Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63.598
Filtrar
1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49370, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1122754

RESUMO

Objetivos: descrever a média total de independência geral e por domínios de comunicação dos idosos da comunidade e verificar as variáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde associadas à maior média de independência de comunicação entre os idosos. Métodos: estudo transversal e analítico, desenvolvido entre 808 idosos da comunidade. Procederam-se às análises: descritiva, bivariada e regressão linear múltipla (p<0,05). Resultados: verificou-se necessidade mínima de auxílio na comunicação (6,43±0,77); quanto aos domínios obteve maior escore de independência de comunicação nas necessidades básicas (6,88±0,51) e menor na leitura, escrita e conceitos numéricos (5,96±1,63). A maior média de independência de comunicação associou-se à faixa etária 60├80 (p<0,001); ter escolaridade (p<0,001); renda maior que um salário mínimo (p<0,001); à ausência do declínio cognitivo (p<0,001) e do indicativo de sintomas depressivos (p=0,014). Conclusão: a escolaridade, menor idade, maior renda e a ausência do declínio cognitivo e do indicativo de sintomas depressivos contribuíram para maior independência de comunicação.


Objectives: to describe the total mean of independence and communication domains of the elderly in the community, and to verify the sociodemographic and health variables associated with the highest mean of independence of communication among the elderly. Methods: A cross - sectional and analytical study developed among 808 elderly people in the community. The analyzis were: descriptive, bivariate and linearly multiple regression (p<0.05). Results: There was a minimum need for assistance in communication (6.43 ± 0.77); concerning the domains, it obtained a higher score of communication independence in basic needs (6.88 ± 0.51) and lower in reading, writing and numerical concepts (5.96 ± 1.63). The highest average of communication independence was associated with the age group 60├80 (p<0.001); having schooling (p<0.001); income greater than a minimum wage (p<0.001); the absence of cognitive decline (p<0.001) and indicative of depressive symptoms (p=0.014). Conclusion: Schooling, lower age, higher income and the absence of cognitive decline and indicative of depressive symptoms contributed to greater communication independence.


Objetivos: describir el promedio general de independencia y los ámbitos de comunicación de los ancianos de la comunidad y verificar las variables sociodemográficas y de salud asociadas a la mayor media de independencia de comunicación entre los ancianos. Métodos: Estudio transversal y analítico, desarrollado entre 808 ancianos de la comunidad. Se realizaron los análisis: descriptiva, bivariada y regresión linealmente dolara (p<0,05). Resultados: Se verificó la mínima ayuda de comunicación (6,43 ± 0,77); En cuanto a los dominios, una puntuación más alta de independencia de comunicación en necesidades básicas (6,88 ± 0,51) y menor en lectura, escritura y conceptos numéricos (5,96 ± 1,63). Un promedio mayor de independencia de comunicación se asoció a la franja etaria 60├80 (p<0,001); tener escolaridad (p<0,001); el ingreso mayor que un salario mínimo (p<0,001); la ausencia del cognitivo (p<0,001) y del indicativo de síntomas depresivos (p=0,014). Conclusión: La escolaridad, menor edad, menor renta y la ausencia del cognitivo y del indicador de síntomas depresivos contribuyeron a una mayor independencia de comunicación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Saúde do Idoso , Comunicação , Brasil , Atividades Cotidianas , Demografia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Escolaridade , Disfunção Cognitiva , Renda , Cuidados de Enfermagem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142755

RESUMO

Systemic inequity concerning the social determinants of health has been known to affect morbidity and mortality for decades. Significant attention has focused on the individual-level demographic and co-morbid factors associated with rates and mortality of COVID-19. However, less attention has been given to the county-level social determinants of health that are the main drivers of health inequities. To identify the degree to which social determinants of health predict COVID-19 cumulative case rates at the county-level in Georgia, we performed a sequential, cross-sectional ecologic analysis using a diverse set of socioeconomic and demographic variables. Lasso regression was used to identify variables from collinear groups. Twelve variables correlated to cumulative case rates (for cases reported by 1 August 2020) with an adjusted r squared of 0.4525. As time progressed in the pandemic, correlation of demographic and socioeconomic factors to cumulative case rates increased, as did number of variables selected. Findings indicate the social determinants of health and demographic factors continue to predict case rates of COVID-19 at the county-level as the pandemic evolves. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence that health disparities continue to widen, disproportionality affecting vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Governo Local , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pobreza , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18909, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144595

