Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 64.625
Filtrar
1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(7): 426-431, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decisions on medication treatment in children dying from cancer are often complex and may result in polypharmacy and increased medication burden. There is no information on medication burden in pediatric cancer patients at the end of life (EOL). OBJECTIVES: To characterize medication burden during the last hospitalization in children dying from cancer. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study based on medical records of 90 children who died from cancer in hospital between 01 January 2010 and 30 December 2018. Demographic and clinical information were collected for the last hospitalization. We compared medication burden (number of medication orders) at hospitalization and at time of death and examined whether changes in medication burden were associated with clinical and demographic parameters. RESULTS: Median medication burden was higher in leukemia/lymphoma patients (6 orders) compared to solid (4 orders) or CNS tumor patients (4 orders, P = 0.006). Overall, the median number of prescriptions per patient did not change until death (P = 0.42), while there was a significant reduction for some medication subgroups (chemotherapy [P = 0.035], steroids [P = 0.010]).Patients dying in the ICU (n=15) had a higher medication burden at death (6 orders) than patients dying on wards (3 orders, P = 0.001). There was a trend for a reduction in medication burden in patients with "Do not resuscitate" (DNR) orders (P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS: Polypharmacy is ubiquitous among pediatric oncology patients at EOL. Disease type and DNR status may affect medication burden and deprescribing during the last hospitalization.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Polimedicação , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Assistência Terminal , Criança , Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 97, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to the comparison of COVID-19 pandemic responses and related factors in BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries. We aimed at evaluating the association of daily new COVID-19 cases with socio-economic and demographic factors, health vulnerability, resources, and policy response in BRICS countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data on the COVID-19 pandemic and other indicators of BRICS countries from February 26, 2020 to April 30, 2021. We compared COVID-19 epidemic in BRICS countries and analyzed related factors by log-linear Generalized Additive Model (GAM) models. RESULTS: In BRICS countries, India had the highest totally of confirmed cases with 18.76 million, followed by Brazil (14.45 million), Russia (4.81 million), and South Africa (1.58 million), while China (0.10 million) had the lowest figure. South Africa had the lowest rate of administered vaccine doses (0.18 million) among BRICS countries as of April 30, 2021. In the GAM model, a 1 unit increase in population density and policy stringency index was associated with a 5.17% and 1.95% growth in daily new COVID-19 cases (P < 0.001), respectively. Exposure-response curves for the effects of policy stringency index on daily new cases showed that there was a rapid surge in number of daily new COVID-19 cases when the index ranged from 0 to 45. The number of infections climbed slowly when the index ranged from 46 to 80, and decreased when the index was above 80 (P < 0.001). In addition, daily new COVID-19 cases (all P < 0.001) were also correlated with life expectancy at birth (-1.61%), extreme poverty (8.95%), human development index (-0.05%), GDP per capita (-0.18%), diabetes prevalence (0.66%), proportion of population aged 60 and above (2.23%), hospital beds per thousand people (-0.08%), proportion of people with access to improved drinking water (-7.40%), prevalence of open defecation (0.69%), and annual tourist/visitor arrivals (0.003%), after controlling other confounders. Different lag structures showed similar results in the sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Strong policy response is crucial to control the pandemic, such as effective containment and case management. Our findings also highlighted the importance of reducing socio-economic inequalities and strengthening the resilience of health systems to better respond to public health emergencies globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Políticas , Pobreza , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1403, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wearing a protective face covering can reduce the spread of COVID-19, but Americans' compliance with wearing a mask is uneven. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between health determinants (Health Behaviors, Clinical Care, Social and Economic Conditions, and the Physical Environment) and mask wearing at the county level. METHODS: Data were collected from publicly available sources, including the County Health Rankings and the New York Times. The dependent variable was the percent of county residents who reported frequently or always wearing a mask when in public. County demographics and voting patterns served as controls. Two-levels random effects regression models were used to examine the study hypotheses. RESULTS: Results indicate that, after considering the effects of the controls, Health Behaviors were positively associated with mask wearing, the Physical Environment held a negative association, and Clinical Care and Social and Behavioral Factors were unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that patterns of healthy behaviors can help predict compliance with public health mandates that can help reduce the spread of COVID-19. From an instutitional theory perspective, the data suggest counties develop collective values and norms around health. Thus, public health officials can seek to alter governance structures and normative behaviors to improve healthy behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Humanos , Máscaras , New York , Política , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 669, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine how clusters or subgroups of insulin-treated people with diabetes, based upon healthcare resource utilization, select social demographic and clinical characteristics, and diabetes management parameters, are related to health outcomes including acute care visits and hospital admissions. METHODS: This was a non-experimental, retrospective cluster analysis. We utilized Aetna administrative claims data to identify insulin-using people with diabetes with service dates from 01 January 2015 to 30 June 2018. The study included adults over the age of 18 years who had a diagnosis of type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on insulin therapy and had Aetna medical and pharmacy coverage for at least 18 months (6 months prior and 12 months after their index date, defined as either their first insulin prescription fill date or their earliest date allowing for 6 months' prior coverage). We used K-means clustering methods to identify relevant subgroups of people with diabetes based on 13 primary outcome variables. RESULTS: A total of 100,650 insulin-using people with diabetes were identified in the Aetna administrative claims database and met study criteria, including 11,826 (11.7%) with T1DM and 88,824 (88.3%) with T2DM. Of these 79,053 (78.5%) people were existing insulin users. Seven distinct clusters were identified with different characteristics and potential risks of diabetes complications. Overall, clusters were significantly associated with differences in healthcare utilization (emergency room visits, inpatient admissions, and total inpatient days) after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of healthcare claims data using clustering methodologies identified meaningful subgroups of patients with diabetes using insulin. The subgroups differed in comorbidity burden, healthcare utilization, and demographic factors which could be used to identify higher risk patients and/or guide the management and treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulina , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Demografia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 680028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249844

