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2.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1662685, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510887

RESUMO

Background: Ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030 is a significant challenge, as new HIV infections among adolescents and young people have not decreased fast enough to curb the epidemic. The combination of slow HIV response and increasing youth populations 15-24 could affect progress towards 2030 goals. Objective: This analysis aimed to describe global and regional trends from 2010-2050 in the HIV epidemic among adolescents and young people by accounting for demographic projections and recent trends in HIV interventions. Methods: 148 national HIV estimates files were used to project the HIV epidemic to 2050. Numbers of people living with HIV and new HIV infections were projected by sex and five-year age group. Along with demographic data, projections were based on three key assumptions: future trends in HIV incidence, antiretroviral treatment coverage, and coverage of antiretrovirals for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Results represent nine geographic regions. Results: While the number of adolescents and young people is projected to increase by 10% from 2010-2050, those living with HIV is projected to decrease by 61%. In Eastern and Southern Africa, which hosts the largest HIV epidemic, new HIV infections among adolescents and young people are projected to decline by 84% from 2010-2050. In West and Central Africa, which hosts the second-largest HIV epidemic, new infections are projected to decline by 35%. Conclusions: While adolescents and young people living with HIV are living longer and ageing into adulthood, if current trends continue, the number of new HIV infections is not projected to decline fast enough to end AIDS as a health threat in this age group. Regional variations suggest that while progress in Eastern and Southern Africa could reduce the size of the epidemic by 2050, other regions exhibit slower rates of decline among adolescents and young people.


Assuntos
Demografia/tendências , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , África Austral , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1142, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy poses risks to the life of a young mother and her baby, and can affect their health, educational and future employment outcomes. In many low- and middle-income countries like the Philippines, the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is among the most reliable and easily accessible sources of demographic and health data for researchers, development workers, and policymakers. Data on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) are often limited, but in the absence of other sources, there is room to make the most of the adolescent health data gathered by the DHS. The aim of this study is to explore what more can be learned about adolescent sexual initiation and pregnancy through the further analysis of demographic and health data, using DHS data from the Philippines as an example. METHODS: This study conducted trend analysis of DHS data over three survey rounds (2003, 2008 and 2013) to explore the context of adolescent sexual initiation and pregnancy over time. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were then used to study associations between adolescent pregnancy experience and selected demographic, socioeconomic and SRH variables using data from the 2013 DHS. RESULTS: This study found that between 2003 and 2013, proportions of Filipino young women experiencing adolescent sexual initiation and adolescent pregnancy have increased. Multivariate logistic regression affirmed the protective effect of education and belonging to higher wealth quintiles on the risk of adolescent pregnancy. Ever use of contraception was positively associated with adolescent pregnancy but is likely indicative of use after a prior pregnancy, and/or other factors relating to improper/inconsistent contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of reliable, easily accessible data on adolescent SRH, the DHS data can provide important insights about adolescent reproductive transitions such as sexual initiation and first pregnancy. However, there are limited variables in the datasets that could proxy for other important social determinants which prior studies have linked to adolescent SRH outcomes. There remains a need for timely and targeted collection of quantitative and qualitative data on adolescent SRH that can guide programming and policy intended to foster positive health outcomes during this crucial transition period to adulthood.


Assuntos
Demografia/tendências , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual/tendências , Adolescente , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Gravidez
4.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0212772, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973941

RESUMO

The changing population age structure has a significant influence on the economy, society, and numerous other aspects of a country. This paper has innovatively applied the method of compositional data forecasting for the prediction of population age changes of the young (aged 0-14), the middle-aged (aged 15-64), and the elderly (aged older than 65) in China, India, and Vietnam by 2030 based on data from 1960 to 2016. To select the best-suited forecasting model, an array of data transformation approaches and forecasting models have been extensively employed, and a large number of comparisons have been made between the aforementioned methods. The best-suited model for each country is identified considering the root mean squared error and mean absolute percent error values from the compositional data. As noted in this study, first and foremost, it is predicted that by the year 2030, China will witness the disappearance of population dividend and get mired in an aging problem far more severe than that of India or Vietnam. Second, Vietnam's trend of change in population age structure resembles that of China, but the country will sustain its good health as a whole. Finally, the working population of India demonstrates a strong rising trend, indicating that the age structure of the Indian population still remains relatively "young". Meanwhile, the continuous rise in the proportion of elderly population and the gradual leveling off growth of the young population have nevertheless become serious problems in the world. The present paper attempts to offer crucial insights into the Asian population size, labor market and urbanization, and, moreover, provides suggestions for a sustainable global demographic development.


