual violence was associated with a 2-fold increased odd of signs and symptoms suggestive of eclampsia in the pooled analysis. The sensitivity analysis confirmed the strength of the association between sexual violence and eclampsia in Afghanistan and in India. Conclusions: Women and girls in low-and-middle-income countries are at high risk of sexual violence, which may represent a risk factor for hypertensive obstetric complication. Accurate counseling by health care providers during antenatal care consultations may represent an important opportunity to prevent adverse outcomes during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Eclampsia/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1461, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive mental health may support healthy development in childhood, although few studies have investigated this at a population level. We aimed to construct a measure of mental health competence (MHC), a skills-based assessment of positive mental health, using existing survey items in a representative sample of UK children, and to investigate its overlap with mental health difficulties (MHD), socio-demographic patterning, and relationships with physical health and cognitive development. METHODS: We analysed the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) when children were aged 11 years. Maternal (n = 12,082) and teacher (n = 6739) reports of prosocial behaviours (PS) and learning skills (LS) were entered into latent class models to create MHC measures. Using descriptive statistics, we examined relationships between MHC and MHD, and the socio-demographic patterning of MHC. Associations between MHC and physical health and cognitive development were examined with relative risk ratios [RRR] (from multinomial models): BMI status (healthy weight, overweight, obesity); unintentional injuries since age 7 (none, 1, 2+); asthma symptoms (none, 1, 2+); and tertiles of test scores for verbal ability, spatial working memory and risk-taking. Models were adjusted for potential confounding. RESULTS: Four MHC classes were identified [percentages for maternal and teacher reports, respectively]: high MHC (high PS, high LS) [37%; 39%], high-moderate MHC (high PS, moderate LS) [36%; 26%]; moderate MHC (moderate PS, moderate LS) [19%; 19%]; low MHC (moderate PS, low LS) [8%; 16%]. Higher MHC was less common in socially disadvantaged children. While MHC and MHD were associated, there was sufficient separation to indicate that MHC captures more than the absence of MHD. Compared to children with high MHC, those in other MHC classes tended to have poorer physical health and cognitive development, particularly those with low MHC or high-moderate MHC. For example, children with maternal-report Low MHC were more likely to have experienced 2+ unintentional injuries (RRR: 1.5 [1.1-2.1]) and to have lower verbal ability scores (RRR: 2.5 [1.9-3.2]). Patterns of results were similar for maternal- and teacher-report MHC. CONCLUSION: MHC is not simply the inverse of MHD, and high MHC is associated with better physical health and cognitive development. Findings suggest that interventions to improve MHC may support healthy development, although they require replication.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Competência Mental/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Global Health ; 15(1): 62, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of nutritional status among children under age 5 (0-59 months) in Ethiopia. Child malnutrition is an underlying cause of almost half (45%) of child deaths, particularly in low socioeconomic communities of developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of stunting decreased from 47% in 2005 to 39% in 2016, but the prevalence of wasting changed little over the same time period (from 11 to 10%). Despite improvements in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition, the current rate of progress is not fast enough to reach the World Health Organization global target for reducing malnutrition 40% by 2025. METHODS: This study used data from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Heath Survey (EDHS). The analysis used stunting and wasting as dependent variables, while the independent variables were characteristics of children, mothers, and households. Logistic regression was used to analyze the determinants of nutritional status among children. Bivariate analysis was also used to analyze the association between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: Study results show that child's age, sex, and perceived birth weight, mother's educational status, body mass index (BMI), and maternal stature, region, wealth quintile, type of toilet facility, and type of cooking fuel had significant associations with stunting. Child's age, sex, and perceived birth weight, mother's BMI, and residence and region showed significant associations with wasting. The study found that child, maternal, and household characteristics were significantly associated with stunting and wasting among children under age 5. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that a multi-sectorial and multidimensional approach is important to address malnutrition in Ethiopia. The education sector should promote reduction of cultural and gender barriers that contribute to childhood malnutrition. The health sector should encourage positive behaviors toward childcare and infant feeding practices. More should be done to help households adopt improved types of toilet facilities and modern types of cooking fuels.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Oecologia ; 191(4): 897-907, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616999

RESUMO

To support conservation and restoration, it is important to understand how differences in species functional traits relate to the distribution and demographic performance (i.e., changes in rates of growth, survival and recruitment) of co-occurring endemic, indigenous, and alien species on oceanic islands, where species are especially vulnerable to invasion. We examined interspecific differences in leaf and wood traits, and their associations with species origin (endemic, indigenous, and alien), distribution patterns, and demographic performance after typhoon disturbance for 22 co-occurring woody species at Sekimon on Hahajima Island in the Ogasawara Islands. Principal components analysis showed that the first and second principal components were associated with trait variations along spectra of leaf and wood economics (LES and WES). Species origin was not significantly associated with these components. Conservative species with low resource acquisition along the LES were abundant before the typhoon but acquisitive species had higher recruitment after the typhoon. After the typhoon, acquisitive species along the WES showed higher recruitment, relative growth rates but low survival rates on soil substrates. Endemic and indigenous species had lower recruitment and relative growth rates and endemic species had lower survival rates than alien species. Alien, endemic and indigenous species have similar functional space along the LES and WES, but these functional differences do not simply explain high demographic performance of alien species after the typhoon under the conditions of the species composition shifting from endemic species to alien species after repeated typhoon disturbances.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Madeira , Demografia , Florestas , Ilhas , Árvores
20.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance and its association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients in a referral hospital. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on data from patients who had mycobacterial culture identified and defined antimicrobials sensitivity profile (June 2014 to February 2016). The descriptive statistical analysis and Fisher's exact test were used to compare proportions. RESULTS: The study included 104 patients who had positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Bacilloscopy had high positivity (93.3%). A total of 15 patients (14.4%) had resistant strains and six (5.6%) multidrug-resistant. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were not related with resistance. CONCLUSION: This study contributed to further the understandings about the tuberculosis patients' profile, the study also served as a tool for development of specific public policies. Patients diagnosed with resistant tuberculosis must be under greater supervision.


Assuntos
Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
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