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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27071, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449504

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of bone health in women working in agriculture and analyze the associations between bone health and various vitamin D-related biomarkers.This observational study enrolled women working in agriculture (n = 210) and control occupations (n = 180). The concentration of serum total 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured using the Elecsys Vitamin D Total Kit, and serum vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Along with albumin, 25(OH)D and VDBP were used to calculate the concentrations of bioavailable and free 25(OH)D. Bone mineral density (BMD) and T-score were measured at lumbar 1 to 4 and the femur neck using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To identify factors affecting BMD, log-linear model and linear regression analysis were performed for statistical analysis.Agricultural women workers showed higher serum concentrations of bioavailable 25(OH)D (12.8 ±â€Š3.7 vs 8.7 ±â€Š5.1 ng/mL) and lower VDBP concentrations (201.8 ±â€Š45.0 vs 216.0 ±â€Š68.2 µg/mL) than control women. The association between these 2 vitamin D related-biomarkers and femur neck BMD were confirmed through univariable and multivariable linear model analysis. Although lumbar BMD did not differ between groups, the agricultural group displayed a lower femur BMD and a 4.3-fold increase in the risk of osteoporosis compared with the control group.Women working in agriculture showed lower femur BMD than the control group. Of the vitamin D-related biomarkers tested, bioavailable 25(OH)D and VDBP were associated with BMD. As bioavailable 25(OH)D levels are affected mainly by VDBP levels, VDBP may play a role in the lower femur neck BMD values observed in the agricultural group. Thus, the measurement of VDBP concentration might be considered a simple and non-invasive method for measuring bone health status.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Fazendeiros , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albumina Sérica , Vitamina D/sangue
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204378

RESUMO

In patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), treated by diet therapy only, evidence suggests that areal bone mineral density (BMDa) is within the normal clinical reference range but is below the population norm. AIMS: To study longitudinal bone density, mass, and geometry over 36 months in children with PKU taking either amino acid (L-AA) or casein glycomacropeptide substitutes (CGMP-AA) as their main protein source. METHODOLOGY: A total of 48 subjects completed the study, 19 subjects in the L-AA group (median age 11.1, range 5-16 years) and 29 subjects in the CGMP-AA group (median age 8.3, range 5-16 years). The CGMP-AA was further divided into two groups, CGMP100 (median age 9.2, range 5-16 years) (n = 13), children taking CGMP-AA only and CGMP50 (median age 7.3, range 5-15 years) (n = 16), children taking a combination of CGMP-AA and L-AA. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was measured at enrolment and 36 months, peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) at 36 months only, and serum blood and urine bone turnover markers (BTM) and blood bone biochemistry at enrolment, 6, 12, and 36 months. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the three groups for DXA outcome parameters, i.e., BMDa (L2-L4 BMDa g/cm2), bone mineral apparent density (L2-L4 BMAD g/cm3) and total body less head BMDa (TBLH g/cm2). All blood biochemistry markers were within the reference ranges, and BTM showed active bone turnover with a trend for BTM to decrease with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Bone density was clinically normal, although the median z scores were below the population mean. BTM showed active bone turnover and blood biochemistry was within the reference ranges. There appeared to be no advantage to bone density, mass, or geometry from taking a macropeptide-based protein substitute as compared with L-AAs.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/genética , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Remodelação Óssea , Caseínas/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Osteoporose , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/urina
3.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(7): 359-365, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234091

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article discusses the "bidirectional" relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and physical activity. Intestinal symptoms and extraintestinal manifestations of IBD negatively impact a patient's ability to participate in sports. IBD also impacts athletic performance via its effects on muscle mass, muscle function, bone density, and fatigue. Surveys of IBD patients consistently show that IBD interferes with athletic participation. While IBD negatively affects physical activity, there is growing evidence that physical activity can be beneficial for IBD patients. Prospective studies have revealed that structured physical activities may positively influence inflammatory markers, disease activity, muscle strength, bone density, fatigue, stress, anxiety, and quality of life. This suggests that physical activity may be a simple and safe adjuvant therapy for IBD patients. Future studies assessing the optimal activity regimen are warranted. Finally, a cohort of professional athletes with IBD are described for the first time - football players in the National Football League.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Eritema Nodoso/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/prevenção & controle , Artropatias/classificação , Artropatias/etiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Pioderma Gangrenoso/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Esclerite/etiologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Uveíte/etiologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200558

