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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906579

RESUMO

: Dendrobium are tropical orchid plants that host diverse endophytic fungi. The role of these fungi is not currently well understood in Dendrobium plants. We morphologically and molecularly identified these fungal endophytes, and created an efficient system for evaluating the pathogenicity and symptoms of endophytic fungi on Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium officinale though in vitro co-culturing. ReThe colony morphological traits of Dendrobium myco-endophytes (DMEs) were recorded for their identification. Molecular identification revealed the presence of Colletotrichum tropicicola, Fusarium keratoplasticum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The pathogenicity results revealed that T. longibrachiatum produced the least pathogenic effects against D. nobile protocorms. In seedlings, T. longibrachiatum showed the least pathogenic effects against D. officinale seedlings after seven days. C. tropicicola produced highly pathogenic effects against both Dendrobium seedlings. The results of histological examination of infected tissues revealed that F. keratoplasticum and T. longibrachiatum fulfill Koch's postulates for the existence of endophytes inside the living tissues. The DMEs are cross-transmitted inside the host plant cells, playing an important role in plant host development, resistance, and alkaloids stimulation.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/microbiologia , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Fungos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Colletotrichum/genética , Colletotrichum/isolamento & purificação , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , DNA Fúngico , Dendrobium/citologia , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/citologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/isolamento & purificação , Trichoderma/patogenicidade
2.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(5): 483-493, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636024

RESUMO

Dendrobium is an important medicinal material in China. It has the effect of nourishing the stomach, nourishing yin and clearing heat. In China, there are many types of Dendrobium, and different Dendrobium species have different efficacy. The present study is aimed at distinguishing three major Dendrobium species from morphological and microscopic identification in Ta-pieh mountains area. In this article, the roots, stems and leaves of Dendrobium huoshanense, Dendrobium officinale, and Dendrobium moniliforme are used as materials to compare the differences of tissues of these three Dendrobium species by morphological indexes and microscopic identification of different Dendrobium. The stem morphology of these three Dendrobium species was significantly different except for stem internodes number and the middle part of the stem diameter by measuring the stems of Dendrobium. To ensure the safe use of Dendrobium, we built a fast and convenient method combining normal and fluorescence microscopy was applied in the present study to distinguish D. huoshanense, D. officinale, and D. moniliforme. The microscopic results show that different types of Dendrobium exhibit different states that can be distinguished under normal light normal and fluorescence microscopy. This comparative study of morphology and microscopy contributes to the development of identification and quality evaluation of Dendrobium.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/classificação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , China , Dendrobium/anatomia & histologia , Dendrobium/citologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/citologia , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/citologia
3.
Genes Genomics ; 40(3): 265-279, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892797

RESUMO

The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators, and the members regulate multiple biological processes. However, there is limited information on WRKYs in Dendrobium officinale. In this study, 52 WRKY family genes of D. officinale were surveyed for the first time. Conserved domain, phylogenetic, exon-intron construction, and expression analyses were performed for the DoWRKY genes. Two major types of intron splicing (PR and VQR introns) were found, and the intron insertion position was observed to be relatively conserved in the conserved DoWRKY domains. The expression profiles of nine DoWRKYs were analyzed in cold- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated D. officinale seedlings; the DoWRKYs showed significant expression changes at different levels, which suggested their vital roles in stress tolerance. Moreover, the expression trends of most of the DoWRKYs after the simultaneous cold stress and MeJA treatment were the opposite of those of DoWRKYs after the individual cold stress and MeJA treatments, suggesting that the two stresses might have antagonistic effects and affect the adaptive capacity of the plants to stresses. Twelve DoWRKY genes were differentially expressed between symbiotic and asymbiotic germinated seeds; all were upregulated in the symbiotic germinated seeds except DoWRKY16. These differences in expression of DoWRKYs might be involved in promoting in vitro symbiotic germination of seeds with Tulasnella-like fungi. Our findings will be useful for further studies on the WRKY family genes in orchids.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Acetatos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Germinação , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(3): 252-260, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691858

