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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 248, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286298

RESUMO

Anti-caries activity of fluoride ions is due to the protection against demineralization and the enhancement of remineralization of tooth enamel. Dentifrices available on the market contain sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, stannous fluoride, and amine fluoride as source of these ions. A new compound working both as fluoride ion source and as abrasive was projected. Hybrids based on F- ions intercalated between the lamellae of hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc-F), namely MgAl-HTlc-F and ZnAl-HTlc-F, were prepared and characterized. Then, three different percentages (2, 3, and 4%) of both HTlc-F compounds were assayed. After the rheological characterization, the dentifrices containing 3 and 4% of MgAl-HTlc-F and ZnAl-HTlc-F, respectively, resulted to be the most suitable ones. Two novel in vitro methods, "rotary toothbrush method" and "manual brushing method," were developed and used in order to study the F- ions release from the prepared dentifrices. The obtained results showed that the dentifrice containing ZnAl-HTlc-F (4%) was the most effective in releasing fluoride ions. The "rotary toothbrush method" resulted to be the most suitable as the simulation of the brushing movements is standardizable and reproducible.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretos/química , Hidróxido de Magnésio/química , Fosfatos/química , Remineralização Dentária , Esmalte Dentário , Técnicas In Vitro
2.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2019: 1636209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186619

RESUMO

Context: The comparison of fluoride levels in saliva and plaque following the use of conventional, 2800 and 5000 ppm dentifrices for different time intervals up to 24 hours has not been explored. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess salivary and plaque fluoride levels at different time intervals following the use of high fluoride dentifrices. Study Design: This randomised control trial was conducted on sixty adolescents between the age group of 16 and 18 years divided into three groups A, B, and C. Intervention: Subjects were asked to brush the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth with one of the dentifrices for 2 min. Unstimulated whole saliva and plaque samples were collected at different time intervals. Fluoride levels were determined using SPADNS method. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using SPSS 20 Inc. by mixed repeated measure ANOVA. Results: A significant difference in fluoride levels was observed at different time intervals in both saliva (p=0.048) and plaque (p=0.03). The variance was low with time and concentration of the dentifrice used in saliva, whereas the magnitude of treatment was large for time (>0.25) but small for (<0.09) concentration in plaque. Conclusion: A significant difference in fluoride levels was observed at different time intervals in both saliva and plaque among the three groups. There was a positive correlation between fluoride levels in saliva and plaque. Both high fluoride dentifrices were effective in maintaining higher intraoral fluoride levels up to 12 hours and 5000 ppm up to 24 hours compared to conventional dentifrice.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/química , Dentifrícios/análise , Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretos/análise , Saliva/química , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais
3.
BMC Oral Health ; 19(1): 119, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bioactive glasses which degrade in aqueous solutions may release bioactive ions such as fluoride (F-) and support fluoride bioavailability in saliva. We investigated how these effects would be apparent in an in vivo experimental trial after toothbrushing in comparison with sodium fluoride and amine fluoride. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this single-center, randomized, parallel in vivo trial with a three strata block design, where healthy subjects were randomly assigned into three groups. Each group brushed their teeth either with fluoridated bioactive glass containing dentifrice, with a sodium fluoride (NaF) containing dentifrice or with amine fluoride (AmF) containing toothpaste. Saliva was collected time intervals before, immediately after, 30, 60 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Fluoride concentration was determined in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment using a fluoride ion selective electrode. The data were evaluated statistically using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: The increase of bioactive fluoride in supernatant saliva was higher after application of NaF or AmF compared to fluoridated bioactive glass. In salivary sediment bioavailability of fluoride lasted longer after application of fluoridated bioactive glass. CONCLUSIONS: Toothbrushing with the fluoride containing bioactive glass dentifrices had positive effects on the fluoride bioavailability within two hours. Fluoride containing bioactive glass represent a new area for investigation in caries prophylaxis. The bioactive potential impact on the tooth remineralization should be examined further. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS00016038 .