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol consumption and distress have increased among Canadians since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We examined whether sociodemographic and COVID-19-related worries are associated with various combinations of alcohol consumption and comorbid psychological distress variables among a Canadian sample of adults. Data were derived from a sample of Canadian adults (N = 1,005, 49.6% female) who participated in an online survey in May 2020. Four multivariate ordinal logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of binge drinking, increased alcohol consumption during the pandemic, and psychological distress. Predictor variables used in the analyses included self-reported sociodemographic characteristics, financial worries, COVID-19 impact on work, and worrying about getting ill. Results: Women were found to have higher odds of increased drinking and anxiety. Also being divorced, separated, or widowed was associated with higher odds of binge drinking and anxiety, and binge drinking and depression. Furthermore, being 60 or older was associated with lower odds of binge drinking and depression and increased drinking and depression, as well as lower odds of increased drinking and depression and increased drinking and anxiety. High income groups were associated with higher odds of binge drinking, increased drinking, and mental distress. Compared to those less worried, being very worried about finances were associated with higher odds of binge drinking and anxiety, increased drinking and anxiety, and increased drinking and depression. Also, being very worried about getting ill with COVID was associated with higher odds of binge drinking and anxiety and increased drinking and anxiety. Conclusion: Our findings identify several demographic and COVID-related worries for increased odds of alcohol intake and co-morbid psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, including identifying as a woman, high income groups, being divorced, separated or widowed, and experiencing financial worries and COVID illness worries. These characteristics should be considered when developing prevention and treatment programs for adults with problematic alcohol use and comorbid anxiety and depression.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 698106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249851

