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2.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(8): 11-12, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472817

RESUMO

COVID 19 since its onset in Wuhan in 2019 has overburdened our existing health resources and infrastructure. Dengue virus has been endemic in Asian countries since decades. Both being viruses with similar clinical profile and overlapping laboratory parameters has posed a great challenge for Asian countries to combat a co epidemic, creating a double burden. We, as clinicians must be more vigilant in diagnosing the patients so that dengue is not missed in this covid pandemic era and does not progress to life threatening dengue shock syndrome. More importantly, we should emphasize on preventive measures for prevention of dengue so that we can reduce the burden on health care system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Dengue , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 867, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a mosquito born disease associated with self-limited to life threatening illness. First detected in Senegal in the nineteenth century, and despite its growing incidence this last decade, significant knowledge gaps exist in our knowledge of genetic diversity of circulating strains. This study highlights the circulating serotypes and genotypes between January 2017 and December 2018 and their spatial and temporal distribution throughout all regions of Senegal. METHODS: We used 56 dengue virus (DENV) strains for the analysis collected from 11 sampling areas: 39 from all regions of Senegal, and 17 isolates from Thiès, a particular area of the country. Two real time RT-qPCR systems were used to confirm dengue infection and corresponding serotypes. For molecular characterization, CprM gene was sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis for serotypes and genotypes assignment. RESULTS: Three dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-3) were detected by all used methods. DENV-3 was detected in 50% (28/56) of the isolates, followed by DENV-1 and DENV-2, each representing 25% (14/56) of the isolates. DENV-3 belongs to genotype III, DENV-1 to genotype V and DENV-2 to Cosmopolitan genotype. Serotype 3 was detected in 7 sampling locations and a co-circulation of different serotypes was observed in Thiès, Fatick and Richard-toll. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the need of continuous DENV surveillance in Senegal to detect DENV cases, to define circulating serotypes/genotypes and to prevent the spread and the occurrence of severe cases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Senegal/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Análise Espacial
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(8): 978-982, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445836

RESUMO

Objective: This study retrospectively analyzed an outbreak of dengue fever in Puyang of Henan province in 2019, in order to find the sources of infection. Methods: Dengue virus IgM/IgG and NS1 antigen were tested by colloidal gold method. E gene was amplified by PCR. MegaX was used for sequences alignment to construct evolutionary distance trees. Results: After clinical and laboratory confirmation, there were 81 cases of dengue fever, 17 of which were imported case who were local farmers and worked in Combadia and Thailand, and 64 of which were indigenous cases. The E gene alignment results showed that the pathogen of this epidemic was Vietnamese 1 and highly homologous with the Vietnamese strain. After the local outbreak, dengue virus E gene developed a nucleotide site mutation which can be steadily transmission. Conclusion: The dengue fever outbreak in Puyang was a local outbreak caused by dengue virus type 1, which was associated with imported cases. Gene sequencing showed that the imported pathogen had a relatively stable and transmissible nucleotide mutation after the local epidemic.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 681937, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447698

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, which is fatal if untreated symptomatically. Emergence of new genotype within serotypes led to enhanced severity. The objective of the study is to identify the molecular characteristics of the DENV circulated during 2017 outbreak in Tamil Nadu, India, and to investigate the role of inflammatory cytokines in different "serotypes" and in "dengue severity". A total of 135 suspected samples were tested for DENV infection using IgM, IgG, and qPCR assay; where 76 samples were positive for DENV and analyzed for 12 inflammatory cytokines using ELISA. Serotyping shows 14 DENV-1, 22 DENV-2, 7 DENV-3, and 33 DENV-4, where DENV-4 was predominant. Among 76, 42 isolates were successfully sequenced for C-prM region and grouped. A lineage shift was observed in DENV-4 genotype. Irrespective of serotypes, IFNγ was significantly elevated in all serotypes than control as well as in primary infection than secondary, indicating its role in immune response. GM-CSF and IP-10 were significantly elevated in secondary infection and could be used as prognostic biomarkers for secondary infection. Our observation shows differential cytokine expression profile varied with each serotype, indicating serotype/genotype-specific viral proteins might play a major role in dengue severity. DENV-4 as dominant serotype was reported in Tamil Nadu for the first time during an outbreak with a mixed Th1/Th17 cytokine expression profile that correlated with disease severity. We conclude it is essential to identify circulating viral genotype and their fitness by mutational analysis to correlate with disease severity and immune status, as this correlation will be helpful in diagnostics and therapeutics applications.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Citocinas , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sorogrupo
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e188, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338179