RESUMO

While the epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide, there is much concern over the mortality rate that the infection induces. Available data suggest that COVID-19 case fatality rate had varied temporally (as the epidemic has progressed) and spatially (among countries). Here, we attempted to identify key factors possibly explaining the variability in case fatality rate across countries. We used data on the temporal trajectory of case fatality rate provided by the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control, and country-specific data on different metrics describing the incidence of known comorbidity factors associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 mortality at the individual level. We also compiled data on demography, economy and political regimes for each country. We found that temporal trajectories of case fatality rate greatly vary among countries. We found several factors associated with temporal changes in case fatality rate both among variables describing comorbidity risk and demographic, economic and political variables. In particular, countries with the highest values of DALYs lost to cardiovascular, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases had the highest values of COVID-19 CFR. CFR was also positively associated with the death rate due to smoking in people over 70 years. Interestingly, CFR was negatively associated with share of death due to lower respiratory infections. Among the demographic, economic and political variables, CFR was positively associated with share of the population over 70, GDP per capita, and level of democracy, while it was negatively associated with number of hospital beds ×1000. Overall, these results emphasize the role of comorbidity and socio-economic factors as possible drivers of COVID-19 case fatality rate at the population level.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Canadá , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sistemas Políticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Res Health Sci ; 20(3): e00488, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new viral disease with a rapid outbreak. Pregnant women are at a higher risk of contracting viral infections including COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the clinical course and risk factors of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID 19 in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. METHODS: The convenience sampling was performed using 50 papers and electronic files of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 according to the WHO's temporary guidelines. They were hospitalized in health centers and clinics of Hamadan Province. The data-collecting tool employed was a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed via SPSS software version 19. RESULTS: The mean age of pregnant women with COVID 19 was estimated to be 29.20 ± 5.8 yr and their average gestational age estimated to be 28.8 ± 8.20 weeks. About 32% of them had an underlying disease, 32% a history of influenza, and 40% recently traveled to infected areas. The most common findings were CT scans and multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity chest radiology. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and shortness of breath. About 8% of the women required ICU hospitalization and the average length of hospital stay was 4.04 ± 2.38 and 29% had premature births. Moreover, 28% of infected mothers had a normal delivery and 20% had a cesarean section. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of Covid-19 disease is essential in pregnant women. Because there is a possibility of worsening complications in the mother and fetus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Demografia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 24-27, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187032

RESUMO

Background: Dengue fever is the most common viral communicable disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. Worldwide about 3.9 billion people are at the risk of this infection. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done in patients of dengue fever admitted in a service hospital in the coastal area of southern India from 01 Jan 2018 to 31 Dec 2018. Results: 751 patients of confirmed dengue patients were admitted with 555 (73.9%) males and 196 (26.1%) females. The mean age was 30.6 (SD± 10.48) years, mean day of admission after the onset of illness was 3.4 days (SD±2.76). The most common presentation was fever (99.33%) followed by myalgia (77.62%), headache (67.24%), vomiting (35.41%), nausea (26.76%) and fatigue (9.05%). Bleeding diathesis was evident in 97patients (12.91%). 306 (40.75%) patients presented with warning signs. The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.73 (SD± 2.75) days. Four patients died due to severe dengue (mortality rate-0.53%). Conclusion: Intense monitoring, early detection, and management of complications can prevent mortality in dengue.


