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1.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 318-325, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877069

RESUMO

Dengue fever: an emerging infectious disease. Dengue fever is caused by an arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, of which there are 4 serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4). It is transmitted by the bite of a diurnal mosquito of the genus Aedes, mainly A. aegypti and A. albopictus. An increasing cause of acute fever in travellers, it threatens to emerge in temperate regions where competent mosquitoes (Aedes) are established. Dengue fever is characterized by its clinical polymorphism ranging from asymptomatic to severe forms, which are rare in travellers. Its definite diagnosis is based on virological tests selected according to the stage of the disease and the kinetics of the virus. Its treatment is only symptomatic. It is a notifiable disease in mainland France and is subject to a plan to combat its spread and to specific surveillance in the overseas departments. Dengue prevention is based on the application of personal anti-vectorial protection measures among travellers, awareness-raising among health professionals and social mobilization to combat larval gites in endemic regions or regions colonized by Aedes. In France, the tetravalent vaccine Dengvaxia, which is licensed in France, is not recommended for people residing in overseas departments and for travelers to endemic areas.


Assuntos
Aedes , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , França/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem
2.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 231-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879187

RESUMO

To reach the target of ending the dengue epidemic by 2030, all effort shall be made to minimize the dengue transmission across the country through effective, efficient, low-cost and sustainable programs. In Indonesia, the evidence of community empowerment on dengue prevention is insufficient. The objective of this study is to explore the opinion of community and larva monitoring workers (Jumantik cadre) on dengue prevention. A structured free listing interview was conducted in April-May 2019 by targeting two groups: the community and larva workers in one village of Sleman, Yogyakarta. Door to door interviews were done until the quota and saturation were reached. Each group was asked four free listing questions. The analysis was performed in these stages: transcribing, coding, combining by the question, and calculating the salience score. The most salient score about vector control in the larva cadre was not hanging up dirty clothes; in the community it was cleaning the bathtub. Both groups cited themself as the salient motivator in joining the vector control. Protecting the environment and keeping healthy were the reasons for participating in the vector control. The larva cadre stated community refusal as the main challenge. The community cited the importance of larva cadre: to monitor the presence of larva. Community empowerment on dengue vector control has not been effortlessly executed at the bottom level.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 649, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 80,000 dengue cases including 215 deaths were reported nationally in less than 7 months between 2016 and 2017, a fourfold increase in the number of reported cases compared to the average number over 2010-2016. The region of Negombo, located in the Western province, experienced the greatest number of dengue cases in the country and is the focus area of our study, where we aim to capture the spatial-temporal dynamics of dengue transmission. METHODS: We present a statistical modeling framework to evaluate the spatial-temporal dynamics of the 2016-2017 dengue outbreak in the Negombo region of Sri Lanka as a function of human mobility, land-use, and climate patterns. The analysis was conducted at a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution and a weekly temporal resolution. RESULTS: Our results indicate human mobility to be a stronger indicator for local outbreak clusters than land-use or climate variables. The minimum daily temperature was identified as the most influential climate variable on dengue cases in the region; while among the set of land-use patterns considered, urban areas were found to be most prone to dengue outbreak, followed by areas with stagnant water and then coastal areas. The results are shown to be robust across spatial resolutions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the potential value of using travel data to target vector control within a region. In addition to illustrating the relative relationship between various potential risk factors for dengue outbreaks, the results of our study can be used to inform where and when new cases of dengue are likely to occur within a region, and thus help more effectively and innovatively, plan for disease surveillance and vector control.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Clima , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Viagem
4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(36)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914745

RESUMO

In August 2020, during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, five locally acquired cases of dengue virus type 1 were detected in a family cluster in Vicenza Province, North-East Italy where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are endemic. The primary case was an importation from West Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first outbreak of autochthonous dengue reported in Italy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, screening of febrile travelers from endemic countries is crucial in areas where competent vectors are present.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/diagnóstico , Viagem , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Indonésia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21982, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899041