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/análise , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretos/análise , Saliva/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/química , Escovação Dentária , Aminas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Saliva/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Am J Dent ; 32(2): 81-88, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094142

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect on dentin of chondroitin sulfate and L-arginine on dentin tubule occlusion. METHODS: The dentin samples were activated by submersion in an aqueous ( aq. ) solution of chondroitin sulfate ( ChS) or L-arginine prior to application of a commercial or custom-made toothpaste. After rinsing with water and ultrasonication, adhesion to dentin and occlusion of dentin tubules were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and the elemental composition of the deposits was evaluated by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS: Rinsing a dentin sample with a solution of ChS resulted in an increase in the adherence of dentifrices containing either titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) or calcium-based nanoparticles [ hydroxyapatite ( HA\ or calcium carbonate( to the dentin surface. ChS does not appear to enhance the adherence of dentifrices lacking TiO2. Pretreatment by L-arginine improved adherence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles, but less efficiently than ChS. Addition of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite or calcium citrate to dentifrices improved their adherence to dentin without any pre-treatment. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The significant increase in adherence to the dentin surface of dentifrices of either TiO2 or calcium-supplying nanoparticles to the dentin surface following pre-treatment with ChS or L-arginine opens the door to the development of two-step dental treatments, which accomplish dentin tubule occlusion and help to deliver active dentifrice components to the dentin surface. The ability of the aqueous pastes of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite or calcium citrate to occlude dentin tubules enables the formulation of desensitizing dentifrices, which also supply the mineral and organic nutrients to the tooth surface.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios , Dessensibilizantes Dentinários , Sensibilidade da Dentina , Cremes Dentais , Arginina/farmacologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/farmacologia , Sulfatos de Condroitina/farmacologia , Dentifrícios/química , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Dentina , Fluoretos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia
5.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(10): 3713-3720, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a dentifrice that contains calcium silicate, sodium phosphate, and fluoride on erosive-abrasive enamel wear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized, single-blind in situ/ex vivo study was conducted with four crossover phases of 5 days (one group tested per phase). Bovine enamel blocks (n = 256) were allocated to 16 volunteers and 8 groups. The groups under study were test dentifrice, with calcium silicate, sodium phosphate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate; tin dentifrice, with 3500 ppm stannous chloride, 700 ppm amine fluoride, and 700 ppm sodium fluoride; conventional dentifrice, with 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate; and control (deionized water). Half of the enamel blocks were subjected to erosion and the other half to erosion plus abrasion. The daily extraoral protocol consisted in four citric acid exposures (2 min) and two applications of dentifrice slurry on all blocks for 30 s; after, half of the blocks were brushed for 15 s. The response variable was enamel loss. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Fisher's test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: For erosion, the test dentifrice promoted less enamel loss than water (4.7 ± 3.1 and 5.8 ± 2.5 µm, respectively, p < 0.05), and did not differ from tin (4.8 ± 2.5 µm) and conventional (4.8 ± 1.4 µm) dentifrices (p > 0.05). However, the test dentifrice (7.7 ± 3.8 µm) promoted higher wear after erosive plus abrasive procedures than tin (5.4 ± 1.5 µm) and conventional (6.2 ± 1.7 µm, p < 0.05) dentifrices, and did not differ from water (6.9 ± 2.0 µm). CONCLUSIONS: The investigated dentifrice reduced enamel loss against acid challenge but had no effect against acid and brushing challenge. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Little is known regarding the preventive effect of dentifrices indicated for dental erosion. The tested anti-erosive dentifrice was unable to protect enamel when erosion was associated to toothbrushing abrasion.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Dentifrícios/química , Fosfatos/química , Silicatos/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/química , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos Cross-Over , Esmalte Dentário , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego , Escovação Dentária