Assuntos
Demografia/tendências , Previsões , Dinâmica Populacional , Crescimento Demográfico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Densidade Demográfica , Urbanização , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer ; 125(9): 1489-1498, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are rare but deadly cancers (gallbladder cancer [GBC], intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [ICC], extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [ECC], and ampulla of Vater cancer [AVC]). A recent US study reported increasing GBC incidence among people younger than 45 years and blacks; however, it did not examine trends for other biliary tract sites. METHODS: This study characterized demographic differences in BTC incidence rates and time trends by anatomic site. Population-based North American Association of Central Cancer Registries data were used to calculate age-adjusted incidence rates, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and estimated annual percent changes (eAPCs) for 1999-2013 by site and demographic group. For sites with significant differences in eAPC by age group, IRRs were compared by age group. RESULTS: GBC incidence rates declined among women (eAPC, -0.5%/y; P = .01) and all racial/ethnic groups except for non-Hispanic blacks, among whom rates increased (1.8%/y; P < .0001). Although GBC rates increased among 18- to 44-year-olds (eAPC, 1.8%/y; P = .01), they decreased among people 45 years old or older (-0.4%/y; P = .009). Sex (P < .0001) and racial/ethnic differences (P = .003 to .02) in GBC incidence were larger for younger people than older people. During this period, ICC (eAPC, 3.2%/y; P < .0001) and ECC rates (1.8%/y; P = .001) steadily increased across sex and racial/ethnic groups. Although AVC incidence rates increased among younger adults (eAPC, 1.8%/y; P = .03) but not older adults (-0.20%/y; P = .30), sex and racial/ethnic IRRs did not differ by age. CONCLUSIONS: Differential patterns of BTC rates and temporal trends have been identified by anatomic site and demographic groups. These findings highlight the need for large pooling projects to evaluate BTC risk factors by anatomic site.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ampola Hepatopancreática/patologia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia/tendências , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ergonomics ; 62(2): 330-341, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604652

RESUMO

The objective of this work is to demonstrate a method for examining the competing effects of secular trends in body size, seat size and configuration, and the increased load factor of aeroplanes. The method uses statistical modelling and virtual fit testing to provide a flexible environment for exploring the impact of various parameters on passenger accommodation. A case study demonstrates the method by exploring the effect of seat width on the accommodation of US civilians (based on seated hip breadth). The case study demonstrates that recent trends of decreasing seat widths and increasing load factors lead to higher disaccommodation. Based on anthropometry and virtual fit, women are also shown to be disproportionately disaccommodated compared to men. Practitioner summary: Airlines are reducing seat width at the same time that individuals worldwide are getting larger. Flights are increasingly crowded, with load factor at a record high. This paper explores the effects of seat width on passenger accommodation under several scenarios involving load factor, demographics, and passenger seating allocation strategies.


Assuntos
Aeronaves/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia/tendências , Desenho de Equipamento/tendências , Ergonomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Ergonomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Acta Trop ; 190: 149-156, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458122

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) is currently the major threat among arbovirus vectors in the Americas. We examined its past, present, and future distribution patterns in the South American fringe in association with environmental and demographic variables at two spatial scales. We updated the database of the occurrence of Ae. aegypti per locality and modelled by GLMM the past occurrence (until 2000) and its expansion (2001-2017) as a function of air temperature, precipitation, altitude, and population. We also conducted a field survey in 7 pairs of urban/rural cemeteries along the entire temperature range within the expansion region. At both scales, mean annual air temperature and human population were significantly associated with the distribution of Ae. aegypti. Projection of the expansion models for 2030 under two climatic change scenarios showed a vast infestation, mainly driven by the shift of the 16 °C isotherm. We postulate a quantitative compromise between air temperature and human population associated with vector occurrence, along with potential thresholds for their mutual favourability.