RESUMO

In 2015-2016, simultaneous circulation of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) was reported. We conducted an ecological study to analyse the spatial distribution of dengue, Zika and chikungunya cases and to investigate socioeconomic factors associated with individual and combined disease incidence in 2015-2016. We then constructed thematic maps and analysed the bivariate global Moran indices. Classical and spatial models were used. A distinct spatial distribution pattern for dengue, Zika and chikungunya was identified in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The bivariate global Moran indices (P < 0.05) revealed negative spatial correlations between rates of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and combined arboviruses incidence and social development index and mean income. The regression models (P < 0.05) identified a negative relationship between mean income and each of these rates and between sewage and Zika incidence rates, as well as a positive relationship between urban areas and chikungunya incidence rates. In our study, spatial analysis techniques helped to identify high-risk and social determinants at the local level for the three arboviruses. Our findings may aid in backing effective interventions for the prevention and control of epidemics of these diseases.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/transmissão , Epidemias , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espacial , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5969, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess Google Trends accuracy for epidemiological surveillance of dengue and yellow fever, and to compare the incidence of these diseases with the popularity of its terms in the state of São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective cohort. Google Trends survey results were compared to the actual incidence of diseases, obtained from Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica "Prof. Alexandre Vranjac", in São Paulo, Brazil, in periods between 2017 and 2019. The correlation was calculated by Pearson's coefficient and cross-correlation function. The accuracy was analyzed by sensitivity and specificity values. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant correlation between the variables studied for both diseases, Pearson coefficient of 0.91 for dengue and 0.86 for yellow fever. Correlation with up to 4 weeks of anticipation for time series was identified. Sensitivity was 87% and 90%, and specificity 69% and 78% for dengue and yellow fever, respectively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of dengue and yellow fever in the State of São Paulo showed a strong correlation with the popularity of its terms measured by Google Trends in weekly periods. Google Trends tool provided early warning, with high sensitivity, for the detection of outbreaks of these diseases.


Assuntos
Dengue , Febre Amarela , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferramenta de Busca , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009603, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has induced unprecedented reductions in human mobility and social contacts throughout the world. Because dengue virus (DENV) transmission is strongly driven by human mobility, behavioral changes associated with the pandemic have been hypothesized to impact dengue incidence. By discouraging human contact, COVID-19 control measures have also disrupted dengue vector control interventions, the most effective of which require entry into homes. We sought to investigate how and why dengue incidence could differ under a lockdown scenario with a proportion of the population sheltered at home. METHODOLOGY & PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an agent-based model with a realistic treatment of human mobility and vector control. We found that a lockdown in which 70% of the population sheltered at home and which occurred in a season when a new serotype invaded could lead to a small average increase in cumulative DENV infections of up to 10%, depending on the time of year lockdown occurred. Lockdown had a more pronounced effect on the spatial distribution of DENV infections, with higher incidence under lockdown in regions with higher mosquito abundance. Transmission was also more focused in homes following lockdown. The proportion of people infected in their own home rose from 54% under normal conditions to 66% under lockdown, and the household secondary attack rate rose from 0.109 to 0.128, a 17% increase. When we considered that lockdown measures could disrupt regular, city-wide vector control campaigns, the increase in incidence was more pronounced than with lockdown alone, especially if lockdown occurred at the optimal time for vector control. CONCLUSIONS & SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that an unintended outcome of lockdown measures may be to adversely alter the epidemiology of dengue. This observation has important implications for an improved understanding of dengue epidemiology and effective application of dengue vector control. When coordinating public health responses during a syndemic, it is important to monitor multiple infections and understand that an intervention against one disease may exacerbate another.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Mosquitos , Saúde Pública
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1389, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, Guangdong and Yunnan are the two most dengue-affected provinces. This study aimed to compare the epidemiological characteristics of dengue fever in Guangdong and Yunnan during 2004-2018. METHODS: Descriptive analyses were used to explore the temporal, spatial, and demographic distribution of dengue fever. RESULTS: Of the 73,761 dengue cases reported in mainland China during 2004-2018, 93.7% indigenous and 65.9% imported cases occurred in Guangdong and Yunnan, respectively. A total of 55,970 and 5938 indigenous cases occurred in 108 Guangdong and 8 Yunnan counties, respectively during 2004-2018. Whereas 1146 and 3050 imported cases occurred in 84 Guangdong and 72 Yunnan counties, respectively during 2004-2018. Guangdong had a much higher average yearly indigenous incidence rate (3.65 (1/100000) vs 0.86 (1/100000)), but a much lower average yearly imported incidence rate (0.07 (1/100000) vs 0.44(1/100000)) compared with Yunnan in 2004-2018. Furthermore, dengue fever occurred more widely in space and more frequently in time in Guangdong. Guangdong and Yunnan had similar seasonal characteristics for dengue fever, but Guangdong had a longer peak period. Most dengue cases were clustered in the south-western border of Yunnan and the Pearl River Delta region in Guangdong. Most of the imported cases (93.9%) in Guangdong and Yunnan were from 9 Southeast Asian countries. Thailand, Cambodia, and Malaysia imported mainly into Guangdong while Myanmar and Laos imported into Yunnan. There was a strong male predominance among imported cases and an almost equal gender distribution among indigenous cases. Most dengue cases occurred in individuals aged 21-50 years, accounting for 57.3% (Guangdong) vs. 62.8% (Yunnan) of indigenous and 83.2% (Guangdong) vs. 62.6% (Yunnan) of imported cases. The associated major occupations (house worker or unemployed, retiree, and businessman, for indigenous cases; and businessman, for imported cases), were similar. However, farmers accounted for a larger proportion of dengue cases in Yunnan. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying the different epidemiological characteristics of dengue fever in Guangdong and Yunnan can be helpful to formulate targeted, strategic plans, and implement effective public health prevention measures in China.