RESUMO

(1) Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are frequent pathologies among the geriatric population. The interlink between these two diseases is supported by their common pathophysiology. The aim is to explore the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in women aged 75 or older. (2) From January 2016 to December 2019, women aged 75 or older of Caucasian ethnicity, who were addressed to perform a biphoton absorptiometry (DXA), were included in this observational study. Femoral neck T-score, lean mass, fat mass, and physical performances were measured. (3) The mean age of 101 patients included was 84.8 (±4.9) years old. Osteoporosis was present in 72% of patients. According to EWGSOP criteria, 37% of patients were sarcopenic. Osteosarcopenia was present in 34% of patients. The femoral neck T-score was significantly associated with fat mass (ß = 0.02, 95% CI (0.01; 0.03), p < 0.05) in multivariable analysis. Osteosarcopenic patients had significantly lower fat mass (16.2 kg (±6.8) vs. 23.1 kg (±10.8), p < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (20.7 kg/m2 (±2.8) vs. 26.7 kg/m2 (±5.6), p < 0.001). (4) In postmenopausal women, fat mass is estimated to provide hormonal protection. While osteosarcopenia is described as a lipotoxic disease, fat mass and BMI would appear to protect against the risk of osteosarcopenia. This raises questions about the relevance of BMI and DXA.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298936

RESUMO

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a well-suited methodology to study bone composition and structural properties. This is because the NMR parameters, such as the T2 relaxation time, are sensitive to the chemical and physical environment of the 1H nuclei. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows bone structure assessment in vivo, its cost limits the suitability of conventional MRI for routine bone screening. With difficulty accessing clinically suitable exams, the diagnosis of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, and the associated fracture risk estimation is based on the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD), obtained by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, integrating the information about the structure of the bone with the bone mineral density has been shown to improve fracture risk estimation related to osteoporosis. Portable NMR, based on low-field single-sided NMR devices, is a promising and appealing approach to assess NMR properties of biological tissues with the aim of medical applications. Since these scanners detect the signal from a sensitive volume external to the magnet, they can be used to perform NMR measurement without the need to fit a sample inside a bore of a magnet, allowing, in principle, in vivo application. Techniques based on NMR single-sided devices have the potential to provide a high impact on the clinical routine because of low purchasing and running costs and low maintenance of such scanners. In this review, the development of new methodologies to investigate structural properties of trabecular bone exploiting single-sided NMR devices is reviewed, and current limitations and future perspectives are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Animais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3247, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059688

RESUMO

The Wnt signaling pathway is intricately connected with bone mass regulation in humans and rodent models. We designed an antibody-based platform that generates potent and selective Wnt mimetics. Using this platform, we engineer bi-specific Wnt mimetics that target Frizzled and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins and evaluate their effects on bone accrual in murine models. These synthetic Wnt agonists induce rapid and robust bone building effects, and correct bone mass deficiency and bone defects in various disease models, including osteoporosis, aging, and long bone fracture. Furthermore, when these Wnt agonists are combined with antiresorptive bisphosphonates or anti-sclerostin antibody therapies, additional bone accrual/maintenance effects are observed compared to monotherapy, which could benefit individuals with severe and/or acute bone-building deficiencies. Our data support the continued development of Wnt mimetics for the treatment of diseases of low bone mineral density, including osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Fêmur/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Wnt/agonistas , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/patologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/lesões , Fêmur/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beach handball is a recent team sport characterized by defensive and offensive actions on a sand surface. Scientific evidence has shown that body composition is fundamental in sports performance. The main objective of this study was to know the body composition, anthropometric characteristics, and bone mineral density of elite beach handball players. Furthermore, another purpose was to analyze the differences between categories (junior and senior) and playing position. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study of 36 male players (18 juniors and 18 seniors) of the Spanish National Beach Handball Team was conducted. Full profile anthropometry and calcaneal ultrasound measurements were used. Results: Significant differences between categories (p < 0.05) were found in: height, body mass, arm span, BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, skinfolds, and body perimeters. The somatotype changes depending on the playing position. Bone mineral density of the players was adequate. No significant differences were found by playing position. Conclusions: Senior players had a better body composition due to the presence of less fat mass than junior players. This study provides reference values of elite junior and senior beach handball players and by playing positions. This data is useful for the identification of talents and players who should be trained to improve their body composition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(2): 241-250, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061774

