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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273980, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arboviruses represent a threat to global public health. In the Americas, the dengue fever is endemic. This situation worsens with the introduction of emerging, Zika fever and chikungunya fever, causing epidemics in several countries within the last decade. Hotspot analysis contributes to understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics in the context of co-circulation of these three arboviral diseases, which have the same vector: Aedes aegypti. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution and agreement between the hotspots of the historical series of reported dengue cases from 2000 to 2014 and the Zika, chikungunya and dengue cases hotspots from 2015 to 2019 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: To identify hotspots, Gi* statistics were calculated for the annual incidence rates of reported cases of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya by neighborhood. Kendall's W statistic was used to analyze the agreement between diseases hotspots. RESULTS: There was no agreement between the hotspots of the dengue fever historical series (2000-2014) and those of the emerging Zika fever and chikungunya fever (2015-2019). However, there was agreement between hotspots of the three arboviral diseases between 2015 and 2019. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show the existence of persistent hotspots that need to be prioritized in public policies for the prevention and control of these diseases. The techniques used with data from epidemiological surveillance services can help in better understanding of the dynamics of these diseases wherever they circulate in the world.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus , Febre de Chikungunya , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273902, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048788

RESUMO

Understanding the distribution of pathogens causing acute febrile illness (AFI) is important for clinical management of patients in resource-poor settings. We evaluated the proportion of AFI caused by specific pathogens among outpatients in Bangladesh. During May 2019-March 2020, physicians screened patients aged ≥2 years in outpatient departments of four tertiary level public hospitals. We randomly enrolled patients having measured fever (≥100.4°F) during assessment with onset within the past 14 days. Blood and urine samples were tested at icddr,b through rapid diagnostic tests, bacterial culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acute and convalescent samples were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA) for Rickettsia and Orientia (R/O) and Leptospira tests. Among 690 patients, 69 (10%) had enteric fever (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi orSalmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi), 51 (7.4%) Escherichia coli, and 28 (4.1%) dengue detected. Of the 441 patients tested for R/O, 39 (8.8%) had rickettsioses. We found 7 (2%) Leptospira cases among the 403 AFI patients tested. Nine patients (1%) were hospitalized, and none died. The highest proportion of enteric fever (15%, 36/231) and rickettsioses (14%, 25/182) was in Rajshahi. Dhaka had the most dengue cases (68%, 19/28). R/O affected older children and young adults (IQR 8-23 years) and was detected more frequently in the 21-25 years age-group (17%, 12/70). R/O was more likely to be found in patients in Rajshahi region than in Sylhet (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 0.85-7.32) between July and December (aOR 2.01, 1.01-5.23), and who had a history of recent animal entry inside their house than not (aOR 2.0, 0.93-4.3). Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae were the most common bacterial infections, and dengue was the most common viral infection among AFI patients in Bangladeshi hospitals, though there was geographic variability. These results can help guide empiric outpatient AFI management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dengue , Leptospira , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Febre Tifoide , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Dengue/epidemiologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Hospitais , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Salmonella paratyphi A , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico
3.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(9): 11-12, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There were widespread unconfirmed reports about the increased severity of dengue post-second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. It is known that a second dengue infection with a different strain in an individual can trigger antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). A similar phenomenon is hypothesized for severe COVID-19 infection since both dengue and COVID-19 are viral diseases with different and varying strains. However, much research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. In this context, we intended to assess the severity of dengue illness in relation to previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, possibly the role of COVID-19 antibodies as an early predictor of severe dengue illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of COVID-19 antibodies for early identification of severe dengue illness among children in the post-third-wave period of COVID-19 infection in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All hospitalized children with dengue illness were categorized as severe (shock and/or hemorrhage and/or multi-organ dysfunction) and non-severe dengue illness (dengue with or without warning signs) as per WHO definition. COVID-19 antibody titers were estimated in both groups. Clinical features and seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies were compared in both groups. RESULT: A total of 31 children were studied (13 severe and 18 non-severe dengue illnesses). The most common symptoms prior to presenting to the hospital included fever (100% in both groups), vomiting (85% in severe and 63% in non-severe), abdominal pain (85% in severe and 50% in non-severe), poor feeding (54% in severe and 28% in non-severe), and skin rashes (15% in severe and none in non-severe). The mean duration from the onset of fever to the first hospital visit was 4.6 days in severe illness and 5.3 days in non-severe dengue illness. The mean duration of hospitalization was 9.7 days in severe dengue illness and 4.1 days in non-severe dengue illness. While 92.3% of all severe dengue had significantly higher COVID-19 antibody titers, it was found elevated only in 44.4% of the children with non-severe dengue illness (p-value 0.0059; Yates' corrected p-value 0.0179). CONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms prior to presenting to the hospital were fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, poor oral feeding, and skin rashes. While fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain were seen commonly in both severe and non-severe dengue illnesses, the presence of skin rash during febrile phase is associated with severe dengue illness only. Hospitalized children having severe dengue had increased seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies (92.3%) compared to children with non-severe dengue (44.4%). However, there is no corelation of the severity of dengue illness with absolute values of COVID-19 antibody levels. Therefore, the presence of COVID-19 antibodies (previous COVID-19 infection) can be a predictor of severe illness in children with dengue especially if associated with poor oral feeding and skin rashes. The limitation of the study is its lesser sample size to conclude any definitive statement; nevertheless, the study paves way for a similar cohort of a larger sample size to draw conclusions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dengue , Dengue Grave , Dor Abdominal , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Dengue Grave/epidemiologia , Vômito
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 942381, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051997