Assuntos
Aedes , Distribuição Animal , Mudança Climática , Demografia/tendências , Temperatura Ambiente , Altitude , Animais , Previsões , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Chuva , América do Sul
8.
Public Health ; 168: 157-163, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to investigate trekkers' changing demographics, travel patterns and experience of illness in the Annapurna region. STUDY DESIGN: A mixed method study comprising a cross-sectional survey was carried out with trekkers who had completed trekking in the Annapurna region. METHODS: Interviews were carried out with trekkers using a standardised questionnaire from September to December (main trekking season) 2014 and 2016. The interview format included trekkers' demographic characteristics, travel patterns, preparation and logistics and experiences of illness and treatment. RESULTS: The demographic composition of trekkers had changed. Chinese and Nepalese trekkers were the most dominant groups along with other international trekkers from 16 different countries. In terms of the trekking pattern, the Chinese and the Nepalese trekkers spent a median of 7 days each in the trek and trekked to a median altitude of 3500 m, while other international trekkers spent a median of 10 days and trekked to a median altitude of 4000 m. In general, trekkers' food habits and travel patterns were good. They undertook some health preparation by using the Internet, consulting friends and travel guidebooks and consulting a doctor, pharmacist and other healthcare providers and brought medicines accordingly. However, 25% of trekkers, most commonly Chinese, Korean and Nepalese, came without any health preparation and with no medicines. Thirty percent of the trekkers became sick during the trek with common illnesses such as diarrhoea, vomiting, the common cold, headache, fever and altitude-related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Trekkers' demographic composition has changed from that found in previous studies, and this was reflected in their trekking pattern. Trekkers' health preparations for high-altitude trekking were still inadequate, especially among the newer groups such as the Nepalese, Chinese and Korean trekkers. Issues such as trekkers' health preparation and practice, eating patterns, the length of trek and altitude and health and safety provision need further improvement, especially in the context of these changing trekker demographics.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude/prevenção & controle , Demografia/tendências , Montanhismo , Viagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Public Health Rep ; 134(1): 72-80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic minority communities in the United States are overrepresented among new HIV diagnoses, yet their inclusion in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials is inadequate. An analysis of enrollment demographic characteristics from US preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials from 1988 through 2002 showed that enrollment of racial/ethnic minority groups increased. We analyzed enrollment in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials from 2002 through 2016 and compared our data with data from the previous study, described demographic characteristics of trial participants, and assessed how well this distribution reflected the racial/ethnic distribution of new HIV diagnoses in the United States. METHODS: We examined data on demographic characteristics from 43 Phase 1 and Phase 2A preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials conducted in the United States and compared the results with those of the previous study. We also compared racial/ethnic distributions from 2011 through 2015 with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data on the number of new HIV diagnoses during the same period. RESULTS: Of 3469 participants, 1134 (32.7%) identified as a racial/ethnic minority, a 94% increase from the previous period (634/3731; 17.0%). Percentage annual enrollment of all racial/ethnic minority participants fluctuated from 17% to 53% from mid-2002 to 2016. Percentages of new HIV diagnoses among the general population were 1.9 to 2.9 times the percentage enrollment of black participants and 1.3 to 6.6 times the percentage enrollment of Hispanic/Latino participants in clinical trials for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: Although enrollment of racial/ethnic minority groups into HIV vaccine clinical trials has increased, it is not proportional to the number of new HIV diagnoses among these groups. To enhance recruitment of racial/ethnic minority groups, the HIV Vaccine Trials Network has prioritized community partnerships and invested resources into staff training.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia/tendências , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Theor Biol Med Model ; 15(1): 19, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japan has a rapidly decreasing population, with ultra-low fertility and extremely fast aging. The rapid dynamics constitute a warning that change in the industrial structure may be unable to meet the changing pace of age-dependent demand. METHODS: The present study estimated the supply-demand imbalance by industrial sector, and we investigated the effectiveness of possible countermeasures. To quantify the demographic burden of different industry experts, we employed the dependency ratio to calculate the supply and demand of each industrial sector and occupation. RESULTS: We identified an expected excess of demand in the health-care sector; the growth in that deficiency is likely to continue until 2045, when the elderly population is likely to reach a peak. By contrast, oversupply is expected in the education and construction sectors. An overall shortage of full-time workers is likely to continue until 2050, when we predict that Japan will lack 3.1-9.3 million full-time workers to satisfy the baseline demand level. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that the imbalance is evident over different sectors, interministerial regulation of occupational choice may need to be imposed, e.g., by drastically changing student sizes in different area of higher education. Japan may have to decide to downgrade its social services and potentially consider increasing immigrant workers.