6.
Oper Dent ; 44(1): 76-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate the effect of a remineralizing gel combining fluoride and calcium silicate/phosphate or a sodium fluoride gel on bleached enamel microhardness, color, and wear susceptibility. METHODS AND MATERIALS:: Two hundred forty bovine enamel-dentin samples were prepared. Baseline analysis of Knoop microhardness, color coordinates (L*a*b*), and surface profile were performed. According to the baseline microhardness values, specimens were stratified into six groups (n=40): NC (negative control)-no treatment; BL (positive control)-bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide gel (Opalescence Boost, Ultradent); BL/Rs-bleaching + application of calcium silicate/phosphate gel (Regenerate Serum, Unilever - Rs); Rs/BL-Rs + bleaching; Rs/BL/Rs-Rs + bleaching + Rs; and BL/F-bleaching + 2% sodium fluoride gel. After the treatment described for each group, color change (ΔE) and microhardness were evaluated again. To evaluate abrasion susceptibility, samples were randomly divided into two subgroups, according to the toothpaste used (Cp-Close Up or Rt-Regenerate), and underwent 100,000 brushing strokes. The profile of each sample was evaluated and the mean wear calculated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests. RESULTS:: All bleached groups showed a significant reduction of microhardness in relation to the negative control. The groups treated with remineralizing gels showed a significantly higher microhardness and less wear than the positive control, although nonsignificant differences were observed among them. Nonsignificant differences in ΔE were found among bleached groups. The groups brushed with Regenerate toothpaste showed significantly less wear than those brushed with Close Up toothpaste. CONCLUSIONS:: The remineralizing gels did not interfere with bleaching efficacy. However, all the treatments minimized the surface hardness reduction caused by the bleaching procedure and enamel loss after abrasion. Regenerate toothpaste resulted in less enamel abrasion.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Clareamento Dental/efeitos adversos , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Desgaste dos Dentes/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Bovinos , Cor , Dentifrícios/química , Géis/química , Dureza , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Silicatos/química , Fluoreto de Sódio/química , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
J Prosthodont ; 28(2): e857-e862, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29235702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of experimental (Ricinus communis) and commercial dentifrices used for denture cleaning on abrasiveness (gravimetric method; roughness), hardness, and color stability of a resilient relining material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty circular (15 × 3 mm) specimens were distributed into four groups: C (control; brushing with water); CO (brushing with Colgate - for natural teeth); CB (brushing with Corega Brite - for complete dentures); RC (brushing with experimental dentifrice). Brushing was performed in a toothbrushing machine with a soft brush and a dentifrice suspension for 50 minutes, calculated to correspond to 1 year of regular brushing. Variables were measured initially and after the trial period. For the gravimetric method, the difference in mass was considered. The surface roughness was measured by a rugosimeter, and the hardness test was performed by a Shore A durometer. Color changes (ΔE; CIE L*a*b* and NBS systems) were measured by a portable spectrophotometer. Results were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The largest mass variation (µg; p < 0.0001) occurred in C (-6.21 ± 3.18). Concerning roughness, CB (0.26 ± 0.04) showed the lowest value, followed by RC (0.29 ± 0.08) and CO (0.34 ± 0.24) (p < 0.0001). Group C produced the greatest surface roughness (0.72 ± 0.25). Hardness values decreased after brushing with water (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found among RC (50.31 ± 1.03), CO (49.11 ± 1.31), CB (49.17 ± 1.23), and C (48.02 ± 1.26). Color stability was similar in all groups (p = 0.135; C: 2.3 ± 0.77; CO: 2.6 ± 0.54; CB: 2.2 ± 0.44; RC: 2.9 ± 1.56). CONCLUSIONS: The use of experimental dentifrice could be indicated, as it showed similar results to the specific dentifrice, keeping the resilient material properties within acceptable values.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios/química , Higienizadores de Dentadura/química , Reembasadores de Dentadura , Escovação Dentária , Cor , Dureza , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Ricinus , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 190(1): 24-29, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203224