RESUMO

Introduction: Co-infection of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue may coexist, as both viruses share similar laboratory and clinical features, making diagnosis and treatment challenging for health care professionals to prescribe, negatively impacting patient prognosis, and outcomes. Results and discussions: Both cases were positive for PCR and X-ray laboratory investigation at clinical examination, confirming COVID-19 and dengue co-infection, admission, and better management in referral hospitals are presented and discussed. The timeline provides detailed cases of situational analysis and the medical actions taken, as well as the outcomes. Conclusion: Both co-infection cases' (patients) health conditions had a poor prognosis and diagnosis and ended with undesired outcomes. Scaling up dual mosquito-vector linked viral diseases surveillance in understanding the transmission dynamics, early diagnosis, and the timely and safe monitoring of case management in clinical and hospital settings nationwide is paramount in curbing preventable co-infections and mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Dengue , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
8.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(4): 322-330, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097713

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Russia, the approved morbidity statistics system is represented by the International Classification of Diseases of the 10th revision (ICD-10). This classification provides two forms of dengue fever (DF): dengue fever (A90) and hemorrhagic dengue (A91). Official statistics on the ratio of forms of DF is not published in open sources and this lack of information about the real ratio of the forms of DF makes it difficult to objectively assess the factors that determine the severity of this disease. THE AIM: compare the clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever and hemorrhagic dengue fever in patients hospitalized in 2009-2019 to the City Infectious Clinical Hospital No. 1, Moscow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the patient database and reviewed 391 medical records of patients with diagnosed dengue fever. We compared gender, age characteristics, travel geography including information about previous visits of patients to endemic regions and dengue virus serotype. To determine the primary and re-infection rate, an analysis of IgG for the dengue virus was carried out on days 1-5 of the disease. To compare indicators, 95% confidence intervals for proportions, medians, and interquartile ranges were calculated. The significance of differences between independent samples for assessing qualitative characteristics was carried out using the criteria χ2, the odds ratio. To assess the quantitative characteristics, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Differences were considered statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with dengue fever was 14.9% of all hospitalized with febrile illnesses that developed after international travel. Hemorrhagic dengue fever (DHF) was diagnosed in 15.7% of patients with dengue fever. DHF developed significantly more often in women, as well as in those who had history of repeated visits to endemic regions. However, DHF was also diagnosed in 10.9% of first-time travelers to tropical countries. We did not find significant differences in the rates of DHF development depending on age and dengue virus serotype. In a number of patients who had not previously traveled to endemic regions, IgG to the dengue virus were detected, which may indicate a previous infection with related flaviviruses. CONCLUSION: It has been established that in the regions most visited by Russians, there is a circulation of all serotypes of the dengue virus with an annual change in the predominant serotype.