Assuntos
Emprego/tendências , Desenvolvimento Industrial/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demografia/tendências , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia
11.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 79(5): 770-780, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether an adolescent's standing within a school-bounded social network moderated the association between depressive symptoms and substance use across adolescence as a function of developmental and demographic factors (gender, parental education, and race/ethnicity). METHOD: The sample of 6,776 adolescents participated in up to seven waves of data collection spanning 6th to 12th grade. RESULTS: Results of latent growth models showed that lower integration into the social network exacerbates risk for depression-related substance use in youth, particularly around the high school transition, but social status acted as both a risk factor and a protective factor at different points in development for different youth. Findings also varied as a function of youth gender and parental education status. CONCLUSIONS: Together these findings suggest that lower integration into the social network exacerbates risk for depression-related substance use in youth, particularly around the high school transition in general as well as just before the high school transition in those with lower parental education or just after the high school transition in males. Thus, the risky impact of social isolation appears more consistent across this period. Social status, however, showed a more varied pattern and further study is needed to understand the sometimes risky and sometimes protective effects of social status on depression-related substance use.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Rede Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Demografia/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Meio Social
12.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0208124, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481213

RESUMO

Salmonella infections remain an important public health issue in Canada and worldwide. Although the majority of Salmonella cases are self-limiting, some will lead to severe symptoms and occasionally severe invasive infections, especially in vulnerable populations such as seniors. This study was performed to assess temporal trends of Salmonella cases in seniors over 15 years (2014-2028) and assess possible impact of demographic shift on national incidence; taking into account of trends in other age groups. The numbers of reported Salmonella cases in seniors (60 years and over) in eight provinces and territories for a period of fifteen years were analysed (1998-2013) using a time-adjusted Poisson regression model. With the demographic changes predicted in the age-structure of the population and in the absence of any targeted interventions, our analysis showed the incidence of Salmonella cases in seniors could increase by 16% by 2028 and the multi-provincial incidence could increase by 5.3%. As a result, the age distribution amongst the Salmonella cases is expected to change with a higher proportion of cases in seniors and a smaller proportion in children (0-4 years old). Over the next decades, cases of infection, hospitalizations and deaths associated with Salmonella in seniors could represent a challenge to public health due to an aging population in Canada. As life expectancy increases in Canada, identification of unique risk factors and targeted prevention in seniors should be pursued to reduce the impact of the demographic shift on disease incidence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Cancer Surviv ; 12(5): 712-720, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097854