RESUMO

Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is considered a major global public health threat affecting across the life course and socioeconomic aspects of life. Global acceptance to an effective vaccine is the most anticipated resolution. This study aims to evaluate intent to be vaccinated among public in Saudi Arabia during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based study was designed in Saudi Arabia. Study participants (N = 658) were recruited through snowball sampling. The SurveyMonkey platform was used to record the response. Cross-tabulation was performed by participants' intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 virus with sociodemographic characteristics and respondents' risk perception toward COVID-19, trust in the healthcare system, and their history of vaccine hesitancy behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the predictors of vaccination intention among the study participants. Results: Six hundred fifty-eight participants completed the survey (females = 47.4%). Of the 658 participants, 351 (53.3%) have shown intent to be vaccinated. Five hundred nineteen (78.8%) of the participants were reported to be at high risk of COVID-19, and 307 (46.6%) were reported to trust the healthcare system in the country. The multivariable analysis shows respondents with a high-risk perception (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.49-3.48); higher trust in the healthcare system (OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 2.32-4.61) was found to be the significant factor affecting the decision in acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: Participants reported high knowledge toward COVID-19 virus, and vaccine developments. About half (46.6%) of the study participants reported refusal/hesitancy toward the vaccine during the second wave of the pandemic in Saudi Arabia. The study highlighted that higher risk perception and higher trust in the healthcare system were found to be the main reasons for participants' intentions behind the vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 258, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nursing Professionalism was measured by Hall's Professionalism Scale, consisting of 50 items. The scale was developed to measure the attitudes and ideologies held by professionals in various professional occupations by measuring five attitudinal constructs of professionalism, namely 'sense of calling to the field', 'autonomy', 'using a professional organisation as a major referent', 'belief in self-regulation', and 'belief in public service'. This study focussed on determining the practically significant differences that exist between the means of the five constructs of Hall's Professionalism Scale and certain demographic variables among nurses in South Africa. The 11-item demographic profile included the following variables: gender (1), age (2), age when becoming a professional nurse (3), undergraduate qualifications (4), marital status (5), number of children (6), employment sector (7), years' of nursing experience (8), international experience (9), employment status (10) and satisfaction with nursing as a career (11). RESULTS: Only (7/11) demographic profile variables had an association with one or more of the five Hall's Professionalism Scale constructs The variables included the following items: age (2), age when becoming a professional nurse (3), number of children (6), years of nursing experience (8), international experience (9), employment status (10), and satisfaction with nursing as a career (11).


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Profissionalismo , Atitude , Criança , Demografia , Humanos , África do Sul
8.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E65, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telehealth plays a role in the continuum of care, especially for older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective was to examine factors associated with the accessibility of telehealth services during the COVID-19 pandemic among older adults. METHODS: We analyzed the nationally representative Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey COVID-19 Rapid Response Supplement Questionnaire of beneficiaries aged 65 years or older. Two weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between usual providers who offered telehealth 1) during the COVID-19 pandemic and 2) to replace a regularly scheduled appointment. We examined factors including sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, and digital access and literacy. RESULTS: Of the beneficiaries (n = 6,172, weighted n = 32.4 million), 81.2% reported that their usual providers offered telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among those offered telehealth services, 56.8% reported that their usual providers offered telehealth to replace a regularly scheduled appointment. Disparities in accessibility of telehealth services by sex, residing area (metropolitan vs nonmetropolitan), income level, and US Census region were observed. Beneficiaries who reported having internet access (vs no access) (OR, 1.75, P < .001) and who reported ever having participated in video, voice, or conference calls over the internet before (vs not) (OR, 2.18, P < .001) were more likely to report having access to telehealth. Non-Hispanic Black beneficiaries (versus White) (OR, 1.57, P = .007) and beneficiaries with comorbidities (vs none) (eg, 2 or 3 comorbidities, OR, 1.25, 95% P = .044) were more likely to have their usual provider offer telehealth to replace a regularly scheduled appointment. CONCLUSION: Although accessibility of telehealth has increased, inequities raise concern. Educational outreach and training, such as installing and launching an online web conferencing platform, should be considered for improving accessibility of telehealth to vulnerable populations beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Acesso à Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13913, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230510