RESUMO

In the past 30 years, dengue has undergone dramatic changes in China every year. This study explores the epidemiological trend of dengue in China during this period to identify high-risk seasons, regions, ages, susceptible populations, and provide information for dengue prevention and control activities.Dengue data from 1990 to 2019 were derived from the Public Health Science Data Center, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the corresponding province. GraphPad Prism 7 was conducted to generate disease evolution maps, occupational heat maps, and monthly heat maps of dengue cases and deaths in mainland China and Guangdong Province. Excel 2016 was used to create a cyclone map of age and gender distribution. Powerpoint 2016 was performed to create geographic maps.From 1990 to 2019, the annual number of dengue cases showed an increasing trend and reaching a peak in 2014, with 46,864 dengue cases (incidence rate: 3.4582/100,000), mainly contributed by Guangdong Province (45,189 cases, accounting for 96.43%). Dengue pandemics occurred every 4 to 6 years. The prevalence of dengue fever was Autumn, which was generally prevalent from June to December and reached its peak from September to November. The provinces reporting dengue cases each year have expanded from the southeastern coastal region to the southwest, central, northeast, and northwest regions, and the provinces with a high incidence were Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Fujian, and Zhejiang. People aged 25 to 44 years were more susceptible to dengue virus infection. And most of them were male patients. Dengue mainly occurs in the following groups: students, business service staffs, workers, farmers, retired staffs, housewives, and the unemployed. Four provinces reported deaths from dengue, namely Guangdong Province, Zhejiang Province, Henan Province, and Hunan Province.The dengue fever epidemic occurred every 4 to 6 years, mostly in autumn. The endemic areas were Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Fujian, and Zhejiang provinces. People aged 25 to 44 years, men, students, business service staffs, workers, farmers, retired staffs, housewives, and the unemployed were more susceptible to dengue fever. These findings help to develop targeted public health prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 11(1): 13-21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963887

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to enhance the capacity of dengue prediction by investigating the relationship of dengue incidence with climate and environmental factors in the Mekong Delta region (MDR) of Viet Nam by using remote sensing data. Methods: To produce monthly data sets for each province, we extracted and aggregated precipitation data from the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation project and land surface temperatures and normalized difference vegetation indexes from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite observations. Monthly data sets from 2000 to 2016 were used to construct autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict dengue incidence for 12 provinces across the study region. Results: The final models were able to predict dengue incidence from January to December 2016 that concurred with the observation that dengue epidemics occur mostly in rainy seasons. As a result, the obtained model presents a good fit at a regional level with the correlation value of 0.65 between predicted and reported dengue cases; nevertheless, its performance declines at the subregional scale. Conclusion: We demonstrated the use of remote sensing data in time-series to develop a model of dengue incidence in the MDR of Viet Nam. Results indicated that this approach could be an effective method to predict regional dengue incidence and its trends.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Vietnã/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008716, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966283

RESUMO

The concurrent circulation of dengue and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may produce many unfavourable outcomes-such as co-infections; delays in diagnosis, treatment, and mitigation measures; overwhelming of the healthcare system; underreporting of cases; deterioration in surveillance and control interventions; and exacerbation of social inequalities. Indeed, lockdown is greatly compromising the effectiveness of vector control, especially social mobilization campaigns and preventive insecticide spraying in private spaces (indoor and peridomestic spraying). Thus, failure to appropriately implement the full range of vector control interventions can lead to a reduction in their overall effectiveness and an increasing risk of vector-borne diseases circulating. Consequently, the health community and policy makers should develop proactive policies and allocate adequate resources to prevent and manage the resurgence of dengue and other vector-borne diseases in the new era of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Saúde Pública , Tempo para o Tratamento
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 639, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is an arthropod vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Ethiopia has a favorable ecology for arthropods and report high burden of acute febrile illnesses. However, the contribution of arboviral infections to the burden of acute febrile illnesses is barely known. In this study the seropositivity to dengue virus infection and associated risk factors were assessed in Arba Minch districts, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in a consecutive group of 529 acute febrile patients between May to August 2016. Socio-demographic data, residence place and clinical signs and symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires. Sera were tested for anti-dengue IgG and IgM using Euroimmune indirect immunofluorescent assay. Data analysis was done using SPSS V-20 (IBM Corp, 2012). P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULT: Seropositivity was 25.1% (133/529) and 8.1% (43/529) for anti- IgG and IgM respectively. CONCLUSION: The high IgM prevalence detected indicate the probability of active transmission with a potential of public health significance that calls for a proactive follow up of the communities in the study area to forecast and avert the risk.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/epidemiologia , Febre/sangue , Febre/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/virologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008056, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970674