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the gastrointestinal absorption and renal excretion of fluoride after the ingestion of high-fluoride dentifrice. Twelve volunteers participated in this in vivo, crossover, and blinded study. In three experimental phases, the volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, who ingested either the following: distilled and deionized water (control), conventional dentifrice (1100 µg/g), or high-fluoride dentifrice (5000 µg/g). Both dentifrices contained fluoride in the form of NaF/SiO2. To determine the rate of fluoride absorption, non-stimulated saliva was collected for up to 120 min after ingestion and the area under the curve of the salivary fluoride concentration was plotted as a function of time and the maximum concentration determined. All urine produced during the 24 h before and after ingestion was collected, and urinary excretion was calculated from the difference between the urinary fluoride concentrations in the two periods. A specific ion electrode coupled to an ion analyzer was used to measure fluoride concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test with p set at 5%. All measured parameters were highest after the ingestion of the dentifrice with 5000 µg/g (p < 0.001), confirming that this has an increased level of bioavailable fluoride compared with the conventional dentifrice. The high-fluoride dentifrice increases the concentration of salivary fluoride, which may explain its greater anticaries effect. However, it poses a potential risk of causing dental fluorosis and so should not be used by children.


Assuntos
Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Fluoretos/urina , Absorção Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Saliva/química , Adulto Jovem
9.
Braz Dent J ; 29(5): 475-482, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517447

RESUMO

This research aimed to determine the influence of fluoridated groundwater and 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice on biomarkers of exposure to fluoride in preschoolers. A cross-sectional study was performed on thirty preschoolers recruited from naturally fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (n=15). Total Daily Fluoride Intake (TDFI) from diet and dentifrice, and Daily Urinary Fluoride Excretion (DUFE) was measured over 24 h. Nails samples were collected twice during 30 days. Fluoride analyses were performed using a fluoride-ion-specific electrode. Data were evaluated using the Student and paired t-test, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis (α≤0.05). Fluoridated groundwater and dentifrice were the dominant sources (r2 > 0.83) of TDFI in children from a naturally fluoridated and a non-fluoridated area, respectively. A positive correlation between TDFI and DUFE (r=0.50), and between [F] in fingernails and toenails (r=0.60) were found in children from a naturally fluoridated area. The [F] in nails of finger and toe were not correlated to TDFI. The consumption of fluoridated groundwater influenced the fluoride concentration in urine. In addition, the use of 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice did not influence the fluoride concentration in urine and fingernails.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretação , Fluoretos/análise , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Masculino , Unhas/química , Urinálise
10.
J Dent ; 78: 59-64, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by fluoride dentifrices with added calcium in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, in situ study. METHODS: Human enamel with subsurface lesions were prepared and inserted into intra-oral appliances worn by volunteers. A slurry (1 g toothpaste/4 ml H2O) was rinsed for 60 s, 4 times per day for 14 days. Seven toothpastes were tested: (i) 1450 ppm F (NaF), (ii) 5000 ppm F (NaF), (iii) 1450 ppm F (MFP) with calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSP), (iv) 1450 ppm F (MFP) with CaCO3/Arg, (v) 1150 ppm F (SnF2) with amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), (vi) 1100 ppm F (NaF) with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and (vii) 5000 ppm F (NaF) with functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). Total (acid soluble) and bioavailable (water soluble) calcium, inorganic phosphate and fluoride levels of the dentifrices were measured using ion chromatography (F/MFP) and spectrophotometry (Ca and inorganic phosphate). Enamel lesion mineral content was measured using transverse microradiography. Data were statistically analysed using a linear mixed model. RESULTS: All calcium and fluoride containing toothpastes released > 90% of bioavailable fluoride and were superior to the respective fluoride alone toothpastes in remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions. The level of remineralization followed the order: CPP-ACP/1l00 ppm F > ACP/1150 ppm F = TCP/5000 ppm F > 5000 ppm F = CaCO3/Arg/1450 ppm F = CSP/1450 ppm F > 1450 ppm F. Bioavailable calcium levels significantly correlated with enhanced remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Bioavailable calcium in fluoride dentifrices enhanced remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Esmalte Dentário , Dentifrícios , Fluoretos , Remineralização Dentária , Adulto , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/farmacologia , Cariostáticos/química , Cariostáticos/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Dentifrícios/química , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoretos/química , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Remineralização Dentária/métodos
11.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 126(5): 382-389, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070733