RESUMO

The global surge in COVID-19 cases underscores the need for fast, scalable, and reliable testing. Current COVID-19 diagnostic tests are limited by turnaround time, limited availability, or occasional false findings. Here, we developed a machine learning-based framework for predicting individual COVID-19 positive diagnosis relying only on readily-available baseline data, including patient demographics, comorbidities, and common lab values. Leveraging a cohort of 31,739 adults within an academic health system, we trained and tested multiple types of machine learning models, achieving an area under the curve of 0.75. Feature importance analyses highlighted serum calcium levels, temperature, age, lymphocyte count, smoking, hemoglobin levels, aspartate aminotransferase levels, and oxygen saturation as key predictors. Additionally, we developed a single decision tree model that provided an operable method for stratifying sub-populations. Overall, this study provides a proof-of-concept that COVID-19 diagnosis prediction models can be developed using only baseline data. The resulting prediction can complement existing tests to enhance screening and pandemic containment workflows.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Demografia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Curva ROC
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 381, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238923

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is complex and multifactorial, posing a major challenge of tailoring the optimal medication for each patient. Current practice for MDD treatment mainly relies on trial and error, with an estimated 42-53% response rates for antidepressant use. Here, we sought to generate an accurate predictor of response to a panel of antidepressants and optimize treatment selection using a data-driven approach analyzing combinations of genetic, clinical, and demographic factors. We analyzed the response patterns of patients to three antidepressant medications in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, and employed state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) tools to generate a predictive algorithm. To validate our results, we assessed the algorithm's capacity to predict individualized antidepressant responses on a separate set of 530 patients in STAR*D, consisting of 271 patients in a validation set and 259 patients in the final test set. This assessment yielded an average balanced accuracy rate of 72.3% (SD 8.1) and 70.1% (SD 6.8) across the different medications in the validation and test set, respectively (p < 0.01 for all models). To further validate our design scheme, we obtained data from the Pharmacogenomic Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomic Study (PGRN-AMPS) of patients treated with citalopram, and applied the algorithm's citalopram model. This external validation yielded highly similar results for STAR*D and PGRN-AMPS test sets, with a balanced accuracy of 60.5% and 61.3%, respectively (both p's < 0.01). These findings support the feasibility of using ML algorithms applied to large datasets with genetic, clinical, and demographic features to improve accuracy in antidepressant prescription.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Demografia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202992

RESUMO

Pack size is an important pricing strategy for the tobacco industry, but there is limited data on how users differ based on preferred pack size for cigar products. Using data from Wave 4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, this study identified differences in adult cigar user characteristics based on pack size purchasing behavior among users of a top cigar brand, Black and Mild. Weighted chi-square tests were used to examine the associations between Black and Mild pack size and sociodemographic, cigar and other substance use characteristics. Overall, our study found that users of Black and Mild cigars differ by demographic, cigar and other tobacco use characteristics based on preferred pack size, with smaller packs appealing to younger, female, less-experienced and less-established smokers, and larger packs appealing to older, male, more experienced, and more dependent cigar smokers. Dual use of cigarettes and cigars was also higher among users of smaller packs. While this study is cross-sectional, findings suggest that minimum packaging laws for cigars may impact younger adults who are purchasing smaller pack sizes and likely experimenting with new cigar products and styles.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de Tabaco
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The preventive measures to be taken in the face of a new epidemic require knowledge of the number of infected and which groups are most vulnerable. To know the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in the city of Madrid and its 21 districts in the first 4 months of the epidemic and its relationship with some socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional ecological study (39,270 cases). The 39,270 cases diagnosed from the beginning of the pandemic until June 26, 2020, published by the Comunidad de Madrid in were studied. In the districts, the distribution of gross and fair incidence is related to the ones of the independent variables (Municipal Statistics and Estudio de Salud 2018, Madrid Salud). The Incidence and the r and r2 coefficients, obtained with the factors and the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model, are studied. RESULTS: The city of Madrid presents a cumulative incidence of COVID-19, which is double the national one (100), with a Standardized Cumulative Incidence Ratio (RIAE) of 204.59 per 100. The districts with the most RIAE were those in the southeast, all>240 per 100. In the districts, the per capita household rate, the per capita income, and the mortality rate from infectious diseases in men reached high and inverse correlations with RIAE (all r>-0.3). The RLM model with these 3 indicators predicts 30% of the RIAES. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between material wealth and the risk of COVID-19 infection is inverse. The knowledge in the districts of per capita income, household rate and mortality rate due to infectious diseases in men reduces the uncertainty about the accumulated incidence by 30%.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 796-802, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226470