RESUMO

The robust estimate and forecast capability of random forests (RF) has been widely recognized, however this ensemble machine learning method has not been widely used in mosquito-borne disease forecasting. In this study, two sets of RF models were developed at the national (pooled department-level data) and department level in Colombia to predict weekly dengue cases for 12-weeks ahead. A pooled national model based on artificial neural networks (ANN) was also developed and used as a comparator to the RF models. The various predictors included historic dengue cases, satellite-derived estimates for vegetation, precipitation, and air temperature, as well as population counts, income inequality, and education. Our RF model trained on the pooled national data was more accurate for department-specific weekly dengue cases estimation compared to a local model trained only on the department's data. Additionally, the forecast errors of the national RF model were smaller to those of the national pooled ANN model and were increased with the forecast horizon increasing from one-week-ahead (mean absolute error, MAE: 9.32) to 12-weeks ahead (MAE: 24.56). There was considerable variation in the relative importance of predictors dependent on forecast horizon. The environmental and meteorological predictors were relatively important for short-term dengue forecast horizons while socio-demographic predictors were relevant for longer-term forecast horizons. This study demonstrates the potential of RF in dengue forecasting with a feasible approach of using a national pooled model to forecast at finer spatial scales. Furthermore, including sociodemographic predictors is likely to be helpful in capturing longer-term dengue trends.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Aedes , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008428, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853197

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Aedes-borne diseases, in particular, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika, are increasing at an alarming rate due to urbanisation, population movement, weak vector control programmes, and climate change. The World Health Organization calls for strengthening of vector control programmes in line with the Global Vector Control Response (GVCR) strategy, and many vector control programmes are transitioning to this new approach. The Singapore dengue control programme, situated within the country's larger vision of a clean, green, and sustainable environment for the health and well-being of its citizens, provides an excellent example of the GVCR approach in action. Since establishing vector control operations in the 1960s, the Singapore dengue control programme succeeded in reducing the dengue force of infection 10-fold by the 1990s and has maintained it at low levels ever since. Key to this success is consideration of dengue as an environmental disease, with a strong focus on source reduction and other environmental management methods as the dominant vector control strategy. The programme collaborates closely with other government ministries, as well as town councils, communities, the private sector, and academic and research institutions. Community engagement programmes encourage source reduction, and house-to-house inspections accompanied by a strong legislative framework with monetary penalties help to support compliance. Strong vector and epidemiological surveillance means that routine control activities can be heightened to specifically target dengue clusters. Despite its success, the programme continues to innovate to tackle challenges such as climate change, low herd immunity, and manpower constraints. Initiatives include development of novel vector controls such as Wolbachia-infected males and spatiotemporal models for dengue risk assessment. Lessons learnt from the Singapore programme can be applied to other settings, even those less well-resourced than Singapore, for more effective vector control.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Participação da Comunidade , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Singapura/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 580, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) causes the hospitalisation of an estimated 500,000 people every year. Outbreaks can severely stress healthcare systems, especially in rural settings. It is difficult to discriminate patients who need to be hospitalized from those that do not. Earlier work identified thrombocyte count and subsequent function as a promising prognostic marker of DENV severity. Herein, we investigated the potential of quantitative thrombocyte function tests in those admitted in the very early phase of acute DENV infections, using Multiplate™ multiple-electrode aggregometry to explore its potential in triage. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study all patients aged ≥13 admitted to Universitas Airlangga Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia with a fever (≥38 °C) between 25 January and 1 August 2018 and with a clinical suspicion of DENV, were eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria were a thrombocyte count below 100 × 109/L and the use of any medication with a known anticoagulant effect, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetyl salicylic acid. Clinical data was collected and blood was taken on admission, day 1 and day 7. Samples were tested for acute DENV, using Panbio NS1 ELISA. Platelet aggregation using ADP-, TRAP- and COL-test were presented as Area Under the aggregation Curve (AUC). Significance was tested between DENV+, probably DENV, fever of another origin, and healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: A total of 59 patients (DENV+ n = 10, DENV probable n = 25, fever other origin n = 24) and 20 HC were included. We found a significantly lower thrombocyte aggregation in the DENV+ group, compared with both HCs and the fever of another origin group (p < .001). Low ADP AUC values on baseline correlated to a longer hospital stay in DENV+ and probable DENV cases. CONCLUSION: Thrombocyte aggregation induced by Adenosine diphosphate, Collagen and Thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 is impaired in human DENV cases, compared with healthy controls and other causes of fever. This explorative study provides insights to thrombocyte function in DENV patients and could potentially serve as a future marker in DENV disease.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Testes Imediatos , Difosfato de Adenosina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dengue/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Agregação Plaquetária , Contagem de Plaquetas , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140336, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758966