Assuntos
Dengue , Animais , Criança , Demografia , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1725, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017119
7.
Adv Ther ; 37(12): 4981-4995, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present as a range of symptoms, from mild to critical; lower pulmonary involvement, including pneumonia, is often associated with severe and critical cases. Understanding the baseline characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 illness is essential for effectively targeting clinical care and allocating resources. This study aimed to describe baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement. METHODS: US patients with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement during an inpatient admission from December 1, 2019, to May 20, 2020, were identified using the IBM Explorys® electronic health records database. Baseline (up to 12 months prior to first COVID-19 hospitalization) demographics and clinical characteristics and preadmission (14 days to 1 day prior to admission) pulmonary diagnoses were assessed. Patients were stratified by sex, age, race, and geographic region. RESULTS: Overall, 3471 US patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement were included. The mean (SD) age was 63.5 (16.3) years; 51.2% of patients were female, 55.0% African American, 81.6% from the South, and 16.8% from the Midwest. The most common comorbidities included hypertension (27.7%), diabetes (17.3%), hyperlipidemia (16.3%), and obesity (9.7%). Cough (27.3%) and dyspnea (15.2%) were the most common preadmission pulmonary symptoms. African American patients were younger (mean [SD], 62.5 [15.4] vs. 67.8 [6.2]) with higher mean (SD) body mass index (33.66 [9.46] vs. 30.42 [7.86]) and prevalence of diabetes (19.8% vs. 16.7%) and lower prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (5.6% vs. 8.2%) and smoking/tobacco use (28.1% vs. 37.2%) than White patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among US patients primarily from the South and Midwest hospitalized with COVID-19 and pulmonary involvement, the most common comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Differences observed between African American and White patients should be considered in the context of the complex factors underlying racial disparities in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumopatias , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Demografia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 494, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the immediate impacts of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on the mental well-being of Bangladeshi adults. We recruited 1404 healthy adults following the Bangladesh government's lockdown announcement. A questionnaire comprising the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale was used to define mental health. RESULTS: The overall mean score for well-being was 42.4, indicating that 51.9% of adults suffered from poor mental health. And within that 48% of males and 57% of females were depressed. The mean scores for government workers, unemployed workers, and business employees were 45.1, 39.6, and 39.5, respectively. Confounding adjustments in multivariable linear regression models revealed that married women, unemployed and business communities, and individuals returning to villages were heavily depressed. Stay-at-home orders had significant repercussions on mental health and created a gender disparity in depression among adults. Suggestions include promoting mental health for women, unemployed, and business individuals. Married women need to be taken into special consideration as their mental well-being is worse. Older people (50 years of age and over) reported a high day-to-day variation in their mental health. These results should be factored in when discussing the mental health of adults and communities to cope with quarantine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Mental , Isolamento de Pacientes/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bangladesh , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
9.
WMJ ; 119(3): 198-201, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies describing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported; however, to our knowledge, no case series has been published from the Midwest. OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted with COVID-19 to a Wisconsin academic medical center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data obtained for COVID-19 patients admitted from March 14, 2020, through April 19, 2020. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-eight patients were admitted. Outcomes measured include time in the intensive care unit (53%), mechanical ventilation (18%), and death (19%). ICU patients had higher rates of diabetes, obesity, and higher inflammatory markers. The majority of patients admitted were African American (68%). CONCLUSION: This case series highlights demographic similarities and differences, as well as outcomes, among COVID-19 patients in a Wisconsin Academic Medical Center compared to those reported in other geographic regions.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052918

RESUMO

We generalize the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model for epidemics to take into account generic effects of heterogeneity in the degree of susceptibility to infection in the population. We introduce a single new parameter corresponding to a power-law exponent of the susceptibility distribution at small susceptibilities. We find that for this class of distributions the gamma distribution is the attractor of the dynamics. This allows us to identify generic effects of population heterogeneity in a model as simple as the original SIR model which is contained as a limiting case. Because of this simplicity, numerical solutions can be generated easily and key properties of the epidemic wave can still be obtained exactly. In particular, we present exact expressions for the herd immunity level, the final size of the epidemic, as well as for the shape of the wave and for observables that can be quantified during an epidemic. In strongly heterogeneous populations, the herd immunity level can be much lower than in models with homogeneous populations as commonly used for example to discuss effects of mitigation. Using our model to analyze data for the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Germany shows that the reported time course is consistent with several scenarios characterized by different levels of immunity. These scenarios differ in population heterogeneity and in the time course of the infection rate, for example due to mitigation efforts or seasonality. Our analysis reveals that quantifying the effects of mitigation requires knowledge on the degree of heterogeneity in the population. Our work shows that key effects of population heterogeneity can be captured without increasing the complexity of the model. We show that information about population heterogeneity will be key to understand how far an epidemic has progressed and what can be expected for its future course.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052932