RESUMO

This study was aimed to find out the socio-demographic profiles as well as difficulties of Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing faced by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 10th August to 7th September 2020. Data were collected by telephone interview using a pre-designed questionnaire after taking verbal consent from the participants. Out of 281 COVID-19 patients, 279 were diagnosed by RT-PCR; 10.3% were asymptomatic. Off them 67.6%were males, 24% were hospital staffs. Majority (66.2%) were from the non-city corporation area. History of recent contact with known COVID-19 patients was present in 56.9% cases. Fever (78.3%) and cough (58%) were the most common symptoms. One third of the patients faced difficulty to test RT-PCR for COVID-19. Sixteen percent patients complained of difficulty of getting serial for testing, the maximum waiting time was one week before giving samples. Thirty patients (10.8%) had to wait longer than usual time after reaching the center before giving sample. Hospital staffs were unable to co-operate in 2.5% of the patients while difficulty of managing transport to the hospital for suspected COVID-19 patient was an issue in 2.2% of the patients. Though testing was more difficult in city corporation areas (p=0.028), delay of getting test result was less (p<0.001). Maximum delay of getting test result was 10 days. Finding out the difficulties of COVID-19 testing will help to point out the issues behind these and will help to take necessary steps to tackle this matter. Testing rate can be increased to contain this highly contagious virus in this densely populated country.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210072