RESUMO

Objective: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is associated with osteoporosis and high fracture risk. Besides male sex, it is unknown which variables influence bone mineral density (BMD) at diagnosis and it is unclear to what extent BMD normalizes during long-term follow-up after treatment of CS. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with BMD at diagnosis of CS and to determine the long-term course of BMD and fracture rate after successful treatment of CS. Design: Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study. Methods: Data were collected from 231 patients with CS who were treated at the Radboud University Medical Centre between 1968 and 2020. Results: At diagnosis, male sex was associated with lower Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) compared with female sex: -0.97s.d. (-1.45 to -0.49) after correction for possible confounders. Shorter duration of symptoms and younger age were also associated with lower Z-scores at diagnosis, while etiology of CS, urinary cortisol excretion and gonadal status were not associated with Z-scores at diagnosis. Z-scores improved up to 20 years after treatment. Fifteen years after treatment, men showed larger improvements of Z-scores than women; +2.56 (1.82-3.30) increase in LS Z-score vs +1.48 (0.96-2.00) respectively. Fracture incidence was highest during the 2 years before diagnosis and decreased after treatment. Conclusion: Male sex, younger age and shorter duration of symptoms are associated with lower BMD at diagnosis of CS. BMD continues to improve up to 20 years after treatment of CS. Fracture rate decreases after treatment of CS.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/reabilitação , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067582