Assuntos
Dengue , Dengue Grave , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Dengue Grave/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273414, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074783

RESUMO

Blood culturing remains the "gold standard" for bloodstream infection (BSI) diagnosis, but the method is inaccessible to many developing countries due to high costs and insufficient resources. To better understand the utility of blood cultures among patients in Indonesia, a country where blood cultures are not routinely performed, we evaluated data from a previous cohort study that included blood cultures for all participants. An acute febrile illness study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2016 at eight major hospitals in seven provincial capitals in Indonesia. All participants presented with a fever, and two-sided aerobic blood cultures were performed within 48 hours of hospital admission. Positive cultures were further assessed for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns. Specimens from participants with negative culture results were screened by advanced molecular and serological methods for evidence of causal pathogens. Blood cultures were performed for 1,459 of 1,464 participants, and the 70.6% (1,030) participants that were negative by dengue NS1 antigen test were included in further analysis. Bacteremia was observed in 8.9% (92) participants, with the most frequent pathogens being Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (41) and Paratyphi A (10), Escherichia coli (14), and Staphylococcus aureus (10). Two S. Paratyphi A cases had evidence of AMR, and several E. coli cases were multidrug resistant (42.9%, 6/14) or monoresistant (14.3%, 2/14). Culture contamination was observed in 3.6% (37) cases. Molecular and serological assays identified etiological agents in participants having negative cultures, with 23.1% to 90% of cases being missed by blood cultures. Blood cultures are a valuable diagnostic tool for hospitalized patients presenting with fever. In Indonesia, pre-screening patients for the most common viral infections, such as dengue, influenza, and chikungunya viruses, would maximize the benefit to the patient while also conserving resources. Blood cultures should also be supplemented with advanced laboratory tests when available.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Dengue , Febre Tifoide , Antibacterianos , Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Dengue/complicações , Escherichia coli , Febre/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/complicações , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604809, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111200

RESUMO

Objectives: This study intends to evaluate the Dhaka city residents' individual views toward DF. Methods: A cross-sectional survey used google forms for collecting data. Python and RStudio were used for data management and analysis. Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression models were performed, where appropriate. Results: In total 1008 individuals participated in a pre-tested KAP survey. More than 20% reported being affected by DF before the survey, where they rated their current places as being moderately safe (43%). In terms of DF control, 65% had good knowledge, and 68% reported good practice, whereas they demonstrated an overall good attitude. The increased knowledge of individuals could contribute to behavioral changes regarding DF. Female residents demonstrated better DF attitudes (OR: 0.69; p < 0.05) and practices (OR: 0.66; p < 0.01) compared to male residents. Mixed unit residents had poor KAP levels. Educational attainment can also play an essential role in enhancing the attitude level. Conclusion: Overall, dengue surveillance activities with sufficient campaigns are required for behavioral change in Dhaka city. This information could be integrated into other DF-affected countries' strategies against dengue outbreaks.


Assuntos
Dengue , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(9): 816-821, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098083

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Dengue cases have increased while the spread is getting broader worldwide. Temephos has been frequently used to control the larvae of the <i>Aedes aegypti</i> L., the primary vector of dengue. The intensive use of this larvicide has given rise to resistance. This study aims to determine the susceptibility status of <i>Ae. aegypti</i> to temephos and examine the two mutations (F290V and F455W) that possibly occur in the <i>Ace-1</i> gene of <i>Ae. aegypti</i> from Salido Sub-District, IV Jurai District, Pesisir Selatan Regency. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The susceptibility test was performed referring to a standard method of the World Health Organization, followed by a molecular test (polymerase chain reaction) and sequencing. <b>Results:</b> The results showed that the larvae of <i>Ae. aegypti</i> have been tolerant to temephos (0.012 mg L<sup></sup><sup>1</sup>) with a percentage of larval mortality of 91.67%. The sequencing analysis in the <i>Ace-1</i> gene revealed the absence of F290V and F455W mutation in temephos-resistant <i>Ae. aegypti</i>, but a point mutation was detected at codon 506. This mutation shifts the ACA codon to ACT, but still codes for the same amino acid, threonine. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our study indicates the presence of other resistance mechanisms in the major dengue vector of the Salido District. Implementation of the alternative population control strategy is required to prevent the temephos resistance further.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Inseticidas , Aedes/genética , Animais , Indonésia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação , Temefós
12.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 547, 2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071062