RESUMO

As of August 2020, the United States is the global epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging data suggests that "essential" workers, who are disproportionately more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants, bear a disproportionate degree of risk. We used publicly available data to build a series of spatial autoregressive models assessing county level associations between COVID-19 mortality and (1) percentage of individuals engaged in farm work, (2) percentage of households without a fluent, adult English-speaker, (3) percentage of uninsured individuals under the age of 65, and (4) percentage of individuals living at or below the federal poverty line. We further adjusted these models for total population, population density, and number of days since the first reported case in a given county. We found that across all counties that had reported a case of COVID-19 as of July 12, 2020 (n = 3024), a higher percentage of farmworkers, a higher percentage of residents living in poverty, higher density, higher population, and a higher percentage of residents over the age of 65 were all independently and significantly associated with a higher number of deaths in a county. In urban counties (n = 115), a higher percentage of farmworkers, higher density, and larger population were all associated with a higher number of deaths, while lower rates of insurance coverage in a county was independently associated with fewer deaths. In non-urban counties (n = 2909), these same patterns held true, with higher percentages of residents living in poverty and senior residents also significantly associated with more deaths. Taken together, our findings suggest that farm workers may face unique risks of contracting and dying from COVID-19, and that these risks are independent of poverty, insurance, or linguistic accessibility of COVID-19 health campaigns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the severity and scope of the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is critical to determine predictive features of COVID-19 mortality and medical resource usage to effectively inform health, risk-based physical distancing, and work accommodation policies. Non-clinical sociodemographic features are important explanatory variables of COVID-19 outcomes, revealing existing disparities in large health care systems. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use nation-wide multicenter data of COVID-19 patients in Brazil to predict mortality and ventilator usage. The dataset contains hospitalized patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and had either recovered or were deceased between March 1 and June 30, 2020. A total of 113,214 patients with 50,387 deceased, were included. Both interpretable (sparse versions of Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines) and state-of-the-art non-interpretable (Gradient Boosted Decision Trees and Random Forest) classification methods are employed. Death from COVID-19 was strongly associated with demographics, socioeconomic factors, and comorbidities. Variables highly predictive of mortality included geographic location of the hospital (OR = 2.2 for Northeast region, OR = 2.1 for North region); renal (OR = 2.0) and liver (OR = 1.7) chronic disease; immunosuppression (OR = 1.7); obesity (OR = 1.7); neurological (OR = 1.6), cardiovascular (OR = 1.5), and hematologic (OR = 1.2) disease; diabetes (OR = 1.4); chronic pneumopathy (OR = 1.4); immunosuppression (OR = 1.3); respiratory symptoms, ranging from respiratory discomfort (OR = 1.4) and dyspnea (OR = 1.3) to oxygen saturation less than 95% (OR = 1.7); hospitalization in a public hospital (OR = 1.2); and self-reported patient illiteracy (OR = 1.1). Validation accuracies (AUC) for predicting mortality and ventilation need reach 79% and 70%, respectively, when using only pre-admission variables. Models that use post-admission disease progression information reach accuracies (AUC) of 86% and 87% for predicting mortality and ventilation use, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the predictive power of socioeconomic information in assessing COVID-19 mortality and medical resource allocation, and shed light on existing disparities in the Brazilian health care system during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Brasil , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to disruptive changes worldwide, with different implications across countries. The evolution of citizens' concerns and behaviours over time is a central piece to support public policies. OBJECTIVE: To unveil perceptions and behaviours of the Portuguese population regarding social and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, allowing for more informed public policies. METHODS: Online panel survey distributed in three waves between March 13th and May 6th 2020. Data collected from a non-representative sample of 7,448 respondents includes socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported measures on levels of concern and behaviours related to COVID-19. We performed descriptive analysis and probit regressions to understand relationships between the different variables. RESULTS: Most participants (85%) report being at least very concerned with the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and social isolation reached a high level of adherence during the state of emergency. Around 36% of the sample anticipated consumption decisions, stockpiling ahead of the state of emergency declaration. Medical appointments suffered severe consequences, being re-rescheduled or cancelled. We find important variation in concerns with the economic impact across activity sectors. CONCLUSION: We show that high level of concern and behaviour adaptation in our sample preceded the implementation of lockdown measures in Portugal around mid-March. One month later, a large share of individuals had suffered disruption in their routine health care and negative impacts in their financial status.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Portugal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 1) Compare the discourse performance between young and older adults from the Brazilian Federal District (DF); 2) Compare the mean discourse performance of participants from the DF with the normative discourse of a population from a different region of the country; 3) Verify whether the variables age, educational level and socioeconomic status and scores on the cognitive, behavioral and functional screening tests were associated with discourse performance. METHOD: A total of 60 healthy volunteers from the DF, 30 older adults and 30 young adults, were selected. Participants were divided into two subgroups according to educational level: low education and high education. The four narrative discourse subtests of the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery, Brazilian Portuguese version (MAC-BR) were applied to the study sample. RESULTS: Discourse scores of the older adults were statistically higher than those of the young adults. The discourse scores in the high education group were also better than those in the low education group, with statistically significant difference observed in only one of the MAC-BR subtests. Discourse performance was associated with the sociodemographic variable and the scores on the cognitive and functional screening tests. The discourse performance of the DF sample differed from the national normative discourse with statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: The discourse performance of older adults from the Brazilian Federal District differed from that of young adults from the same region, as well as from that of older adults from southern Brazil. Discourse performance was associated with several different variables.