RESUMO

A water-soluble polysaccharide TC-DHPA4 with a molecular weight of 8.0 × 105 Da was isolated from tissue-cultured Dendrobium huoshanense by anion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that the homogeneous polysaccharide was made up of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose and glucuronic acid with a molar ratio of 1.28:1:1.67:4.71:10.43:1.42. The sugar residue sequence analysis based on the GC-MS files and NMR spectra indicated that the backbone of TC-DHPA4 consisted of the repeated units:→6)-ß-Galp-(1→6)-ß-Galp-(1→4)-ß-GlcpA-(1→6)-ß-Glcp-(1→6)-ß-Glcp-(→. The sugar residue sequences ß-Glcp-(1→)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-ß-Galp-(1→, ß-Glcp-(1→4)-α-Rhap-(1→3)-ß-Galp-(1→, ß-Galp-(1→6)-ß-Manp-(1→3)-ß-Galp-(1→, and α-l-Araf-(1→2)-ß-Manp-(1→3)-ß-Galp-(1→ were identified as the branches attached to the C-3 position of (1→6)-linked galactose in the backbone.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/química , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Dendrobium/citologia , Galactose/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glucose/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/análise , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Água
5.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 598, 2017 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lysine succinylation is a ubiquitous and important protein post-translational modification in various eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its functions in Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb with high polysaccharide contents, are largely unknown. RESULTS: In our study, LC-MS/MS was used to identify the peptides that were enriched by immune-purification with a high-efficiency succinyl-lysine antibody. In total, 314 lysine succinylation sites in 207 proteins were identified. A gene ontology analysis showed that these proteins are associated with a wide range of cellular functions, from metabolic processes to stimuli responses. Moreover, two types of conserved succinylation motifs, '***Ksuc******K**' and '****EKsuc***', were identified. Our data showed that lysine succinylation occurred on five key enzymes in the glycolysis pathway. The numbers of average succinylation sites on these five enzymes in plants were lower than those in bacteria and mammals. Interestingly, two active site amino acids residues, K103 and K225, could be succinylated in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, indicating a potential function of lysine succinylation in the regulation of glycolytic enzyme activities. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction network for the succinylated proteins showed that several functional terms, such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome, are consisted. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first comprehensive view of the succinylome of D. officinale and may accelerate future biological investigations of succinylation in the synthesis of polysaccharides, which are major active ingredients.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Dendrobium/citologia , Glicólise , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Transporte Proteico , Alinhamento de Sequência
6.
Protoplasma ; 254(4): 1517-1528, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837285