Assuntos
Dengue , Camboja , China/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Laos , Malásia , Masculino , Mianmar , Tailândia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299819

RESUMO

Since 1994, dengue fever (DF) transmission rates have increased significantly in Saudi Arabia (KSA). Climatic, geographic, and demographic conditions make KSA especially suitable for DF's spread. Still, there are insufficient strategies for controlling the Aedes species that transmit DF virus (DENV). To develop effective management strategies, it is necessary to identify Aedes species and the ecological habitat of larvae in Makkah Al-Mokarramah, KSA. We conducted a longitudinal survey of Aedes mosquitoes in 14 localities from January 2015 to December 2015. World Health Organization (WHO) inspection kits for larvae were used to detect and sample larvae, along with pictorial keys. A total of 42,981 potential Aedes larval breeding sites were surveyed. A total of 5403 (12.6%) sites had at least one water source positive for Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes. Among the total of 15,133 water sources surveyed within the sampled sites, 1815 (12.0%) were positive for Aedes aegypti. Aedes aegypti was the only Aedes species identified in the course of the survey. The presence of such a large immature population may indicate an imminent outbreak of DF in the near future unless proper implementation of control and elimination of Aedes aegypti are undertaken. Additionally, the adaptation of Aedes aegypti to the arid climate of Makkah needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Larva , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
13.
Med J Aust ; 215(4): 171-172, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287890
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208667

RESUMO

Dengue fever, caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV), has been endemic in Myanmar since 1970 and it has become a significant public health burden. It is crucial that circulating DENV strains are identified and monitored, and that their transmission efficiency and association with disease severity is understood. In this study, we analyzed DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 serotypes in 1235 serum samples collected in Myanmar between 2017 and 2019. Whole-genome sequencing of DENV-1-4 demonstrated that most DENV-1-4 strains had been circulating in Myanmar for several years. We also identified the emergence of DENV-3 genotype-I in 2017 samples, which persisted through 2018 and 2019. The emergence of the strain coincided with a period of increased DENV-3 cases and marked changes in the serotype dynamics. Nevertheless, we detected no significant differences between serum viral loads, disease severity, and infection status of individuals infected with different DENV serotypes during the 3-year study. Our results not only identify the spread of a new DENV-3 genotype into Yangon, Myanmar, but also support the importance of DENV evolution in changing the epidemic dynamics in endemic regions.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Genótipo , Adolescente , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/história , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mianmar , Filogenia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1362, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 followed the arrival of chikungunya in 2014 and a long history of dengue circulation. Vital to the response to these outbreaks of mosquito-borne pathogens has been the dissemination of public health messages, including those promoted through risk communication posters. This study explores the content of a sample of posters circulated in Brazil towards the end of the Zika epidemic in 2017 and analyses their potential effectiveness in inducing behaviour change. METHODS: A content analysis was performed on 37 posters produced in Brazil to address outbreaks of mosquito-borne pathogens. The six variables of the Health Belief Model were used to assess the potential effectiveness of the posters to induce behaviour change. RESULTS: Three overarching key messages emerged from the posters. These included (i) the arboviruses and their outcomes, (ii) a battle against the mosquito, and (iii) a responsibility to protect and prevent. Among the six variables utilised through the Health Belief Model, cues to action were most commonly featured, whilst the perceived benefits of engaging in behaviours to prevent arbovirus transmission were the least commonly featured. CONCLUSIONS: The posters largely focused on mosquito-borne transmission and the need to eliminate breeding sites, and neglected the risk of the sexual and congenital transmission of Zika and the importance of alternative preventive actions. This, we argue, may have limited the potential effectiveness of these posters to induce behaviour change.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Saúde Pública , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204166