RESUMO

Osteosarcopenia, the coexistence of bone and muscle loss, is common in older adults, but its definition lacks international consensus. This cross-sectional study (n = 1199 post-menopausal women) aimed to determine the association between osteosarcopenia and fragility fractures and to investigate the impact of the definition of the "osteo" component. Bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the trabecular bone score (TBS), respectively. The "osteo" component of osteosarcopenia was classified as osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5 SD), osteopenia/osteoporosis (T-score < -1 SD), and high-fracture-risk osteopenia (-2.5 SD < T-score < -1 SD)/osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5 SD). The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool was used to identify high-fracture-risk osteopenia. Altogether, 30.3%, 32.2%, 14.4%, and 23.1% of participants had osteosarcopenia, osteoporosis alone, sarcopenia alone, and neither condition, respectively. The odds ratios between osteosarcopenia and fragility fractures were 3.70 (95% CI: 1.94-7.04) for osteosarcopenia, 2.48 (95% CI: 1.30-4.71) for osteoporosis alone, and 1.87 (95% CI: 0.84-4.14) for sarcopenia alone. Women with osteosarcopenia also had lower TBS, indicating worse bone microarchitecture. In conclusion, women with osteosarcopenia were more likely to have previously sustained a fracture compared to those without osteosarcopenia, with sarcopenia alone, and with osteoporosis alone. The relationship between osteosarcopenia and fracture risk may be best identified when considering high-fracture-risk osteopenia and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Osso Esponjoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral
10.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2726-2733, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have reported the causal association between serum calcium levels and bone mineral density (BMD). The results showed that genetically increased serum calcium levels in individuals with normal calcium levels did not increase BMD and could even reduce BMD. However, whether there are differences in the association between serum calcium and BMD in different age strata remains unclear. METHODS: We selected eight serum calcium genetic variants with genome-wide significance (P < 5.00E-08) as the potential instrumental variables. We conducted an MR analysis to evaluate the impact of serum calcium levels on total body BMD in five age strata, 0-15, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60, and ≥60 years, using large-scale serum calcium (61,079 individuals) and total body BMD genome-wide association study (66,628 individuals) datasets. For pleiotropy analysis, we used a manual method and four common statistical methods, namely the MR-Egger intercept, MR-PRESSO, heterogeneity, and Steiger filtering tests. For MR analysis, we selected four MR methods, namely inverse-variance weighted, weighted median, MR-Egger, and MR-PRESSO. In addition to the univariable MR analysis, we conducted a multivariate MR analysis taking into account the effect of serum parathyroid hormone levels. RESULTS: Univariable MR analysis using the inverse-variance weighted method indicated that per 0.5-mg/dL increase (about 1 standard deviation) in serum calcium levels was statistically significantly associated with reduced total body BMD only in the ≥60 years stratum (effect estimate (beta) = -0.545, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.892 to -0.198, P = 0.002). The weighted median regression (beta = -0.446, 95% CI: -0.821 to -0.094, P = 1.40E-02) and MR-PRESSO (beta = -0.545, 95% CI: -0.892 to -0.198, P = 0.022) MR methods further supported this suggestive association. The multivariable MR analysis also found a significant association between increased serum calcium levels and reduced total body BMD in the ≥60 years stratum (beta = -0.547, 95% CI: -0.934 to -0.16, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide genetic evidence that increased serum calcium levels did not improve BMD in the general population and that the elevated serum calcium levels in generally healthy populations, especially in adults older than 60 years, may even reduce the BMD. Our results are comparable with those of recent MR findings.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Cálcio/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(2): 578-587, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma homocysteine has been found to be associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis, especially hip and vertebral fractures. The plasma concentration of homocysteine is dependent on the activities of several B vitamin-dependent enzymes, such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS). OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether genetic variants in some of the genes involved in 1 carbon metabolism modify the association of B vitamin-related measures with bone mineral density (BMD) and strength. METHODS: We measured several B vitamins and biomarkers in participants of the Framingham Offspring Study, and performed analyses of methylmalonic acid (MMA) continuously and <210 nmol/L; pyridoxal-5'-phosphate; vitamin B-12 continuously and ≥258 pmol/L; and folate. The outcomes of interest included areal and volumetric BMD, measured by DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. We evaluated associations between the bone measures and interactions of single nucleotide polymorphism with a B vitamin or biomarker in Framingham participants (n = 4310 for DXA and n = 3127 for QCT). For analysis of DXA, we validated the association results in the B-PROOF cohort (n = 1072). Bonferroni-corrected locus-wide significant thresholds were defined to account for multiple testing. RESULTS: The interactions between rs2274976 and vitamin B-12 and rs34671784 and MMA <210 nmol/L were associated with lumbar spine BMD, and the interaction between rs6586281 and vitamin B-12 ≥258 pmol/L was associated with femoral neck BMD. For QCT-derived traits, 62 interactions between genetic variants and B vitamins and biomarkers were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Some genetic variants in the 1-carbon methylation pathway modify the association of B vitamin and biomarker concentrations with bone density and strength.  These interactions require further replication and functional validation for a mechanistic understanding of the role of the 1-carbon metabolism pathway on BMD and risks of fracture.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Ácido Metilmalônico/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Metilmalônico/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 12/metabolismo , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Vitamina B 6/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Orthop Nurs ; 40(3): 169-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004616

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a public health problem affecting individuals globally. Yoga has been found to prevent and reverse bone loss. Yoga may result in better balance, improved posture, and greater range of motion, strength, and coordination, all factors that also mitigate the risk of falls and fractures. A 12-minute, 12-pose yoga regimen is discussed in detail. Once learned, the ongoing use of yoga is safe, without cost, and may be done lifelong.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Postura/fisiologia , Ioga/psicologia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25606, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis (OP) is an age-related disease characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility. It is more common in older people and postmenopausal women. As a new type of exercise training for OP, whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been proved to have a good effect on postmenopausal women with OP. It can increase bone density and improve strength and balance in postmenopausal population, which has certain clinical value, but lacks evidence-based medicine evidence. This study aims to systematically study the effectiveness of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP. METHODS: The English databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library) and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Network, Wanfang, Weipu, China Biomedical Database) were searched by computer. From the establishment of the database to February 2021, the randomized controlled clinical studies on WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP were conducted. The quality of the included studies was independently extracted by 2 researchers and literature quality was evaluated. Meta-analysis of the included studies was performed using RevMan5.3 software. RESULTS: In this study, the efficacy and safety of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP were evaluated by lumbar spine bone density, femoral neck bone density, pain, incidence of falls, incidence of fractures, and quality of life scale score, etc. CONCLUSION: This study will provide reliable evidences for the clinical application of WBV exercise on postmenopausal women with OP. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also does not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval will not be required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated at relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/WPYT9.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/terapia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/complicações , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(6): 751-758, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892918