RESUMO

The present study is intended to analyze the occurrence of potent, low produce, naturally occurring stilbenes in protoplasts of wild species and hybrids of Dendrobium. The wild species selected for the study was Dendrobium ovatum, endemic to Western Ghats of India. Protoplasts were isolated from leaves and tepal tissues of all the species and were cultured purely to generate homofusants and cross-cultured to raise heterofusants. Phytochemical composition of protoplast culture with atypical and pure microcolonies was performed using mass spectrometry. Enzyme cocktail of 4% pectinase together with 2% cellulase displayed the highest competence for protoplast isolations. Maximum protoplast density of 30.11 × 104/ml was obtained from D. ovatum leaves in 2 h. Subcellular features such as the presence of partially formed cell wall, the position of the nucleus, chloroplast density, colony existence, and integrity of the plasma membrane were analyzed. Among the pure and cross-cultured protoplasts, the number of heterofusants and homofusants formed were enumerated. The spectral feature extraction of the mass spectrometry indicated the presence of five phenolic marker compounds, viz., tristin, confusarin, gigantol, moscatilin, and resveratrol, some of them in pure and others in assorted protoplast cultures raised from Dendrobium leaves and tepals. The study demonstrated that protoplast fusion technique enabled phytochemical assemblage in vitro as stilbenes tend to get restricted either in a tissue or species specific manner. This is the first report showing the presence of resveratrol, moscatilin, tristin, gigantol, and confusarin in wild and hybrid species from cultured Dendrobium protoplasts in vitro.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/citologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Protoplastos/citologia , Estilbenos/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 15: 194, 2015 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26260631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The R2R3-MYB genes regulate pigmentation and morphogenesis of flowers, including flower and cell shape, and therefore have importance in the development of new varieties of orchids. However, new variety development is limited by the long breeding time required in orchids. In this study, we identified a cDNA, DhMYB1, that is expressed during flower development in a hybrid orchid, Dendrobium hybrida (Dendrobium bobby messina X Dendrobium chao phraya) then used the direct application of dsRNA to observe the effect of gene silencing on flower phenotype and floral epidermal cell shape. RESULTS: Flower bud development in the Dendrobium hybrid was characterised into seven stages and the time of meiosis was determined as between stages 3 to 5 when the bud is approximately half of the mature size. Scanning electron microscopy characterisation of adaxial epidermal cells of the flower perianth, showed that the petals and sepals each are divided into two distinct domains based on cell shape and size, while the labellum comprises seven domains. Thirty-two partial cDNA fragments representing R2R3-MYB gene sequences were isolated from D. hybrida. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine of the translated sequences were clustered with MYB sequences that are known to be involved in cell shape development and from these, DhMYB1 was selected for full length cDNA cloning and functional study. Direct application of a 430 bp dsRNA from the 3' region of DhMYB1 to emerging orchid flower buds reduced expression of DhMYB1 RNA compared with untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy of adaxial epidermal cells within domain one of the labellum of flowers treated with DhMYB1 dsRNA showed flattened epidermal cells whilst those of control flowers were conical. CONCLUSIONS: DhMYB1 is expressed throughout flower bud development and is involved in the development of the conical cell shape of the epidermal cells of the Dendrobium hybrida flower labellum. The direct application of dsRNA changed the phenotype of floral cells, thus, this technique may have application in floriculture biotechnology.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Forma Celular , Dendrobium/genética , Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/ultraestrutura , Hibridização Genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(17): 3232-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25522603

RESUMO

The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dendrobium/microbiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Biomassa , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Dendrobium/citologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Hifas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Plântula/citologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Molecules ; 19(3): 3718-30, 2014 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24662084

RESUMO

The stems of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, named Tie-pi-shi-hu, is one of the most endangered and precious species in China. Because of its various pharmacodynamic effects, D. officinale is widely recognized as a high-quality health food in China and other countries in south and south-east Asia. With the rising interest of D. officinale, its products have a high price due to a limited supply. This high price has led to the proliferation of adulterants in the market. To ensure the safe use of D. officinale, a fast and convenient method combining normal and fluorescence microscopy was applied in the present study to distinguish D. officinale from three commonly used adulterants including Zi-pi-shi-hu (D. devonianum), Shui-cao-shi-hu (D. aphyllum), Guang-jie-shi-hu (D. gratiosissimum). The result demonstrated that D. officinale could be identified by the characteristic "two hat-shaped" vascular bundle sheath observed under the fluorescence microscopy and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. The other three adulterants could be discriminated by the vascular bundle differences and the distribution of raphides under normal light microscopy. This work indicated that combination of normal light and fluorescence microscopy is a fast and efficient technique to scientifically distinguish D. officinale from the commonly confused species.


Assuntos
Dendrobium/classificação , Dendrobium/citologia , Microscopia/métodos , Dendrobium/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência
10.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 171(2): 315-29, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23832189

RESUMO

Regrowth of the cryopreserved protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium Bobby Messina was assessed based on the plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) optimisation conditions. The optimized protocol obtained based on TTC spectrophotometrical analysis and growth recovery were 3-4 mm of PLBs size precultured in 0.2 M sucrose for 1 day, treated with a mixture of 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose supplemented with half-strength liquid MS media at 25 °C for 20 min and subsequently dehydrated with PVS2 at 0 °C for 20 min prior to storage in liquid nitrogen. Following rapid warming in a water bath at 40 °C for 90 s, PLBs were treated with unloading solution containing half-strength liquid MS media supplemented with 1.2 M sucrose. Subsequently, the PLBs were cultured on half-strength semi-solid MS media supplemented with 2 % (w/v) sucrose without any growth regulators and resulted in 40 % growth recovery. In addition, ascorbic acid treatment was used to evaluate the regeneration process of cryopreserved PLBs. However, growth recovery rates of non-cryopreserved and cryopreserved PLBs were 30 and 10 % when 0.6 mM ascorbic acid was added. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that there are not much damages observed on both cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved PLBs in comparison to PLBs stock culture.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletroquímica de Varredura , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dendrobium/ultraestrutura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Autophagy ; 9(8): 1159-66, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23823702