RESUMO

Surveillance and control activities for virus-transmitting mosquitoes have primarily focused on dwellings. There is little information about viral circulation in heavily trafficked places such as schools. We collected and analyzed data to assess the presence and prevalence of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in mosquitoes, and measured Aedes indices in schools in Medellín (Colombia) between 2016-2018. In 43.27% of 2632 visits we collected Aedes adults, creating 883 pools analyzed by RT-PCR. 14.27% of pools yielded positive for dengue or Zika (infection rates of 1.75-296.29 for Aedes aegypti). Ae. aegypti was more abundant and had a higher infection rate for all studied diseases. Aedes indices varied over time. There was no association between Aedes abundance and mosquito infection rates, but the latter did correlate with cases of arboviral disease and climate. Results suggest schools are important sources of arbovirus and health agencies should include these sites in surveillance programs; it is essential to know the source for arboviral diseases transmission and the identification of the most population groups exposed to these diseases to research and developing new strategies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Colômbia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Instituições Acadêmicas , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 639, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection by chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) can cause a wide spectrum of clinical features, many of which are undifferentiated. Cytokines, which broadly also include chemokines and growth factors, have been shown to play a role in protective immunity as well as DENV and CHIKV pathogenesis. However, differences in cytokine response to both viruses remain poorly understood, especially in patients from countries where both viruses are endemic. Our study is therefore aimed to provide a comparative profiling of cytokine response induced by acute DENV and CHIKV infections in patients with similar disease stages and in experimental in vitro infections. METHODS: By using multiplex immunoassay, we compared host cytokine profiles between acute CHIKV and DENV infections by analysing serum cytokine levels of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-13, RANTES, MCP-3, eotaxin, PDGF-AB/BB, and FGF-2 from the sera of acute chikungunya and dengue fever patients. We further investigated the cytokine profile responses using experimental in vitro CHIKV and DENV infections of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS: We found that both CHIKV and DENV-infected patients had an upregulated level of IL-8 and IL-4, with the highest IL-4 level observed in DENV-2 infected patients. Higher IL-8 level was also correlated with lower platelet count in dengue patients. IL-13 and MCP-3 downregulation was observed only in chikungunya patients, while conversely PDGF-AB/BB and FGF-2 downregulation was unique in dengue patients. Age-associated differential expression of IL-13, MCP-3, and IL-5 was also observed, while distinct kinetics of IL-4, IL-8, and FGF-2 expression between CHIKV and DENV-infected patients were identified. Furthermore, the unique pattern of IL-8, IL-13 and MCP-3, but not IL-4 expression was also recapitulated using experimental in vitro infection in PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study identified common cytokine response profile characterized by upregulation of IL-8 and IL-4 between CHIKV and DENV infection. Downregulation of IL-13 and MCP-3 was identified as a unique cytokine response profile of acute CHIKV infection, while distinct downregulation of PDGF-AB/BB and FGF-2 characterized the response from acute DENV infection. Our study provides an important overview of the host cytokine responses between CHIKV and DENV infection, which is important to further understand the mechanism and pathology of these diseases.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/metabolismo , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/metabolismo , Dengue/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199508