Assuntos
Narração , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil , Demografia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(9. Vyp. 2): 74-79, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study risk factors (RF) of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in the socio-demographic groups of the population of Chuvashia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An anonymous survey included 2161 residents of Chuvashia (1007 men, 1154 women), aged from 18 to 70 years, average 36.5±13.8 years). Of all included people, 1547 (71.6%) lived in urban settlements, 614 (28.4%) in rural settlements. Exclusion criteria were those under the age of 18 and over 70. Body mass index (BMI) of more than 35 kg/m2, neck circumference of more than 43 cm for men or more than 37 cm for women, snoring, fatigue/drowsiness during the day, respiratory arrest in sleep and high blood pressure (BP) were considered as SOAS RF. The likelihood of OSAS was determined by the Lausanne NoSAS (Neck circumference, Obesity, Snoring, Age, Sex) test. RESULTS: RF OSAS were present in 63.4% of respondents. 2.4% of respondents had a BMI of more than 35 kg/m2, 162% had a large neck circumference. Snoring was detected in 24.4%, fatigue/drowsiness during the day in 42.2%, respiratory arrest in sleep in 8.1%, increased BP in 19.7%. In men, compared with women, the number of respondents with a high BMI, snoring, and respiratory failure in a dream was significantly larger; women with a large neck size and complaints of fatigue/drowsiness prevailed. The rural residents had more RF OSAS, including higher BMI, large neck circumference and snoring. The probability of OSAS according to the NoSAS score was 13.65%, including 21.35% of men and 6.93% of women, 11.38% of urban- and 19.38% of rural residents. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the OSAS prediction model included gender, age, BMI, the RF sum of four questions from the questionnaire, neck circumference and level of education with a probability of 99.99%. CONCLUSION: RF OSAS are widespread in the population of Chuvashia, which requires intensification of preventive measures to minimize them and the development of somnological service in the Republic.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Ronco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 128-133, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017947

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG)-based depression detection has become a hot topic in the development of biomedical engineering. However, the complexity and nonstationarity of EEG signals are two biggest obstacles to this application. In addition, the generalization of detection algorithms may be degraded owing to the influences brought by individual differences. In view of the correlation between EEG signals and individual demographics, such as gender, age, etc., and influences of these demographic factors on the incidence of depression, it would be better to incorporate demographic factors during EEG modeling and depression detection. In this work, we constructed an one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (1-D CNN) to obtain more effective features of EEG signals, then integrated gender and age factors into the 1-D CNN via an attention mechanism, which could prompt our 1-D CNN to explore complex correlations between EEG signals and demographic factors, and generate more effective high-level representations ultimately for the detection of depression. Experimental results on 170 (81 depressed patients and 89 normal controls) subjects showed that the proposed method is superior to the unitary 1-D CNN without gender and age factors and two other ways of incorporating demographics. This work also indicates that organic mixture of EEG signals and demographic factors is promising for the detection of depression.Clinical relevance-This work indicates that organically mixture of EEG signals and demographic factors is promising for the detection of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Redes Neurais de Computação , Atenção , Demografia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1950-1953, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018384

RESUMO

3D data is becoming increasingly popular and accessible for computer vision tasks. A popular format for 3D data is the mesh format, which can depict a 3D surface accurately and cost-effectively by connecting points in the (x, y, z) plane, known as vertices, into triangles that can be combined to approximate geometrical surfaces. However, mesh objects are not suitable for standard deep learning techniques due to their non-euclidean structure. We present an algorithm which predicts the sex, age, and body mass index of a subject based on a 3D scan of their face and neck. This algorithm relies on an automatic pre-processing technique, which renders and captures the 3D scan from eight different angles around the x-axis in the form of 2D images and depth maps. Subsequently, the generated data is used to train three convolutional neural networks, each with a ResNet18 architecture, to learn a mapping between the set of 16 images per subject (eight 2D images and eight depth maps from different angles) and their demographics. For age and body mass index, we achieved a mean absolute error of 7.77 years and 4.04 kg/m2 on the respective test sets, while Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.76 and 0.80 were obtained, respectively. The prediction of sex yielded an accuracy of 93%. The developed framework serves as a proof of concept for prediction of more clinically relevant variables based on 3D craniofacial scans stored in mesh objects.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Demografia , Cabeça , Humanos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22909, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126346