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study provides a detailed overview of comorbid conditions and health-related quality of life of long-term cancer survivors and analyses the impact of demographic, disease- and treatment-related characteristics. METHODS: We present data obtained from 1000 survivors across mixed tumour entities 5 and 10 years after cancer diagnosis in a cross-sectional study. We analyse the prevalence of physical symptoms and health conditions via self-report and health-related quality of life using the EORTC QLQ-C30 in comparison to gender- and age-matched reference values of the general population. RESULTS: Cancer survivors reported on average 5 comorbidities; 23% had 7 or more comorbid conditions. Cancer survivors reported higher physical symptom burden than the population-especially fatigue, insomnia and pain. Type and prevalence of long-term and late effects differ with disease-related factors (e.g. cancer type, treatment) and characteristics of the patient. Cancer survivors also reported lower quality of life than the population, especially in everyday activities, social life, psychological well-being and financial difficulties. There was a positive association between high quality of life and a low level of morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: The specific knowledge about physical long-term consequences for the individual types of cancer could raise awareness in health care professionals for high-risk patients and help to develop adequate prevention and survivorship-programs. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Limitations in the mental health area underlines the importance of psycho-oncological survivorship-care-plans, which go beyond the time of rehabilitation. Special attention should be given to the financial situation of patients in long-term follow-up care.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Demografia/tendências , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sobrevivência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Occup Ther ; 72(4): 7204170010p1-7204170010p5, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953824

RESUMO

The growing number of older adults is changing the demographic landscape. Occupational therapy can better serve the older adult population by helping them maintain their functional ability, which is the ability to engage in occupations. This special issue includes both studies of interventions to evaluate and support functional ability in community-dwelling older adults and systematic reviews of such studies. This editorial highlights the six systematic reviews, which were completed in collaboration with the American Occupational Therapy Association's Evidence-Based Practice Project. These reviews compile evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice to promote occupational performance in community-dwelling older adults. The distinct value of occupational therapy in supporting the functional ability of community-dwelling older adults with stable or declining health is discussed using the World Health Organization's framework for healthy aging.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Demografia/tendências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Pesquisa
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 146(10): 1308-1311, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843838

RESUMO

We aimed to quantify the proportion of people receiving care for HIV-infection that are 50 years or older (older HIV patients) in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2000 and 2015 and to estimate the contribution to the growth of this population of people enrolled before (<50yo) and after 50 years old (yo) (⩾50yo). We used a series of repeated, cross-sectional measurements over time in the Caribbean, Central and South American network (CCASAnet) cohort. We estimated the percentage of patients retained in care each year that were older HIV patients. For every calendar year, we divided patients into two groups: those who enrolled before age 50 and after age 50. We used logistic regression models to estimate the change in the proportion of older HIV patients between 2000 and 2015. The percentage of CCASAnet HIV patients over 50 years had a threefold increase (8% to 24%) between 2000 and 2015. Most of the growth of this population can be explained by the increasing proportion of people that enrolled before 50 years and aged in care. These changes will impact needs of care for people living with HIV, due to multiple comorbidities and high risk of disability associated with aging.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Região do Caribe , Demografia/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(5): 973-980, May 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955424

RESUMO

Devido à ausência de um banco de dados demográficos da população canina que habita a Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul (RS) e à necessidade em se estabelecer uma "população controle" para a melhor interpretação da prevalência das doenças diagnosticadas pelo Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV-UFSM) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), este estudo objetivou realizar uma análise das características relacionadas à raça, ao gênero e à idade dos cães necropsiados neste serviço de diagnóstico ao longo de 50 anos (1964-2013). Para isto, os laudos de necropsias de cães, realizadas entre 1964 e 2013, foram revisados, e deles foram retiradas informações referentes ao gênero, à idade e às raças de todos os cães oriundos dos municípios que compõem a Região Central do RS. Ao todo, 7.780 cães foram necropsiados; desses, 469 (6%) na primeira década (1964-1973), 1.133 (14,6%) na segunda década (1974-1983), 1.334 (17,1%) na terceira década (1984-1993), 1.705 (22%) na quarta década (1994-2003) e 3.139 (40,3%) na quinta década (2004-2013). Do total de cães com gênero informado nos laudos, 52,6% eram machos e 47,4% eram fêmeas. A mediana da idade de morte foi de três anos. Dos cães cuja raça foi informada nos laudos, 59,8% eram de raça definida (RD) e 40,2% não tinham raça definida (SRD). As raças de porte grande ou gigante mais frequentes foram: Pastor Alemão (17,2%), Boxer (6,9%), Rottweiler (5,3%), Fila Brasileiro (4,6%), Pointer Inglês (3,9%), Collie Pelo Longo (3,7%) Dobermann (3,7%) e Labrador Retriever (2,1%). As raças de porte pequeno ou médio mais frequentes foram: Poodle (8,9%), Dachshund (6,3%), Pinscher Miniatura (5,6%), Cocker Spaniel Inglês (4,5%), Pequinês (3,4%), Yorkshire Terrier (3,3%) e Terrier Brasileiro (2,8%). Houve um aumento na proporção de fêmeas e um crescimento na mediana referente à idade de morte ao longo das cinco décadas avaliadas. Apesar de não ter havido um aumento relevante na proporção de cães de RD em comparação com os SRD, observaram-se algumas mudanças na ocorrência de diferentes raças ao longo do tempo, incluindo principalmente uma dramática diminuição na percentagem de Pequinês, Terrier Brasileiro, Pointer Inglês e Pastor Alemão, e um aumento marcado na percentagem de Poodle, Dachshund, Rottweiler e Labrador Retriever. Os resultados aqui apresentados servirão como um subsídio comparativo para futuros estudos retrospectivos sobre prevalência de doenças em cães da Região Central do RS, auxiliando para uma mais correta compreensão e interpretação dos resultados encontrados nesses levantamentos de dados.(AU)


Based on the lack of demographic database on the canine population living in the midland region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and on the need for a "control population" in the accomplishment of several prevalence-based studies of different diseases diagnosed at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária (LPV) of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), the objective of this study was to describe the breed, gender and age characteristics of the population of dogs necropsied in this diagnostic service over 50 years (1964-2013). The protocols of necropsies performed on dogs and recorded in the LPV-UFSM between 1964 and 2013 were reviewed, and information related to gender, age and breed from dogs from all the districts within the Central Region of RS were separated. A total of 7,780 dogs were necropsied, among which 469 (6%) were registered in the first decade (1964-1973), 1,133 (14.6%) in the second decade (1974-1983), 1,334 (17.1%) in the third decade (1984-1993), 1,705 (22%) in the fourth decade (1994-2003) and 3,139 (40.3%) in the fifth decade (2004-2013). Of dogs whose gender was reported in the protocols, 52.6% were males and 47.4% were females. The median age of death was 3 years. Of dogs whose breed was reported in the protocols, 59.8% were purebred and 40.2% were mixed breed. The most common large and giant breed dogs were German Shepherd Dog (17.2%), Boxer (6.9%), Rottweiler (5.3%), Fila Brasileiro (4.6%), English Pointer (3.9%), Collie Rough (3.7%), Dobermann (3.7%), and Labrador Retriever (2.1%). The most common small and medium breed dogs were Poodle (8.9%), Dachshund (6.3%), Miniature Pinscher (5.6%), English Cocker Spaniel (4.5%), Pekingese (3.4%), Yorkshire Terrier (3.3%), and Brazilian Terrier (2.8%). The percentage of females and the median age of death showed an increase during the five decades of this study. Although there has been a significant increase in the proportion of pure breed dogs compared to mongrels, we observed some changes in the occurrence of different breeds over time, including a significant decrease in the frequency of the Pekingese, Brazilian Terrier, English Pointer, and German Shepherd Dog, and significant increase in the frequency of the Poodle, Dachshund, and Labrador Retriever. The results presented here will serve as an allowance for future comparative studies of disease prevalence in dogs of Central Region of RS, helping to a more correct understanding and interpretation of results from these data surveys.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Demografia/tendências , Autopsia/veterinária , Cães/classificação
18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(6): 775-778, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590469

RESUMO

Objective: Pall Mall gained significant brand share in the cigarette market between 2002 and 2013. We sought to determine whether demographic shifts occurred among the participants reporting Pall Mall as their usual brand during this time span. Method: We examined National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data from 2002-2014. Demographic characteristics included age, education, ethnicity, income, and cigarette use (cigarettes per day, daily/non-daily smoking, and nicotine dependence). We also examined RJ Reynolds investor reports and shareholder documents to determine the impact of tobacco marketing on the growth of Pall Mall. Results: Over 2002-2014, Pall Mall has gained among smokers 26 to 34 years of age. More Pall Mall smokers in 2014 report higher incomes (over $75000), and also report lower scores on measures of cigarette dependence, compared to 2002. Pall Mall smokers over time seem to share characteristics of premium cigarette brands smokers. Conclusion: The profile of the typical Pall Mall smoker has changed as the brand has gained market share. An association exists between brand positioning and economic forces, which has contributed to an increase in the market share for Pall Mall. Implications: It is well known that cigarette marketing drives the sale of tobacco products. The growth in the market share of Pall Mall serves as an excellent example to demonstrate how economic uncertainty paired with brand positioning and advertising worked together to serve as a catalyst for the rapid growth observed for this brand. This paper also looked at various demographic changes that occurred among Pall Mall smokers over a 12 year period and compared them to smokers of all other cigarette brands. The results of this analysis demonstrate the importance of monitoring trends over time among cigarette smokers.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Comércio/tendências , Demografia/tendências , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Indústria do Tabaco/tendências , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/economia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comércio/economia , Demografia/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Masculino , Marketing/economia , Marketing/métodos , Marketing/tendências , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
19.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(suppl 1): 591-598, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate socioeconomic and demographic differences regarding population aging in municipalities of the state of Pará, Brazil. METHOD: Ecological study with secondary demographic, socioeconomic and health data from the 144 municipalities of the state of Pará, Brazil. Data were treated with segmentation analysis, the Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression models, with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Segmentation analysis provided a single variable to describe aging in the municipalities of Pará and originated two clusters, the high and low aging rate ones, with 104 (72.22%) and 40 (27.78%) municipalities in each, respectively. The fitted model revealed an association between aging and per capita income (p = 0.021), vulnerability to poverty (p = 0.003), rich to poor ratio (p = 0.012) and density of people (p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: There is heterogeneity in the population aging among the municipalities of Pará, mainly regarding socioeconomic conditions and number of people living in the municipalities.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Demografia/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
20.
Z Orthop Unfall ; 156(2): 175-183, 2018 04.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marked volume growth of inpatient treatments for spinal disease has been observed since diagnosis related groups (DRG) were introduced as payment for inpatient services in Germany. This study aims to analyse this increase by population and stratified by types of treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using German nationwide hospital discharge data (DRG statistics), inpatient treatments for spinal disease with or without surgery were identified. Trends in case numbers were analysed from 2005 to 2014 with consideration of demographic changes, in order to explore which age groups and which types of treatment are affected by volume growth. RESULTS: In 2014 (2005), 289 000 (177 000) inpatient treatments with surgery and 463 000 (287 000) treatments without surgery were identified. After adjusting for demographic factors, treatments with and without surgery exhibited a relative volume growth of + 50%. This increase affected higher age groups and women, in particular. Depending on the type of treatment, very different degrees of volume growth were observed. For example, disc surgeries adjusted for demographic change increased by about + 5%, whereas spinal fusion and vertebral replacement surgeries, kypho-/vertebroplasties and decompression of the spine more than doubled. Within the non-surgically treated cases, local pain therapies of the spine increased after adjustment for demographic changes by about + 142%. The conservatively treated cases showed a demographically adjusted increase of + 22%. CONCLUSION: Apart from demographic changes, this analysis cannot resolve the underlying causes of volume growth in treatments for spinal disease. However, the stratified analysis of various subgroups may help to classify these developments in a more differentiated manner. The results may support a more targeted debate about potential over- or misallocation of inpatient services in this area.


Assuntos
Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia/tendências , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha , Preços Hospitalares/tendências , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
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