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue globally. The variables that influence the abundance of dengue vectors are numerous and complex. This has generated a need to focus on areas at risk of disease transmission, the spatial-temporal distribution of vectors, and the factors that modulate vector abundance. To help guide and improve vector-control efforts, this study identified the ecological, social, and other environmental risk factors that affect the abundance of adult female and immature Ae. aegypti in households in urban and rural areas of northeastern Thailand. A one-year entomological study was conducted in four villages of northeastern Thailand between January and December 2019. Socio-demographic; self-reported prior dengue infections; housing conditions; durable asset ownership; water management; characteristics of water containers; knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding climate change and dengue; and climate data were collected. Household crowding index (HCI), premise condition index (PCI), socio-economic status (SES), and entomological indices (HI, CI, BI, and PI) were calculated. Negative binomial generalized linear models (GLMs) were fitted to identify the risk factors associated with the abundance of adult females and immature Ae. aegypti. Urban sites had higher entomological indices and numbers of adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes than rural sites. Overall, participants' KAP about climate change and dengue were low in both settings. The fitted GLM showed that a higher abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with many factors, such as a low education level of household respondents, crowded households, poor premise conditions, surrounding house density, bathrooms located indoors, unscreened windows, high numbers of wet containers, a lack of adult control, prior dengue infections, poor climate change adaptation, dengue, and vector-related practices. Many of the above were also significantly associated with a high abundance of immature mosquito stages. The GLM model also showed that maximum and mean temperature with four-and one-to-two weeks of lag were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of the abundance of adult and immature mosquitoes, respectively, in northeastern Thailand. The low KAP regarding climate change and dengue highlights the engagement needs for vector-borne disease prevention in this region. The identified risk factors are important for the critical first step toward developing routine Aedes surveillance and reliable early warning systems for effective dengue and other mosquito-borne disease prevention and control strategies at the household and community levels in this region and similar settings elsewhere.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Adulto , Animais , Aglomeração , Dengue/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 704, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The co-circulation of types of arbovirus in areas where they are endemic increased the risk of outbreaks and limited the diagnostic methods available. Here, we analyze the epidemiological profile of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV at the serological and molecular level in patients with suspected infection with these arboviruses in the city of Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: In 2016, the Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN) of Juazeiro do Norte received 182 plasma samples from patients who visited health facilities with symptoms compatible with arbovirus infection. The LACEN performed serological tests for detection of IgM/IgG to DENV and CHIKV. They then sent these samples to the Retrovirology Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo and Faculty of Medical of the ABC where molecular analyses to confirm the infection by DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV were performed. The prevalence of IgM/IgG antibodies and of infections confirmed by RT-qPCR were presented with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: In serologic analysis, 125 samples were positive for antibodies against CHIKV and all were positive for antibodies against DENV. A higher prevalence of IgG against CHIKV (63.20% with 95% CI: 45.76-70.56) than against DENV (95.05% with 95% CI: 78.09-98.12) was observed. When the samples were submitted to analysis by RT-qPCR, we observed the following prevalence: mono-infection by ZIKV of 19.23% (95% CI: 14.29-34.82) patients, mono-infection by CHIKV of 3.84% (95% CI: 2.01-5.44) and co-infection with ZIKV and CHIKV of 1.09% (95% CI: 0.89-4.56). CONCLUSION: The serologic and molecular tests performed in this study were effective in analyzing the epidemiological profile of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV in patients with suspected infection by these arboviruses in the city of Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará/Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/terapia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Medição de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Infecção por Zika virus/terapia
20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 160, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: East Africa is home to 170 million people and prone to frequent outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers and various bacterial diseases. A major challenge is that epidemics mostly happen in remote areas, where infrastructure for Biosecurity Level (BSL) 3/4 laboratory capacity is not available. As samples have to be transported from the outbreak area to the National Public Health Laboratories (NPHL) in the capitals or even flown to international reference centres, diagnosis is significantly delayed and epidemics emerge. MAIN TEXT: The East African Community (EAC), an intergovernmental body of Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, and South Sudan, received 10 million € funding from the German Development Bank (KfW) to establish BSL3/4 capacity in the region. Between 2017 and 2020, the EAC in collaboration with the Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine (Germany) and the Partner Countries' Ministries of Health and their respective NPHLs, established a regional network of nine mobile BSL3/4 laboratories. These rapidly deployable laboratories allowed the region to reduce sample turn-around-time (from days to an average of 8h) at the centre of the outbreak and rapidly respond to epidemics. In the present article, the approach for implementing such a regional project is outlined and five major aspects (including recommendations) are described: (i) the overall project coordination activities through the EAC Secretariat and the Partner States, (ii) procurement of equipment, (iii) the established laboratory setup and diagnostic panels, (iv) regional training activities and capacity building of various stakeholders and (v) completed and ongoing field missions. The latter includes an EAC/WHO field simulation exercise that was conducted on the border between Tanzania and Kenya in June 2019, the support in molecular diagnosis during the Tanzanian Dengue outbreak in 2019, the participation in the Ugandan National Ebola response activities in Kisoro district along the Uganda/DRC border in Oct/Nov 2019 and the deployments of the laboratories to assist in SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics throughout the region since early 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The established EAC mobile laboratory network allows accurate and timely diagnosis of BSL3/4 pathogens in all East African countries, important for individual patient management and to effectively contain the spread of epidemic-prone diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Redes Comunitárias , Dengue/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Laboratórios , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Burundi/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Unidades Móveis de Saúde/economia , Saúde Pública , Ruanda/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
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