RESUMO

The use of dietary supplements is prevalent among many groups worldwide. However, few studies have examined their use among government employees. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association among sociodemographic characteristics, body weight status, and energy intake with dietary supplement use among government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 460 government employees from six ministries in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The data used in this study were collected through anthropometric measurements (height, weight, % body fat, waist and hip circumferences), a self-administered questionnaire (sociodemographic characteristics and dietary supplements use), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire (24-hour dietary recall; fruit and vegetable intake). The results indicated that the prevalence of dietary supplement use was 55.4%, with vitamin C (38.4%) being the most popular type of dietary supplement. Health issues (80.8%) were the most common reason for usage, internet (59.2%) was the main source of information, and pharmacies (71.8%) were the most indicated places to purchase dietary supplements. A multivariate analysis showed that participants who were female, married, had better monthly income, lived within a smaller household size, had a normal body mass index, classified as having unhealthily high body fat percentage, did not skip breakfast, and consumed at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day were significantly more likely to use dietary supplements. In conclusion, health-conscious groups were more prone to consume dietary supplements, and due to the high prevalence of dietary supplement use, dissemination of accurate scientific information regarding dietary supplements is highly recommended among government employees.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Work ; 69(3): 1007-1017, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Information Technology and Information Technology Enabled Services (IT and ITES) industry has been the backbone of the Indian economy. The sector is characterized by long working hours, strict deadlines, night shift, constant usage of computers, etc. Hence, the industry and nature of the job are influencing the psychological risk factors of the employees. PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore the psychological risk factors (job stressors) of technocrat millennials and critically analyze them from the socio-demographic perspective. METHODS: A single cross-sectional study with snowball sampling was collected from 300 technocrat millennials in Ahmedabad city (India). Job stressors are examined as psychological risk factors. MANOVA and independent-sample t-test has been put to use for establishing the relationship between psychological risk factors and socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: The study highlighted that the experience, current position, size of family, number of children, gender, and family type had an impact on psychological risk factors of technocrat millennials. CONCLUSIONS: The study contributes to the literature on the psychological risk factors and its association with demographic variables, and specifically in Ahmedabad city (India). Income did not have an impact on psychological risk factor; whereas education was the only demographic variable affecting the responsibility for persons. The experience influenced the role overload, role ambiguity, poor peer relations, and intrinsic impoverishment. The study explained each socio-demographic variable's impact on 12 psychological risk factors separately. The result of the paper will give insight to HR managers in the recruitment and selection of employees.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Estresse Psicológico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Humanos , Índia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 226, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Marijuana policies in the United States have become more permissive, motivating research on demographic and policy-based differences in behaviors and attitudes towards driving after marijuana use. The Traffic Safety Culture Index is an annual survey with national scope and multiple measures relevant to driving after marijuana use. We tabulated responses to questions about driving after marijuana use from the Traffic Safety Culture Index based on demographic factors, recreational and medical marijuana policies, and per-se marijuana laws. RESULTS: Male, younger, lower-income, and lower-education respondents self-reported driving after marijuana use more than their demographic counterparts, more often reported such behavior to be personally acceptable, and exhibited lower support per-se laws. Drivers in states that legalized medical marijuana self-reported driving after marijuana use slightly more than drivers in states where both medical and recreational were illegal. Support for per-se laws was higher among those in states that legalized recreational marijuana and in states with per-se laws. Demographic differences in our outcomes were consistent and cohesive. On the other hand, we found no predominant pattern suggesting that those in states with liberal marijuana policies were more tolerant of driving after marijuana use.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha , Atitude , Demografia , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Políticas , Gestão da Segurança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 241, 2021 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a defining human rights, development and public health issue of our time. Economic empowerment is one of the most promising interventions to reduce IPV in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the evidence around economic factors that are key to ensure a reduction in IPV are still mixed. Furthermore, there is a lack of clarity on what kinds of economic empowerment works for which population group. This paper seeks a more nuanced understanding, by investigating whether the associations between indicators of economic empowerment and physical and/or sexual IPV are similar between the general population of women and among urban versus rural and young, or middle aged women versus older women. METHODS: Using couples data from 25 DHS surveys across 15 countries (n = 70,993 women and men aged 15 and above at time of survey), we analyse how household wealth, men's and women's education and employment status, decision making on women's income, differences in education and employment of women and their partners and women's cash income are associated with physical and/or sexual IPV. We also provide sub-analyses for both urban and rural areas and for women aged, 15 to 24 25 to 34 and 35 to 49. RESULTS: Across all surveys, 20% of women reported physical and/or sexual IPV in the last 12 months. On the one hand, our findings reinforced certain well-established patterns between women's economic empowerment and IPV, with women's and men's higher levels of education and increased household wealth  associated with a decrease in IPV, and women's employment, especially if only the woman worked, and women earning more than her partner associated with an increase in IPV. Most patterns did not differ across urban and rural settings and age groups, but notable differences emerged regarding household wealth, women's and men's employment in the last 12 months and relative employment and education. CONCLUSIONS: Factors relating to women's economic empowerment are  vital in understanding and addressing IPV. Our analysis indicate however that future interventions need to consider the differing needs of urban and rural areas as well as be targeted to different age groups.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , África ao Sul do Saara , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(5): 474-482, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080676

RESUMO

Background: The rise in caesarean deliveries constitutes a major public health concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Evidence on the influence of caesarean delivery on breastfeeding practices in LMICs is currently lacking. Aims: To examine the association between mode of delivery and breastfeeding initiation and prelacteal feeding practices in a nationally representative sample of Egyptian women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 3773 women from the 2014 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. The outcomes of interest were the timing of breastfeeding initiation and prelacteal feeding practices. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were performed. Results: Overall, 25.1% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth and 63.5% practised prelacteal feeding within 3 days of birth. Mothers who had caesarean delivery had higher odds of delayed breastfeeding initiation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-2.74] and were more likely to engage in prelacteal feeding (AOR: 1.44; 95% CI, 1.19-1.74). Moreover, the relationship between caesarean delivery and delayed breastfeeding initiation varied by parity with stronger association among multiparous (AOR: 2.57; 95% CI, 2.04-3.24) compared with primiparous mothers (AOR: 1.52; 95% CI, 1.03-2.25). Conclusion: Caesarean delivery significantly increased the likelihood of delayed breastfeeding initiation and increased prelacteal feeding practices. Breastfeeding support and guidance should target women considering caesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...