RESUMO

Dengue, a mosquito-transmitted viral disease, has posed a public health challenge to Singaporean residents over the years. In 2020, Singapore experienced an unprecedented dengue outbreak. We collected a dataset of geographical dengue clusters reported by the National Environment Agency (NEA) from 15 February to 9 July in 2020, covering the nationwide lockdown associated with Covid-19 during the period from 7 April to 1 June. NEA regularly updates the dengue clusters during which an infected person may be tagged to one cluster based on the most probable infection location (residential apartment or workplace address), which is further matched to fine-grained spatial units with an average coverage of about 1.35 km2. Such dengue cluster dataset helps not only reveal the dengue transmission patterns, but also reflect the effects of lockdown on dengue spreading dynamics. The resulting data records are released in simple formats for easy access to facilitate studies on dengue epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dengue , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Singapura/epidemiologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 941923, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045680

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally since December 2019. Several studies reported that SARS-CoV-2 infections may produce false-positive reactions in dengue virus (DENV) serology tests and vice versa. However, it remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 and DENV cross-reactive antibodies provide cross-protection against each disease or promote disease severity. In this study, we confirmed that antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD) were significantly increased in dengue patients compared to normal controls. In addition, anti-S1-RBD IgG purified from S1-RBD hyperimmune rabbit sera could cross-react with both DENV envelope protein (E) and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). The potential epitopes of DENV E and NS1 recognized by these antibodies were identified by a phage-displayed random peptide library. In addition, DENV infection and DENV NS1-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro were inhibited in the presence of anti-S1-RBD IgG. Passive transfer anti-S1-RBD IgG into mice also reduced prolonged bleeding time and decreased NS1 seral level in DENV-infected mice. Lastly, COVID-19 patients' sera showed neutralizing ability against dengue infection in vitro. Thus, our results suggest that the antigenic cross-reactivity between the SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD and DENV can induce the production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD antibodies that cross-react with DENV which may hinder dengue pathogenesis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Camundongos , Coelhos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais
14.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(9): 11-12, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue infection is a disease that progresses rapidly to life-threatening conditions. Our goal was to develop a practical scoring system based on clinical profiles and routine tests to predict the severity of infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 500 patients with dengue infection. Patient demographics, clinical symptoms, regular laboratory tests, and results were collected. Dengue infections are divided into three classes, depending on their severity: dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Based on the total score, patients were divided into three severities. RESULTS: Patients with DSS and DHF scored higher with worsening clinical features and routine laboratory tests compared to DF. Clinical predictors of severity include older age, increased white blood cell (WBC) count, increased hematocrit, increased prothrombin time, decreased platelet count, decreased blood pressure, presence of peri-gallbladder (GB) edema, third space loss, hepatomegaly, and other organ involvement. The severity range is 0-12, and the score is 0-3 for DF, 4-8 for DHF, and 9-12 for DSS. Based on the derived scores, patients were classified according to their original severity in 63% of cases. CONCLUSION: This dengue infection severity scores correctly classified patients according to their original severity grade of DF, DHF, or DSS. This scoring system helps to quickly assess dengue infections and start treatment according to the correct severity category.


Assuntos
Dengue , Dengue Grave , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Humanos , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 892469, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091000