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Some studies indicate an association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined the association between body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) among patients with CAD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of men (n = 73) with established CAD and age and sex matched controls (n=65) were included in the study. Data collected included socio-demographic information, disease related data (from cases), anthropometric measurements, serum vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous and body composition analysis using DEXA. Two groups were compared using independent sample t-test, Mann Whitney U-test or Chi square test. Pearson correlation and regression models were used to test the associations between body compartments. RESULTS: Among cases, the mean disease duration was 29 (range 5-192) months and 15% had triple vessel disease. Patients had higher mean total body fat mass (TBFM) (18869.7 vs 16733.0) g, p = 0.018), truncal fat mass (TRFM) (9259.1 vs 7992.5 g, p = 0.009) and fat percentage (28.6 vs 25.9%, p = 0.001) compared to controls. Median serum vitamin D level was significantly lower among patients (20.0 ng/mL) compared to controls (27.1 ng/mL) (p = 0.003). In both groups, TBFM and total body lean mass (TBLM) both showed significant positive correlations with total body BMD/BMC and regional BMDs. Of the two, TBLM emerged the best predictor of TBBMC/TBBMD. These associations were greater among patients than controls. CONCLUSIONS: TBLM appears to be the strongest predictor of TBBMD and TBBMC in patients and controls. The strength of associations was greater among patients compared to controls even after adjusting for possible confounders .


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Antropometria/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920153

RESUMO

Despite the adverse metabolic and functional consequences of obesity, caloric restriction- (CR) induced weight loss is often contra-indicated in older adults with obesity due to the accompanying loss of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and subsequent increased risk of fracture. Several studies show a positive effect of exercise on aBMD among weight-stable older adults; however, data on the ability of exercise to mitigate bone loss secondary to CR are surprisingly equivocal. The purpose of this review is to provide a focused update of the randomized controlled trial literature assessing the efficacy of exercise as a countermeasure to CR-induced bone loss among older adults. Secondarily, we present data demonstrating the occurrence of exercise-induced changes in bone biomarkers, offering insight into why exercise is not more effective than observed in mitigating CR-induced bone loss.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Osteoporose/sangue , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 42-48, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SCFAs are involved in regulation of body weight and bone health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine whether genetic variations related to butyrate modified the relation between dietary fiber intake and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in response to weight-loss dietary interventions. METHODS: In the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial, 424 participants with BMD measured by DXA scan were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient intakes. A polygenic score (PGS) was calculated based on 7 genetic variants related to the production of butyrate for 370 of the 424 participants. RESULTS: SCFA PGS significantly modified the association between baseline dietary fiber intake and sex on 2-y changes in whole-body BMD (P-interaction = 0.049 and 0.008). In participants with the highest tertile of SCFA PGS, higher dietary fiber intake was related to a greater increase in BMD (ß:  0.0022; 95% CI: 0.0009, 0.0035; P = 0.002), whereas no such association was found for participants in the lower tertiles. In the lowest tertiles of SCFA PGS, men showed a significant increase in whole-body BMD (ß: 0.0280; 95% CI: 0.0112, 0.0447; P = 0.002) compared with women. In the highest tertile, no significant difference was found for the change in BMD between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that genetic variants related to butyrate modify the relations of dietary fiber intake and sex with long-term changes in BMD in response to weight-loss diet interventions.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Perda de Peso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925942