RESUMO

This exploratory study investigated salivary concentrations of silicon, calcium, sodium, and phosphorous over a 60-min time period following the use of a calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS)-containing dentifrice. Participants brushed with a dentifrice containing 5% (w/w) or 0% (w/w) CSPS or swilled with a slurry containing 5% (w/w) CSPS/glycerol. Saliva samples were collected before, and 2, 5, 15, and 60 min after, product use and were analysed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Intra-oral pH measurements were also taken. Primary analysis was of centrifuged saliva supernatant containing only dissolved material. At most time points, the CSPS-containing dentifrice and slurry generated significantly more salivary silicon than the dentifrice containing 0% CSPS. At 2-15 min after brushing there was significantly more salivary calcium after use of the CSPS-containing dentifrice and slurry, compared with the 0% CSPS dentifrice; a significant reduction, from baseline, in salivary calcium after use of dentifrice containing 0% CSPS; and an increase in salivary sodium after use of dentifrices containing either 5% or 0% CSPS, but no differences between them. Salivary phosphorous concentration decreased significantly with all treatments 2-5 min after use. There were no significant between-treatment differences in intra-oral pH. Products were generally well tolerated. This study establishes that it is possible to measure changes in salivary ionic composition derived through oral retention of CSPS, delivered via a dentifrice.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Dentifrícios/química , Íons/metabolismo , Saliva/química , Silicatos/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cálcio , Estudos Cross-Over , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade da Dentina/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Sódio , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais/química , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(4): 1323-1331, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033416

RESUMO

The oral cavity has its own significant micro-flora but under unhygienic conditions can cause infections or diseases like gingivitis, caries, plaque and gum bleeding. Out of more than 700 oral microbial species, some opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. and Candida albicans are more prevalent. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of various toothpastes (dilutions ranging from 1:1-1:128) against above mentioned pathogens were assessed. The pathogens were isolated from clinical samples using various differential and selective media and identified through microscopic examination, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests using both conventional and API kit system (Biomerieux, France). Antimicrobial activities of selected dentifrice formulations against identified microbes were determined using agar well diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration assays. Statistical analysis of the data on different variables has been performed by Analysis of Variance and Mean ±SD using SPSS software. From the collected samples Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus intermedius and Candida albicans were isolated and identified. All the selected toothpastes showed significant (p<0.01) antimicrobial activity against the bacterial and fungal isolates. Variable results (inhibitory zone diameters ranging from 35.10±8.00 to 2.40±5.37) were found when mean of different dilutions were compared. Conventional dentifrices exhibited more inhibition as compared to herbal products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Dentifrícios/química , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Boca/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Anesth Hist ; 4(2): 130-132, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960677