RESUMO

In Dendrobium flowers some tepal mesophyll cells showed cytoplasmic areas devoid of large organelles. Such amorphous areas comprised up to about 40% of the cross-section of a cell. The areas were not bound by a membrane. The origin of these areas is not known. We show data suggesting that they can be formed from vesicle-like organelles. The data imply that these organelles and other material become degraded inside the cytoplasm. This can be regarded as a form of autophagy. The amorphous areas became surrounded by small vacuoles, vesicles or double membranes. These seemed to merge and thereby sequester the areas. Degradation of the amorphous areas therefore seemed to involve macroautophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Dendrobium/citologia , Organelas/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Dendrobium/ultraestrutura , Células do Mesofilo/citologia , Células do Mesofilo/ultraestrutura , Vacúolos/ultraestrutura
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 38(4): 475-80, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23713267

RESUMO

The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Dendrobium/genética , Carbono/metabolismo , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Dendrobium/química , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Controle de Qualidade
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 37(12): 1710-4, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22997810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To set up a system for fluid suspension co-culture of Dendrobium officinale protocorm and living fungus MF24, so as to provide certain scientific evidence for industrial production of protocorm. METHOD: Whether the protocorm culture system was suitable for the normal growth of MF24 fungus were studied, the growth of protocorm cultured alone and co-cultured with the fungus were researched under light and dark culture conditions, the biomass and proliferation times were determined, and HPLC method was used to analyze and compare the changes of 11 characteristic peak areas in D. officinale protocorm. RESULT: The MF24 fungus could grow normally in the 6,7-V liquid medium used to culture the protocorm, and when it was cultured by 8-10 hours per day under 1 500 lx, the growth rate of the fungus was slowed. Protocorm could grow normally in light and dark culture conditions, and add the MF24 fungus in the early cultivation stages of protocorm, both inhibit the growth of each other. In the protocorm for the growth stability to add 5 diameter 9 mm fungi block, the protocorm growth and chemical composition type had no significant effect. However, under illumination, co-cultured for 5 days protocorm of which 10 compounds content decreased 13.64% to 138.47%, in dark conditions, co-cultured for 5 days protocorm of which 7 compounds increased by 0.71% to 12.82%, and 4 compounds slightly reduced by 3.03% to 14. 14% compared with the control. CONCLUSION: Under the appropriate condition, living fungus MF24 could co-culture with the D. officinale protocorm, and affected the latter's secondary metabolite levels.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escuridão , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Dendrobium/efeitos da radiação , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/fisiologia , Fungos/efeitos da radiação , Suspensões
14.
J Plant Physiol ; 169(8): 770-4, 2012 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22437146

RESUMO

An efficient micropropagation protocol has been developed for Dendrobium officinale, through protocorm-like bodies (PLBs). A correlation between enhanced differentiation of PLBs of D. officinale by ultrasound and changes in the levels of endogenous hormones and the antioxidant enzyme activities was described. Ultrasound treatments improved the conversion of PLBs of D. officinale to shoots. The highest conversion frequency of PLBs to shoots was obtained following the ultrasound treatment at 300 W for 5 min. Compared to the control, the enhanced conversion of PLBs to shoots following the ultrasound treatment was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of total cytokinins (CTKs) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which was due to a decrease in the endogenous level of IAA and an increase in the endogenous level of total CTKs. Analysis of enzyme activities indicated that the increased endogenous level of total CTKs driven by ultrasound was associated with the inhibition of CTK decomposition by CTK oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6), while the decreased endogenous level of IAA was associated with the promotion of IAA decomposition by IAA oxidase (EC 1.10.3.3). In addition, ultrasound treatment increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) in the conversion process of PLBs to shoots.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/efeitos da radiação , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energia , Brotos de Planta/citologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Catalase/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citocininas/metabolismo , Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 26(3): 371-7, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20518351