RESUMO

Dengue fever is mosquito borne viral disease caused by dengue virus and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. In recent years the dengue has spread rapidly to several regions and it becomes a major public health menace globally. Dengue transmission is strongly influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and rainfall. In the present study, a climate driven dengue model was developed and predicted areas vulnerable for dengue transmission under the present and future climate change scenarios in India. The study also projected the dengue distribution risk map using representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) in India in 2018-2030 (forthcoming period), 2031-2050 (intermediate period) and 2051-2080 (long period). The dengue cases assessed in India from 1998 to 2018 and found that the dengue transmission is gradually increasing year over year. The temperature data from 1980 to 2017 shows that, the mean temperatures are raising in the Southern region of India. During 2000-2017 periods the dengue transmission is steadily increasing across the India in compare with 1980-1999 periods. The dengue distribution risk is predicted and it is revealed that the coastal states have yearlong transmission possibility, but the high transmission potential is observed throughout the monsoon period. Due to the climate change, the expansion two more months of dengue transmission risk occurs in many regions of India. Both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios revealed that dengue outbreaks might occur at larger volume in Southern, Eastern, and Central regions of India. Furthermore a sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the impact of climate change on dengue transmission. These results helps to suggest appropriate control measures should be implemented to limit the spread in future warmer climates. Besides these, a proper plan is required to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to reduce the epidemic potential of dengue in India.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue/epidemiologia , Animais , Mudança Climática , Surtos de Doenças , Índia
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1220-1222, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762798

RESUMO

Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic areas complicates the diagnosis of both infections. COVID-19 cases may be misdiagnosed as dengue, particularly when relying on DENV IgM, which can remain positive months after infection. To estimate the extent of this problem, we evaluated sera from 42 confirmed COVID-19 patients for evidence of DENV infection. No cases of SARS-CoV-2 and DENV coinfection were identified. However, recent DENV infection, indicated by the presence of DENV IgM and/or high level of IgG antibodies, was found in seven patients. Dengue virus IgM and/or high IgG titer should not exclude COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is appropriate when dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) or RT-PCR is negative. Given the possibility of coinfection, testing for both DENV and SARS-CoV-2 is merited in the setting of the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008541, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764758