RESUMO

During the latter half of the six-year long "Panic of 1873," nitrous-oxide pioneer G.Q. Colton developed, advertised, and sold his dentifrice, "Dr Colton's Vegetable Dentonic" to supplement his dental anesthetic enterprise.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária/história , Dentifrícios/história , Óxido Nitroso/história , Dentifrícios/química , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Óxido Nitroso/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
14.
J Dent ; 76: 89-92, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interplay among brushing frequency, dentifrice slurry abrasivity, and fluoride content on the surface loss (SL) of incipient enamel caries-like lesions. METHODS: Lesions were created in 96 bovine enamel specimens (5 × 5 mm) using methylcellulose acid gel. Specimens were randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 8), resulting from the association of three experimental factors: (1) slurry abrasive level [low: REA = 4/RDA = 69 and high: REA = 7/RDA = 208], (2) fluoride concentration [275 and 1250 ppm F as NaF], and (3) brushing frequency [1, 2 and 3× daily]. Specimens were kept in artificial saliva in between brushings and overnight. SL was determined by optical profilometry after lesion creation, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. Data was analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: High abrasive slurry caused significantly more SL than low with 275 ppm (p < 0.001) but not with 1250 ppm fluoride (p = 0.34). Fluoride at 275 ppm had significantly more SL than 1250 ppm with high abrasive slurry after 7 days (p = 0.008). Brushing 1×/day had significantly less SL than 3×/day after 7 days with high abrasive slurry (p = 0.016), especially in the 275 ppm fluoride groups. CONCLUSIONS: Higher fluoride concentration increased protection against the deleterious effect of high abrasive slurry. SL was higher if brushing was performed more than twice daily especially in low fluoride groups. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Highly abrasive toothpaste formulations might cause more surface wear to incipient caries lesions, especially at higher brushing frequencies. Increasing the fluoride content may be beneficial at these circumstances.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dentária , Erosão Dentária , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais , Animais , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Dentifrícios/química , Dentifrícios/farmacologia , Fluoretos/química , Fatores de Tempo , Abrasão Dentária/induzido quimicamente , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Cremes Dentais/química , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia
15.
Adv Dent Res ; 29(2): 157-166, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461104

RESUMO

Since the classical epidemiological studies by Dean, it has been known that there should be an optimum level of exposure to fluoride that would be able to provide the maximum protection against caries, with minimum dental fluorosis. The "optimal" daily intake of fluoride for children (0.05-0.07 mg per kilogram bodyweight) that is still accepted worldwide was empirically determined. In the present review, we discuss the appropriateness of the current guidance for fluoride intake, in light of the windows of susceptibility to caries and fluorosis, the modern trends of fluoride intake from multiple sources, individual variations in fluoride metabolism, and recent epidemiological data. The main conclusion is that it is very difficult to think about a strict recommendation for an "optimal" range of fluoride intake at the individual level in light of existing knowledge of 1) the mechanisms of action of fluoride to control caries, 2) the mechanisms involved in dental fluorosis development, 3) the distinct factors that interfere in the metabolism of fluoride, and 4) the windows of susceptibility to both dental caries and fluorosis development. An "optimal" range of fluoride intake is, however, desirable at the population level to guide programs of community fluoridation, but further research is necessary to provide additional support for future decisions on guidance in this area. This list includes the effect of factors affecting fluoride metabolism, clinical trials on the effectiveness of low-fluoride dentifrices to prevent caries in the primary dentition, and validation of biomarkers of exposure to fluoride.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Criança , Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretação/normas , Intoxicação por Flúor/etiologia , Intoxicação por Flúor/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Fluorose Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos
16.
Adv Dent Res ; 29(2): 167-176, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461106

RESUMO

The purpose of this report is to examine critically the appropriateness of the current guidance for fluoride intake in the population (0.05-0.07 mg F/kg bodyweight/d), consider whether changes to the current guidance are desirable, and suggest further research that will strengthen the evidence base for future decisions on guidance/advice in this area. The benefits and the risks of using fluoride particularly concern preschool children because it is at this age that excessive fluoride intake may result in dental fluorosis. Data from mostly cross-sectional studies show a wide variation in exposure and a considerable variation in the amount of fluoride ingested. Fluorosis, mostly mild, is commonly observed. For considering changes in current guidance, there is a need for more knowledge on the relationship between exposure to fluoride at an early age and the development of fluorosis. For that, prospective epidemiological studies with sufficiently large and representative samples of children are required. It is also important to study children in communities both with and without water fluoridation and to include populations where salt or milk fluoridation is used. There is also a need for professional agreement on acceptable levels of mild and moderate/severe fluorosis and a more comprehensive knowledge on the appreciation of mild fluorosis among the public.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Criança , Dentifrícios/química , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Fluoretação/normas , Intoxicação por Flúor/etiologia , Intoxicação por Flúor/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Fluorose Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos
17.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 26: e20160460, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412362