RESUMO

Background: Dengue virus (DENV) infection induces various clinical manifestations and even causes organ injuries, leading to severe dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Hepatic dysfunction was identified as a risk predictor of progression to severe disease during the febrile phase of dengue. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatic injury remain unclear. Methods: A model of dengue disease was established in IFNAR -/- C57BL/6 mice by challenge with DENV-2. Body weight, symptoms, haematological parameters and liver pathological observations in mice were used to determine the effects of DENV infection. Liver transcriptome sequencing was performed to evaluate the features of the host response in IFNAR -/- mice challenged with DENV. Functional enrichment analysis and analysis of significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were used to determine the critical molecular mechanism of hepatic injury. Results: We observed haemoconcentration, leukopenia and liver pathologies in mice, consistent with findings in clinical dengue patients. Some differences in gene expression and biological processes were identified in this study. Transcriptional patterns in the liver indicated that antiviral responses to DENV and tissue damage via abnormal expression of proinflammatory cytokines were induced. Further analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in the leukocyte transendothelial migration, complement and coagulation cascades, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions signalling pathways, which are considered to be closely associated with the pathogenic mechanism of dengue. IL6, IL 10, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP9 and NLRP3 were identified as biomarkers of progression to severe disease. Conclusions: The interactions of these cytokines, which activate inflammatory signalling, may lead to organ injury and haemoconcentration and even to vascular leakage in tissues, including the mouse liver. Our study identifies candidate host targets that could be used for further functional verification.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transcriptoma
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078486

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) devastated the overall health management strategy of most countries. In this scenario, the present study provided insights into the possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dengue infection. This ecological study retrieved data from WHO/Government reporting system from 22 major dengue epidemic countries. Incidence of dengue infections during the pre-COVID-19 time (2015~2019) and COVID-19 period (2020~2021) was compared. A correlation between the dengue and COVID-19 cases and predicted dengue incidence in 2022 was calculated using the linear regression equation. Data indicated that dengue incidences across the studied area decreased by 16% during the pandemic period (2.73 million vs. 2.29 million; p < 0.05) than the same reported in pre-COVID-19 time. Although countries in Latin America reported more cases than Asia, a positive correlation (r = 0.83) between dengue and COVID-19 cases was observed in Asia. Prediction analysis warned that specific preparation for dengue management is needed in some countries of both regions in 2022 to contain the upsurge in incidences. Due to the similar nature of symptoms of dengue and COVID-19, a state of confusion will be prevailing during the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive and evidence-based scientific approaches were warranted at all levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dengue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078811

RESUMO

Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne disease prevalent in the tropics (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Central and South America) and a common cause of febrile illness in travelers. The high incidence of imported DF in Taiwan has led to a domestic outbreak. This study explored the risk factors associated with individuals given diagnoses of imported DF at international airports in Taiwan. The results may serve as a reference for DF prevention. In this retrospective study, data from the symptom notification system database of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (TCDC) were used. These data concerned travelers who returned to Taiwan from DF-endemic areas with suspected DF symptoms. The epidemiological characteristics of the cases were analyzed, and 28 variables related to DF infection were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. In 2018-2019, there were 8656 cases (451 positive and 8205 negative cases). The results revealed DF symptoms and a 16-30-day stay in endemic areas to be independent risk factors and the presence of three respiratory symptoms and <10 days of short-term travel to be protective factors. These results may enable the accurate assessment of symptoms in travelers with DF as well as the risk factors associated with imported DF, lowering the risk of indigenous DF outbreaks caused by imported DF.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Dengue , Animais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Viagem
18.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 116(9): 853-867, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is an acute viral disease of major relevance and impact on public health, causing major epidemics around the world, especially in tropical regions. Here we aimed to analyse the temporal trend and spatial risk, as well as social vulnerability factors, associated with the occurrence of dengue in the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2009 and 2018. METHODS: This is an ecological study carried out with all suspected cases of dengue in Bahia between 2009 and 2018. The data were obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Information System, available on the website of the Health Department of the State of Bahia, and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. We used the Joinpoint regression model, local empirical Bayesian model for smoothing, global and local Moran statistics and spatial scanning statistics. The relationship between the dengue incidence rate and social determinants was tested using Moran's bivariate correlation. RESULTS: During the study period, 451 847 probable dengue cases were registered in Bahia. A declining trend was observed in 39.28% (n=11) of the state's health regions and 60.71% (n=17) showed a stationary tendency. The spatiotemporal scanning statistic showed nine clusters of dengue occurrence. The largest cluster had a radius of 342.14 km, consisting of 160 municipalities, 120 094 cases (710.20 cases/100 000 inhabitants) and a relative risk of 2.80. In the multivariate regression model, 11 variables showed a significant association: Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), SVI urban infrastructure, SVI human capital, MHDI longevity, MHDI education, proportion of people living in households with per capita income less than half the minimum wage (in 2010) and who spend more than 1 h commuting, proportion of mothers who are heads of household who did not complete elementary school and with children <15 y of age, activity rate of persons ages 10-14 y and per capita income. CONCLUSIONS: In the analysis of the spatial distribution, areas of risk of disease transmission throughout the state were identified. These results can provide subsidies for the strategic planning of actions, as well as for the implementation of programs and/or public policies in order to control the incidence of dengue in the population.