RESUMO

To solve the problem of low growth rate and metabolism level in suspension cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium huoshanense. The effects of germanium on PLB proliferation and accumulation of polysaccharides together with nutrient utilization were investigated and the contents of reducing sugars, soluble proteins, the activities of antioxidant enzymes and redox status of the cells of PLB were analyzed. The results indicated that the optimum concentration of germanium dioxide (4.0 mg/L) significantly enhanced the cell growth and accumulation of polysaccharides, greatly improved contents of reducing sugars and soluble proteins, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) but decreased the activity of peroxidase(POD). The cell dry weight and production of polysaccharides were 32.6 g/L and 3.78 g/L, respectively. The analysis of cellular redox status showed that the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in cells and the activity of glutathione reductase were significantly increased by the addition of germanium dioxide. The suitable concentration of germanium dioxide was beneficial to the cell growth and the accumulation of polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Germânio/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendrobium/citologia , Oxirredução , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 23(2): 327-31, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17460911

RESUMO

The effect of outer spermine on cell growth, accumulation of polysaccharides and utilization of nutrient together with the intracellular polyamine contents were investigated in suspension cultures of protocorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense. The results indicated that spermine at 0.6 mmol/L was the most effective in increasing cell growth and polysaccharide synthesis. The specific growth rate of cell increased from 0.046d(-1) to 0.054d(-1), and the maximum dry weight and polysaccharide production reached 32.4g DW/L and 2.46g/L respectively, which were 1.32-fold and 1.31-fold that of the control on day 30. The titres of intracellular free polyamines were higher in the cultures treated with spermine than that of the control. Invertase and nitrate reductase activities were found to increase significantly in the cultured cells treated with spermine, which was beneficial to the utilization of carbon and nitrogen source.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dendrobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Espermina/farmacologia , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/citologia , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 23(1): 79-84, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17366892

RESUMO

Phosphate is an effective factor in the regulation of cell growth and accumulation of polysaccharides. The method for higher polysaccharide production has been obtained through feeding cultivation. The two-stage cultivation was proposed according to the characteristic of cell growth and the accumulation of polysaccharides in the suspension cultures of protocorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense. A kinetic model was developed to describe the cultivation process. The results indicate that the production of biomass and polysaccharides increases from 28.7g DW/L and 1.86g/L to 44.2g DW/L and 5.22g/L, respectively, and the content of polysaccharides increases from 6.4% to 11.9% . With the evaluated model parameters, the model appears to provide a description for the cultivation process.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Algoritmos , Biomassa , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Caules de Planta/citologia , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Gene ; 366(2): 266-74, 2006 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16236468

RESUMO

Studies have shown that several plant species possess AGAMOUS (AG) and SEEDSTICK (STK) orthologs. These genes are part of the so-called C- and D MADS-box gene lineages and play key roles in ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have cloned an AG- and STK ortholog in the orchid Dendrobium thyrsiflorum, named DthyrAG1 and DthyrAG2, respectively, and analyzed their expression patterns. Quantification by real-time RT-PCR analysis shows that both are transcribed in the mature flowers and during ovule development. Localization of the transcripts by in situ hybridization analysis in flowers reveals that both genes are transcribed in the rostellum, stigma, and stylar canal. Expression analysis during ovule development shows that DthyrAG1 is expressed only in the initial periods of placenta- and ovule development, whereas the DthyrAG2 is transcribed throughout ovule development. These results suggest that both C- and D lineage orthologs are involved in various aspects of flower development and that DthyrAG2 have a more prominent role than DthyrAG1 in late ovule development in D. thyrsiflorum.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/genética , Dendrobium/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Dendrobium/citologia , Dendrobium/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transcrição Genética/genética
20.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 21(6): 282-4, 1998 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12567520

RESUMO

This paper reported the morphological and histological characteristics of Diequiao Shihu(the crude drug of Dendrobium denneanum Kerr), with linedrawings, and compared the TLC diagram with Jichai Shihu (the crude drug of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.).


Assuntos
Dendrobium/anatomia & histologia , Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Dendrobium/citologia , Orchidaceae/citologia , Farmacognosia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/citologia , Pós
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