RESUMO

Besides the effects on the health of individuals, cigarette smoking can also interfere with the appearance of their teeth. To evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking-toothbrushing-cycling (CSTC) with whitening toothpastes on the roughness and optical behavior of bovine enamel for eight weeks. Thirty bovine dentin/enamel discs, 8.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were randomly divided into three groups according to the toothpastes: whitening (Colgate Luminous White - CW and Oral B 3D White - OW), and a non-whitening (Colgate - C). The roughness, color (CIE L*a*b* system), translucency and gloss were measured before and after the specimens were submitted to CSTC. The topography of the specimens was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. During the first week, the specimens were daily subjected to the consumption of 20 cigarettes and brushed (40 strokes/100 g) with the toothpastes' slurries. Thereafter, the CSTC was weekly applied in an accumulated model (140 cigarettes/280 strokes) for seven weeks. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Tukey's HSD test, and paired-t test (α=0.05). The three toothpastes produced significant changes in roughness, color, translucency and gloss (p<0.05). After eight weeks, the roughness and the gloss produced by the three toothpastes were similar (p>0.05), while OW produced the lowest color change and the translucency of C was lower than that of CW (p<0.05). The three toothpastes produced a significant decrease in L* values and a significant increase in a* values after eight weeks (p<0.05). No significant difference in the b* coordinate was found for OW (p=0.13) There were topographic changes in the enamel surfaces. The whitening toothpastes increased the roughness, changed the topography and were not able to maintain the optical stability of enamel exposed over eight weeks.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/química , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentifrícios/química , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Clareadores Dentários/química , Clareamento Dental/métodos , Cremes Dentais/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária/métodos
18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(9): 3071-3077, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retention of intraoral fluoride in biofilm and saliva, an experimental dentifrice containing hydrocolloid (tara gum) was used as a controlled-release system for fluoride (F). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a triple-blind randomized crossover trial with washout, 18 individuals used the following different dentifrices for a week: 100-TGF (sodium fluoride NaF associated with tara gum, 1100 mg/L), 50-TGF (50% NaF associated with tara gum + 50% free NaF, 1100 mg/L), PC (free NaF, 1100 mg/L), TG (with tara gum and without F), and placebo (without F or tara gum). On the seventh day of dentifrice use, biofilm was collected at 1 and 12 h, and saliva was collected up to 60 min and 12 h after the last toothbrushing. F concentrations were determined by physico-chemical analysis of fluoride using the hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion technique. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (repeated measures) and Spearman's correlation coefficient (p < 0.05) testing. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed with the same dentifrice regarding F retention in biofilm at 1 and 12 h after toothbrushing for the 100-TGF, placebo, and TG groups (p > 0.05). The highest area under the curve values in saliva were found for the 50-TGF, 100-TGF, and PC groups. CONCLUSION: The dentifrice containing hydrocolloid as a controlled-release system for F promoted F retention in the oral cavity, even at 12 h after brushing. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hydrocolloid added to dentifrices as a controlled-release system for F might contribute to a higher anti-caries effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02809014.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Dentifrícios/química , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Gomas Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fluoreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/química , Escovação Dentária , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Oral Investig ; 22(6): 2325-2334, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the role of highly fluoridated dentifrice on remineralization characteristics of lowly and highly pre-demineralized enamel artificial caries lesions. METHODS: Bovine enamel specimens were prepared (pH 4.95; 21 days) and discriminated in either lowly [L] or highly [H] pre-demineralized artificial caries lesions. Specimens with a mean ΔZbaseline,L (95% CI) of 5120 (4995; 5245) vol.% × µm and a mean ΔZbaseline,H of 8187 (8036; 8339) vol.% × µm were selected and randomly allocated to 12 groups (n = 20). Treatments during pH-cycling (28 days; 6 × 60 min demineralization/day) were brushing 2×/day with fluoride-free (0 ppm F- [L0/H0]), 1100 ppm F- [L1100/H1100], 2800 ppm F- [L2800/H2800], 5000 ppm F- [L5000/H5000], 5000 ppm F- + glycerin [L5000 + glycerin/H5000 + glycerin], and 5000 ppm F- + TCP [L5000 + TCP/H5000 + TCP] containing dentifrices. Dentifrice slurries were prepared with deionized water (1:3wt/wt). After cycling specimens presenting lesion surface loss were discarded and for the remaining 202 specimens, transversal microradiographic (TMR) analyses (ΔZpH-cycle/LDpH-cycle) were performed again. Changes in mineral loss (ΔΔZ = ΔZbaseline - ΔZpH-cycle) and lesion depth (ΔLD = LDbaseline - LDpH-cycle) were calculated. RESULTS: Significant differences for ΔΔZ could be found between L0, L1100, and L5000 as well as H0, H1100, and H2800/H5000 (p ≤ 0.01; ANCOVA). Except for 0 ppm F-, higher ΔΔZ could be found in highly compared with lowly demineralized specimens (p ≤ 0.004; ANCOVA). After pH-cycling, a second lesion front could only be observed in H5000 and H5000 + TCP. The correlation between ΔΔZ and F- was moderate for lowly and highly demineralized lesions (rL = 0.591; pL < 0.001; rH = 0.746; pH < 0.001), indicating a fluoride dose response for both. CONCLUSION: For both baseline substrate conditions, a dose response for fluoride could be revealed. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Remineralization characteristics of enamel directly depended on baseline mineral loss.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/química , Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretos/química , Remineralização Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Técnicas In Vitro , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 76(3): 188-194, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of different fluoride- and calcium- and/or phosphate-containing products on their ability to prevent enamel demineralization under pH cycling conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel bovine specimens were assigned to the following groups: G1-MPP (MI Paste Plus, 0.2% NaF, Recaldent™, GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan); G2-FD (Crest™ Cavity Protection, 0.243% NaF, Procter & Gamble, USA); G3-CLP (Clinpro™ 5000, 1.1% NaF, 3M ESPE, USA); and G4-CO (Control without fluoride, Silica-based dentifrice; Daudt Ltda, Brazil). The specimens were soaked in demineralizing solution for 6 h and remineralizing solution for 18 h alternatively for 10 days. The toothpaste was prepared with deionized water in a 1:3 ratio (w/v) for three minutes daily. The solutions were renewed every 48 h. After cycling, enamel changes were analysed by percentage change of SMH (%SMH) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The %SMH value observed for G3-CLP (2.9 ± 39.2) was higher than that found in G4-CO (-13.0 ± 20.7), G1-MPP (-8.9 ± 20.9) and G2-FD (-3.9 ± 27.1). The %SMH was similar for all treatment groups (one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD; p < .05). The pH, Ca2+ and Ptotal in the remineralization solutions were not different among all groups (Kruskal-Wallis; p < .05). At 24 h, the Ca2+ concentration in the demineralization solution was significantly lower in G1-MPP. Ca2+ concentration increased in all groups after 48 h, except for G3-CLP. The EDX quantitative analysis showed that the atomic % of elements is lower level at G4-CO. CONCLUSIONS: The Clinpro™ 5000 demonstrated having the most protective effect against demineralization; however, the % SMH was similar for all groups.


Assuntos
Caseínas/farmacologia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Cremes Dentais/farmacologia , Animais , Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentifrícios/química , Fluoretos/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Remineralização Dentária/métodos , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem
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