Assuntos
Dengue , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 303, 2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and an important vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, Ae. albopictus has successfully invaded every inhabited continent, except Antarctica, in the past 80 years. Vector surveillance and control at points of entry (PoE) is the most critical front line of defence against the introduction of Ae. albopictus to new areas. Identifying the pathways by which Ae. albopictus are introduced is the key to implementing effective vector surveillance to rapidly detect introductions and to eliminate them. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify studies and data sources reporting the known and suspected dispersal pathways of human-mediated Ae. albopictus dispersal between 1940-2020. Studies and data sources reporting the first introduction of Ae. albopictus in a new country were selected for data extraction and analyses. RESULTS: Between 1940-2020, Ae. albopictus was reported via various dispersal pathways into 86 new countries. Two main dispersal pathways were identified: (1) at global and continental spatial scales, maritime sea transport was the main dispersal pathway for Ae. albopictus into new countries in the middle to late 20th Century, with ships carrying used tyres of particular importance during the 1980s and 1990s, and (2) at continental and national spatial scales, the passive transportation of Ae. albopictus in ground vehicles and to a lesser extent the trade of used tyres and maritime sea transport appear to be the major drivers of Ae. albopictus dispersal into new countries, especially in Europe. Finally, the dispersal pathways for the introduction and spread of Ae. albopictus in numerous countries remains unknown, especially from the 1990s onwards. CONCLUSIONS: This review identified the main known and suspected dispersal pathways of human-mediated Ae. albopictus dispersal leading to the first introduction of Ae. albopictus into new countries and highlighted gaps in our understanding of Ae. albopictus dispersal pathways. Relevant advances in vector surveillance and genomic tracking techniques are presented and discussed in the context of improving vector surveillance.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus Chikungunya , Dengue , Animais , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Mosquitos Vetores
20.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(1): 521-531, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032477

RESUMO

Background: Dengue is a widely spread mosquito-borne infection in humans, which in recent decades declared is public health problem globally. The dengue virus contains 4 different serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) which belong to the genus Flavivirus. Aims: A descriptive experimental study was conducted to determine the epidemiology, types of Dengue serotypes, clinical features, laboratory probe, and markers for primary diagnosis of dengue virus infection in hospitalized patients. Methodology: A total of 691 suspects were diagnosed from August to October 2019 in district Shangla KP, Pakistan. Serological tests were used for nonstructural protein-1 antigen (NS1), and antibodies (immunoglobulin-M (IgM) & Immunoglobulin-G (IgG)) while real-time PCR was used to confirm the cases. The data was statistically analyzed using IBM-SPSS Statistics 20 version. Results: The dengue virus infection was more prevalent in the male group (68.09%) than the female group (31.1%). A large number of patients were from rural areas (63.5%) while from urban areas were (36.4%), whereas Besham tehsil was found the most affected compared to other regions. The most prevalent serotype observed in our study was DENV-3 (56.60%) while DENV-4 was the least prevalent serotype (1.88%). Among the age-wise analysis of dengue-virus-infected individuals, the age group of 19-37 years (64.07%) was found the most affected group. The month-wise analysis revealed that the highest number of infections (49.8%) were recorded in September. Significant differences were noticed among blood parameters. Conclusion: The possible reasons for the dengue overwhelming in the study area could be less or lack of awareness particularly regarding the transmission of viral infections, improper sewage management, and no effective vector control strategies that lead the dengue outbreaks in the study population.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Biomarcadores , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Incidência , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Paquistão , Sorogrupo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Adulto Jovem
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