RESUMO

In 2019, dengue incidences increased dramatically in many countries. However, the prospective growth in dengue incidence did not occur in Guangzhou, China. We examined the effectiveness of early start of Grade III response to dengue in Guangzhou. We extracted the data on daily number of dengue cases during 2017-2019 in Guangzhou and weekly data for Foshan and Zhongshan from the China National Notifiable Disease Reporting System, while the data on weekly number of positive ovitraps for adult and larval Aedes albopictus were obtained from Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We estimated the number of dengue cases prevented by bringing forward the starting time of Grade III response from September in 2017-2018 to August in 2019 in Guangzhou using a quasi-Poisson regression model and applied the Baron and Kenny's approach to explore whether mosquito vector density was a mediator of the protective benefit. In Guangzhou, early start of Grade III response was associated with a decline in dengue incidence (relative risk [RR]: 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.70), with 987 (95% CI: 521-1,593) cases averted in 2019. The rate of positive ovitraps also significantly declined (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.53-0.77). Moreover, both mosquito vector density and early start of Grade III response was significantly associated with dengue incidence after adjustment for each other. By comparing with the incidence in Foshan and Zhongshan where the Grade III response has not been taken, benefits from the response starting in August were confirmed but not if starting from September. Early start of Grade III response has effectively mitigated the dengue burden in Guangzhou, China, which might be partially through reducing the mosquito vector density. Our findings have important public health implications for development and implementation of dengue control interventions for Guangzhou and other locations with dengue epidemics.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Adulto , Aedes/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Larva , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008528, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764763

RESUMO

House Index, Container Index, and Breteau Index are the most commonly used indices for dengue vector surveillance. However, these larval indices are a poor proxy for measuring the adult population-which is responsible for disease transmission. Information on the adult distribution and density are important for assessing transmission risk as well as for developing effective control strategies. This study introduces a new entomological index, Gravitrap aegypti index (GAI), which estimates the adult female Aedes aegypti population in the community and presents its association with dengue cases. Gravitraps were deployed across 34 treatment sites in Singapore from September 2013 to September 2016. The GAI, derived from the Gravitrap surveillance data, was analysed to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of the Ae. aegypti population in Singapore. The index was further categorised into low, moderate, and high-risk groups and its association with dengue cases were examined. A Before-After Control Impact analysis was performed to evaluate the epidemiology impact of Gravitrap system on dengue transmission. The Ae. aegypti population exhibits a seasonal pattern, and spatial heterogeneity in Ae. aegypti abundance was observed among treatment sites. The Ae. aegypti population was also found to be unevenly distributed among floors of an apartment block, with low floors (floors 1-4) having a higher abundance of mosquitoes trapped than mid (floors 5-8) and high (floors ≥9) floors. Areas with high GAI were shown to have higher dengue case count. Gravitrap has also demonstrated to be a good dengue control tool. The contribution of cases by treatment sites to the national numbers was lower after Gravitraps deployment. The GAI, which is of better relevance to dengue transmission risk, could be recommended as an indicator for decision making in vector control efforts, and to monitor the spatio-temporal variability of the adult Aedes population in the country. In addition, findings from this study indicate that Gravitraps can be used as a dengue control tool to reduce dengue transmission.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Insetos Vetores , Densidade Demográfica , Singapura
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008535, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813703

RESUMO

Dengue fever occurs worldwide and about 1% of cases progress to severe haemorrhage and shock. Dengue is endemic in Guatemala and its surveillance system could document long term trends. We analysed 17 years of country-wide dengue surveillance data in Guatemala to describe epidemiological trends from 2000 to 2016.Data from the national dengue surveillance database were analysed to describe dengue serotype frequency, seasonality, and outbreaks. We used Poisson regression models to compare the number of cases each year with subsequent years and to estimate incidence ratios within serotype adjusted by age and gender. 91,554 samples were tested. Dengue was confirmed by RT-qPCR, culture or NS1-ELISA in 7097 (7.8%) cases and was IgM ELISA-positive in 19,290 (21.1%) cases. DENV1, DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4 were detected in 2218 (39.5%), 2580 (45.9%), 591 (10.5%), and 230 (4.1%) cases. DENV1 and DENV2 were the predominant serotypes, but all serotypes caused epidemics. The largest outbreak occurred in 2010 with 1080 DENV2 cases reported. The incidence was higher among adults during epidemic years, with significant increases in 2005, 2007, and 2013 DENV1 outbreaks, the 2010 DENV2 and 2003 DENV3 outbreaks. Adults had a lower incidence immediately after epidemics, which is likely linked to increased immunity.


Assuntos
Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sorogrupo , Sorotipagem/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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