RESUMO

To analyze the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in primiparous parturient.Cross-sectional study conducted in a municipality of the Brazilian Western Amazon from July 2014 to December 2015. A convenience sample of 461 first-time pregnant women were interviewed. Data on their sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric, personal habits and nutritional status were collected. Anemia and iron depletion were measured by peripheral blood collection with hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation index. To test the association between the variables, the χ tests were applied and Poisson regression analysis with a 95% confidence interval was performed, and P < .05 values were considered significant. The Forward stepwise strategy was used to construct the adjusted model. These analyzes were performed using the STATA 14.0 program (College Station, TX, 2013).A higher risk of anemia was identified among adolescent; white; who had a partner; with unpaid occupation, with less than eight years of formal education. Residents in the countryside; smokers; who had more than six prenatal consultations and were overweight.Anemia was reported in 28.20% and iron depletion in 60.52% of parturient women. The variables studied did not have association with the anemia outcome, except alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Paridade , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105196, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126111

RESUMO

There is a pressing need to quantify the risks of renewable energy developments such as offshore wind farms for protected populations. However, assessments are often based on incomplete data, or fail to consider variation in risk between sexes and at different times of year. We tracked northern gannets foraging from the world's largest colony (Bass Rock, Scotland) across five consecutive breeding seasons. We examine how seasonal and sex differences in behaviour affect the collision risk from planned and operational wind farms within their foraging range and assess the likely consequences for long-term population viability. Both sexes made shorter trips during chick-rearing than prior to chick-hatching, spent a greater proportion of time within wind farm sites and had an eight times greater potential collision risk during chick-rearing. Females made longer trips than males at both these times of year, flew higher and spent more time within wind farm sites, leading to three times greater collision risk for females. After accounting for the potential additional mortality from collisions, and assuming that the death of a parent also led to the loss of its offspring, the breeding population was projected to increase by 3.57% (95% CI: 2.16-5.15%) per year, compared with 6.56% (95% CI: 4.59-8.73%) in the absence of turbines, suggesting a negligible effect on population viability. However, additional mortality could result in greater immigration from neighbouring colonies, potentially affecting their viability and highlighting a need for research within a metapopulation framework to assess the impacts of offshore wind developments on vulnerable species across multiple connected sites.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Animais , Demografia , Feminino , Masculino , Escócia , Estações do Ano
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239722, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan and other developing countries need to address disparities in maternal health care and factors associated with it. This justifies tracking the progress on two important indicators 'spousal violence' and 'maternal health care utilization' to improve maternal health and achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for these nations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the data from the latest two Demographic Health Surveys of Pakistan to identify trends in prevalence of various forms of spousal violence and maternal healthcare utilization and to determine the predictive role of spousal violence in poor maternal health. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of nationally representative data from the 2012-13 and 2017-18 PDHS. The data used in this analysis is from the domestic violence module and core women's questionnaire. Spousal violence and sociodemographic background were predictor variables. Terminated pregnancy, number of pregnancy losses, number of antenatal visits for last birth and institutional delivery for last birth were taken as indicators of maternal health. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to test for association between maternal health indicators and various forms of spousal violence after controlling for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Almost one quarter of women experienced physical and emotional violence as revealed by both surveys. Binary analysis revealed that all forms of spousal violence significantly associate with maternal health variables in both surveys. The comparison of results on logistic regression analysis showed that odd ratios were relatively higher for 2012-13 as compared to 2017-18 PDHS. Logistic regression analysis from 2017-18 data showed that experience of less severe physical violence (OR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08-1.47), severe physical violence (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.83), sexual violence (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.89), physical violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76) augment the risk of terminated pregnancy. Emotional violence decreases the likelihood for institutional delivery (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.93) and above than four antenatal visits (OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to prevent spousal violence should be at the core of maternal health programs because health sector provides a platform to challenge social norms and promote attitudes that disapprove spousal violence which are essential for promoting gender equality, women empowerment (SDG 3) and improve maternal health (SDG 5).


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA