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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2147, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495534

RESUMO

We analyze data from Twitter to uncover early-warning signals of COVID-19 outbreaks in Europe in the winter season 2019-2020, before the first public announcements of local sources of infection were made. We show evidence that unexpected levels of concerns about cases of pneumonia were raised across a number of European countries. Whistleblowing came primarily from the geographical regions that eventually turned out to be the key breeding grounds for infections. These findings point to the urgency of setting up an integrated digital surveillance system in which social media can help geo-localize chains of contagion that would otherwise proliferate almost completely undetected.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , /prevenção & controle , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Denúncia de Irregularidades
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813685

RESUMO

Germinal studies have described the prevalence of sex-based harassment in high schools and its associations with adverse outcomes in adolescents. Studies have focused on students, with little attention given to the actions of high schools themselves. Though journalists responded to the #MeToo movement by reporting on schools' betrayal of students who report misconduct, this topic remains understudied by researchers. Gender harassment is characterized by sexist remarks, sexually crude or offensive behavior, gender policing, work-family policing, and infantilization. Institutional betrayal is characterized by the failure of an institution, such as a school, to protect individuals dependent on the institution. We investigated high school gender harassment and institutional betrayal reported retrospectively by 535 current undergraduates. Our primary aim was to investigate whether institutional betrayal moderates the relationship between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. In our pre-registered hypotheses (https://osf.io/3ds8k), we predicted that (1) high school gender harassment would be associated with more current trauma symptoms and (2) institutional betrayal would moderate this relationship such that high levels of institutional betrayal would be associated with a stronger association between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. Consistent with our first hypothesis, high school gender harassment significantly predicted college trauma-related symptoms. An equation that included participant gender, race, age, high school gender harassment, institutional betrayal, and the interaction of gender harassment and institutional betrayal also significantly predicted trauma-related symptoms. Contrary to our second hypothesis, the interaction term was non-significant. However, institutional betrayal predicted unique variance in current trauma symptoms above and beyond the other variables. These findings indicate that both high school gender harassment and high school institutional betrayal are independently associated with trauma symptoms, suggesting that intervention should target both phenomena.


Assuntos
Ética Institucional , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/ética , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Denúncia de Irregularidades/psicologia
3.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S159-S161, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478553

RESUMO

In this commentary, researchers, health care consumers, and medical providers reflect on institutional betrayal during the COVID-19 pandemic in American and Canadian health care systems. Examples of institutional betrayal experienced by patients and their family members, as well as medical providers, are described. Although such examples may be more evident to the general public during the current pandemic, they do not represent new problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Adulto , Moradias Assistidas/normas , Canadá , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Família , Humanos , Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Confiança , Estados Unidos
5.
6.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 49(6): 154-155, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461592
7.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 49(6): 153-154, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461593
8.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 49(6): 155, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461594
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155232

RESUMO

What factors predict the underreporting of sexual harassment in academe? We used logistic regression and sentiment analysis to examine 2,343 reports of sexual harassment involving members of university communities. Results indicate students were 1.6 times likely to not report their experiences when compared to faculty. Respondents in the life and physical sciences were 1.7 times more likely to not report their experiences when compared to respondents in other disciplines. Men represented 90% of the reported perpetrators of sexual harassment. Analysis of respondents' written accounts show variation of overall sentiment based on discipline, student type, and the type of institution attended, particularly with regard to mental health. Our results suggest that institutional and departmental barriers driven by power asymmetries play a large role in the underreporting sexual harassment among students-especially those in STEM disciplines.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Notificação de Abuso , Assédio Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Denúncia de Irregularidades
13.
Metas enferm ; 23(1): 25-32, feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189186

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: examinar las barreras comunicativas que tienen los profesionales sanitarios cuando se enfrentan a un efecto adverso. MÉTODO: estudio cualitativo de orientación fenomenológica, desarrollado en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Tortosa Virgen de la Cinta (Tarragona), entre octubre y diciembre de 2018. Muestreo por conveniencia. Se llevaron a cabo dos grupos focales formados por seis-siete profesionales sanitarios que se agrupan en función del tiempo de experiencia profesional (mayor o menor a tres años). Los candidatos a participar se diferencian por edad, sexo y categoría profesional. Se usa el programa Atlas.Ti para el análisis. Se identifican tres categorías analíticas y 14 subcategorías. RESULTADOS: participaron 13 profesionales en dos grupos focales. Categorías que emergen del discurso: definición de efecto adverso, información y mejoras. Se normaliza la frecuencia de los errores. Hablan de errores leves y graves, diferenciando su actuación y los sentimientos. Refieren que parte de su aprendizaje es debido al ensayo-error de la práctica. Expresan miedo a informar en situaciones de gravedad. Hay una infrautilización del sistema de registro. Coinciden en dar la información en equipo, previo consenso, y expresan desprotección institucional. Proponen la implantación de los debriefings, identificación positiva, comunicación entre servicios, informatización y un cambio de turno estructurado. CONCLUSIÓN: el miedo a las respuestas, la pérdida de reputación y la falta de apoyo institucional aparecen como las principales barreras a la hora de admitir y comunicar los incidentes. Hay un amplio consenso sobre la falta de responsabilidad en la comunicación y disculpa de los eventos adversos y sobre la necesidad de aportar soporte y formación a los profesionales


OBJECTIVE: to review the communication barriers in healthcare professionals when faced with an adverse event. METHOD: a qualitative phenomenological study conducted at the Emergency Unit from the Hospital de Tortosa Virgen de la Cinta (Tarragona) between October and December, 2018, through convenience sampling. Two focus groups were set up, with six-seven healthcare professionals grouped by time of professional experience (over or below three years). The participants were differentiated by age, gender and professional category. The Atlas.Ti program was used for analysis. Three analytical categories and 14 subcategories were identified. RESULTS: the study included 13 professionals in two focus groups. The categories emerging from their speech were: definition of adverse event, information and improvements. The frequency of errors was normalized. They mentioned mild and severe mistakes, differentiating their action and feelings. They reported that part of their learning consists in trial-error during practice. They expressed fear to report in severe situations. The recording system is underused. They coincided in reporting as a team, after consensus, and they expressed lack of institutional protection. They proposed implementing debriefings, positive identification, communication between hospital units, information technologies, and a structured change of shift. CONCLUSION: fear of answers, loss of reputation, and lack of institutional support appeared as the main barriers at the time of acknowledging and reporting incidents. There was wide consensus about lack of responsibiility in communication and excuse for adverse events, and about the need to provide support and training to professionals


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Barreiras de Comunicação , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Erros Médicos , Revelação/ética , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/ética , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Denúncia de Irregularidades/ética , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Segurança do Paciente , Grupos Focais
15.
J Law Med ; 26(4): 719-731, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682351

RESUMO

There are many pressures that militate against work colleagues "blowing the whistle" or "ringing the bell" on each other in respect of research misconduct. These pressures result in a significant proportion of such conduct not coming to light at all or coming to light later or less straightforwardly than is desirable. There need to be meaningful incentives for colleagues to draw to the attention of authorities concerns that they have about adherence by others to their obligations in relation to research integrity. The United States has a distinctive process under the False Claims Act which provides significant financial encouragement to such persons, known as "relators" under the qui tam scheme, including in the context of proven research misconduct. This editorial reviews prominent occasions on which qui tam actions have been taken and considers the ramifications of a US$112.5 million settlement arrived at in 2019 involving research misconduct at Duke University. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the incentives that lie at the heart of the United States False Claims Act and canvasses whether it should be emulated in other countries.