RESUMO

Osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts embedded within the bone matrix and key orchestrators of bone metabolism. However, they are generally not characterized by conventional bone histomorphometry because of their location and the limited resolution of light microscopy. OI is characterized by disturbed bone homeostasis, matrix abnormalities and elevated bone matrix mineralization density. To gain further insights into osteocyte characteristics and bone metabolism in OI, we evaluated 2D osteocyte lacunae sections (OLS) based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging in transiliac bone biopsy samples from children with OI type I (n = 19) and age-matched controls (n = 24). The OLS characteristics were related to previously obtained, re-visited histomorphometric parameters. Moreover, we present pediatric bone mineralization density distribution reference data in OI type I (n = 19) and controls (n = 50) obtained with a field emission scanning electron microscope. Compared to controls, OI has highly increased OLS density in cortical and trabecular bone (+50.66%, +61.73%; both p < 0.001), whereas OLS area is slightly decreased in trabecular bone (-10.28%; p = 0.015). Correlation analyses show a low to moderate, positive association of OLS density with surface-based bone formation parameters and negative association with indices of osteoblast function. In conclusion, hyperosteocytosis of the hypermineralized OI bone matrix associates with abnormal bone cell metabolism and might further impact the mechanical competence of the bone tissue.


Assuntos
Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteogênese Imperfeita/metabolismo , Osteogênese Imperfeita/patologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Matriz Óssea/patologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoblastos/patologia , Osteócitos/patologia , Osteócitos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804764

RESUMO

The present study longitudinally evaluated growth, bone mineral density, body composition, and metabolic health outcome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants whose in-hospital target nutrient intake was within recent recommendations. From six months to three years, bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), body composition, and metabolic health outcome were compared with a reference group of term infants. The aim was to test whether in-hospital achieved weight gain until 36 weeks of gestation (light or appropriate for term equivalent age; LTEA or ATEA) predicts later growth, bone mineral density (BMD), abdominal obesity, or metabolic health outcomes such as insulin resistance, relative to term infants, during the first three years of life. Target in-hospital energy and protein intake was not achieved. Growth in weight, length and head circumference, mid arm circumference, adiposity, fat free mass (FFM), and bone mineralization in VLBW infants was less than those in term infants and influenced by nutritional status at discharge. Preterm infants had poorer motor and cognitive outcomes. Post-discharge body composition patterns indicate FFM proportional to height but lower fat mass index in LTEA preterm infants than term infants, with no evidence of increased truncal fat in preterm infants. The hypothesis of early BMD catch-up in VLBW infants after discharge was not supported by the present data. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear. The data may suggest a reduced obesity risk but an increased osteoporosis risk. Since postnatal growth restriction may have permanent negative health effects, LTEA VLBW infants would especially appear to benefit from targeted preventive interventions. Further follow-up of the infants is required.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Ganho de Peso
19.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916331

RESUMO

AIM: to evaluate the potential association of macronutrient intake in the first postnatal weeks on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in extremely and very preterm infants. METHODS: fifty-eight extremely and very preterm infants were included. Daily macronutrient intake was calculated in g kg-1 day-1 from birth up to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body scan was used to assess BMC and BMD in preterm infants at term corrected age (TCA) and six months corrected age (CA). RESULTS: fat intake (g kg-1 day-1) in the first four postnatal weeks was positively associated with BMC and BMD at TCA. At six months CA, protein and fat intake (g kg-1 day-1) in the first weeks of life were both individual predictors for BMD. Fat intake (g kg-1 day-1) in the first four postnatal weeks was significantly associated with BMC at six months CA. CONCLUSION: the association of macronutrient intake in the first postnatal weeks on BMC or BMD, at TCA and six months CA, suggest that early nutritional intervention immediately after birth and during early infancy is important for bone health in the first months of life.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916336

RESUMO

The relationship between oral frailty (OF) and bone mineral density is unclear. This cross-sectional study analyzed the relationship between mineral intake and bone mineral density in middle-aged and older people with pre-oral and OF. The participants, which included 240 people aged 40 years and older, completed the three oral questions on the Kihon Checklist (KCL), which is a self-reported comprehensive health checklist, the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), and the osteo-sono assessment index (OSI). A two-way analysis of covariance on oral function and OSI indicated that the intake of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, squid/octopus/shrimp/shellfish, carrots/pumpkins, and mushroom was significantly lower in the OF and low-OSI groups than in the non-OF and high-OSI groups. A multiple logistic regression analysis for OF showed that potassium, magnesium, phosphorous and carrots/pumpkins were significantly associated with OF in the low-OSI group but not in the high-OSI group. These results demonstrated that the decrease in mineral intake due to OF was associated with decreased bone mineral density, suggesting that the maintenance of oral function prevents a decrease in bone mineral density.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fragilidade/complicações , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
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