Assuntos
Má Conduta Científica , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Fraude , Motivação , Estados Unidos
16.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(12): 723-726, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779300

RESUMO

This companion paper suggests the potential benefits of applying Steven Lukes' dimensions of power model to the study of corruption in health systems. Lukes' model sets out three "faces of power" classified by their influence on political discourse, resulting in overt, covert and latent discussion of issues depending on the degree of their alignment with the agenda of dominant power interests. His concept that differential access to public discourse varies according to this alignment implies the potential for identifying more serious forms of corruption by the mismatch between their practical importance and the amount of open debate addressing them. These two variables are in practice inversely related, and do not, as might be expected, correlate, with more important topics receiving more public attention. Lukes' model would predict and can explain such inversion of public priorities, which tells us that observed suppression of public debate might efficiently direct the interest of researchers and the efforts of those seeking to further the public good on to the key issues needing discussion and resolution. The commentary goes on to examine whether the most serious and dangerous forms of corruption might therefore also be the most invisible, and suggests that whistleblower reports should be considered a key data source for research into high-level corruption in health systems, including redirection of policy decisions away from those which are in the public interest.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Humanos
17.
J Health Organ Manag ; 33(6): 737-756, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625824

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to review existing research on whistleblowing in healthcare in order to develop an evidence base for policy and research. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A narrative review, based on systematic literature protocols developed within the management field. FINDINGS: The authors identify valuable insights on the factors that influence healthcare whistleblowing, and how organizations respond, but also substantial gaps in the coverage of the literature, which is overly focused on nursing, has been largely carried out in the UK and Australia, and concentrates on the earlier stages of the whistleblowing process. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The review identifies gaps in the literature on whistleblowing in healthcare, but also draws attention to an unhelpful lack of connection with the much larger mainstream literature on whistleblowing. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Despite the limitations to the existing literature important implications for practice can be identified, including enhancing employees' sense of security and providing ethics training. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper provides a platform for future research on whistleblowing in healthcare, at a time when policymakers are increasingly aware of its role in ensuring patient safety and care quality.


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Austrália , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Reino Unido
18.
J R Soc Med ; 112(10): 428-437, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate doctors' intentions to raise a patient safety concern by applying the socio-psychological model 'Theory of Planned Behaviour'. DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews. SETTING: Training venues across England (North West, South East and South West). PARTICIPANTS: Sampling was purposeful to include doctors from differing backgrounds and grades. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perceptions of raising a patient safety concern. RESULTS: While raising a concern was considered an appropriate professional behaviour, there were multiple barriers to raising a concern, which could be explained by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Negative attitudes operated due to a fear of the consequences, such as becoming professionally isolated. Disapproval for raising a concern was encountered at an interpersonal and organisational level. Organisational constraints of workload and culture significantly undermined the raising of a concern. Responses about concerns were often side-lined or not taken seriously, leading to demotivation to report. This was reinforced by high-profile cases in the media and the negative treatment of whistle-blowers. While regulator guidance acted as an enabler to justify raising a concern, doctors felt disempowered to raise a concern about people in positions of greater power, and ceased to report concerns due to a perceived lack of action about concerns raised previously. CONCLUSIONS: Intentions to raise a concern were complex and highly contextual. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is a useful model to aid understanding of the factors which influence the decision to raise a concern. Results point to implications for policymakers, including the need to publicise positive stories of whistle-blowers and providing greater support to doctors.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Tomada de Decisões , Intenção , Erros Médicos , Segurança do Paciente , Médicos , Gestão de Riscos , Inglaterra , Medo , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Cultura Organizacional , Poder Psicológico , Profissionalismo , Teoria Psicológica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Denúncia de Irregularidades , Carga de Trabalho
19.
Nurs Sci Q ; 32(4): 266-270, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514621

RESUMO

In this article, the author describes two differing perspectives on paradox: the humanbecoming paradigm perspective and the management/organizational theory perspective. Examples of paradoxes from these two differing views are presented.


Assuntos
Modelos Organizacionais , Teoria de Enfermagem , Humanismo , Humanos , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Denúncia de Irregularidades/ética
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