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1.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 37(5): 305-311, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084558

RESUMO

Objective: This study was performed to determine the bactericidal effects of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation and the morphological and chemical composition changes in bovine dentin. Methods: Dentin slabs were prepared from bovine incisors, and then cultured with Streptococcus mutans to produce bacteria-infected dentin samples. The samples were randomly divided into five groups with Er:YAG laser irradiation energy densities of 0, 6.37, 12.73, 19.11, and 25.47 J/cm2. After irradiation, samples were stained and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The bactericidal abilities were measured using live/dead staining. The morphology and chemical components were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Results: After irradiation, the elimination of bacteria and the smear layer were significantly better in the high energy density groups (19.11, 25.47 J/cm2) than in the low energy density groups (6.37, 12.73 J/cm2; p < 0.001). On morphological examination, the group with minimum energy density (6.37 J/cm2) showed superficial melting. In the high energy density groups (12.73, 19.11, and 25.47 J/cm2), laser-irradiated dentin showed a clean surface with open orifices. Significant increases were observed in the weight percentages of calcium (from 19.75 ± 0.69 to 34.47 ± 2.91, p < 0.001) and phosphate (from 8.58 ± 0.43 to 15.10 ± 1.81, p < 0.001), whereas significant decreases were observed for oxygen (from 49.84 ± 0.69 to 36.39 ± 2.86, p < 0.001) and carbon (from 26.06 ± 3.58 to 12.80 ± 2.26, p < 0.01) with increasing energy density. Conclusions: This study confirmed that Er:YAG laser irradiation has bactericidal and dentin conditioning effects.


Assuntos
Dentina/microbiologia , Dentina/efeitos da radiação , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Bovinos , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia Confocal , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
2.
Rev. ADM ; 76(2): 77-80, mar.-abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005030

RESUMO

La OMS y la FDI han publicado que entre el 60 y 90% de los escolares padecen caries. En nuestro país, el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de Patologías Orales (SIVEPAB) 2012, reporta un 85% de caries a nivel nacional en población pediátrica. Los agentes anticariogénicos como el diamino y el fluoruro de plata son un tratamiento alentador, este agente puede actuar como bactericida o bacteriostático en función de su concentración y su capacidad para inhibir el crecimiento de estreptococos del grupo viridans, y por ende, de la caries. Problema: ¿Cuál es la efectividad bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata (Saforide®) a diferente concentración sobre la microbiota cariogénica de escolares? Objetivo: Determinar la eficacia bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata (DFP) a diferentes concentraciones en el crecimiento bacteriano de Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans y S. salivarius en muestras de saliva y dentina en escolares. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental con una variable independiente, el efecto bactericida del diamino fluoruro de plata y se tomó el halo de inhibición como la dependiente. Se utilizaron medidas descriptivas como prueba de comparación y análisis de varianza usando post-hoc Tukey≠ con una confianza del 95%, y análisis de datos exploratorios. Resultados: Se analizaron 100 muestras, de las cuales 48.3% correspondió a S. mutans, 41.4% a S. salivarius y 10.3% a S. mitis, se obtuvo una mayor zona de inhibición para las tres bacterias al 38% mostrando una diferencia estadísticamente significativa 12% (p < 0.05). También se observó un efecto bacteriostático al 12%, no así para el 38%, donde se encontró un efecto bactericida Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que al 38% de la concentración hay un claro efecto bactericida en el grupo de estreptococos viridans y el 12% no se recomienda para la detención de caries debido al efecto bacteriostático (AU)


WHO and FDI have ruled that 60-90% of schoolchildren are affected by caries. In our country, the System of Epidemiological Surveillance of Oral Pathologies (SIVEPAB) (SIVEPAB) 2012. Report a rate of 85% of caries nationally in pediatric population. Anticariogenic diamino agents such as silver fluoride are an encouraging decrease in treatment for these high rates of tooth decay in our country, this agent can act as bactericidal or bacteriostatic based on their concentration and their ability to inhibit endogenous metalloproteinase (MMP-2, 8, 9). Problem: What will be the bactericidal effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride different concentration on cariogenic Streptococci saliva samples taken from school and dentin? Objective: Determine the bactericidal effectiveness Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) to different concentration on bacterial growth of Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius in saliva samples and dentin in school. Material and methods: An experimental study was conducted as an independent variable the bactericidal effect of silver diamine fluoride was taken as dependent inhibition halo. Descriptive measures were used as a comparison test and analysis of variance using Post-hoc Tukey with 95% confidence, and exploratory data analysis. Results: One hundred samples, of which 48.3% corresponded to S. mutans, 41.4% to S. salivarius and 10.3% to S. mitis, were analyzed, we obtained a larger zone of inhibition for all three organisms at 38% showing a statistically significant difference from 12% (p < 0.05). It was also observed that the 12% sample bacteriostatic effect, not to the concentration of 38% was found a bactericidal effect. Conclusion: Our results suggest that 38% concentration has a bactericidal effect on Streptococcus viridans group and 12% showed not recommended for the arrest or detention of dentine caries bacteriostatic effect (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Odontologia Escolar , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Saliva/microbiologia , Análise de Variância , Resultado do Tratamento , Compostos de Prata/uso terapêutico , Meios de Cultura , Dentina/microbiologia , México
3.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(12): 4325-4334, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present vitro study was to examine the question whether devitalized Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) cells can migrate into dentinal tubules and if that process takes place in a time-dependent manner. DESIGN: Sixty bovine root canals were incubated with devitalized and vital streptomycin-resistant E. faecalis strains after root canal enlargement (size 80, taper .02) with 3% NaOCl solution. Incubation times 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days. Samples were processed for analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining. The penetration depth was calculated with the measurement tool of the Axio Vision program (Zeiss, Jena, Germany). Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis (α = 0.05) and Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Devitalized E. faecalis strains were able to migrate into dentinal tubules. The total number and penetration depth of devitalized E. faecalis cells was lower compared to the vital suspension of E. faecalis. It was noted, that bacterial penetration was not common to all of the dentinal tubules in the vital E. faecalis control and especially in the devitalized control. The migration took place in a time-dependent migration characteristic. CONCLUSIONS: Devitalized E. faecalis cells are still able to migrate into the dentinal tubules due to possible electrokinetic and osmotic processes. Thereby, increased exposure times lead to a time-dependent penetration characteristic. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Since devitalized bacteria can migrate as well into dentinal tubules, the presence of bacteria within dentinal tubules cannot be interpreted as a failure of tested preparation regimens.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Alemanha , Locomoção , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
4.
J Endod ; 45(3): 310-315, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory disease in the periradicular region of teeth that results from infection by multispecies bacterial biofilm residing in the root canal system. In this study, we investigated whether Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) could inhibit multispecies oral pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation. METHODS: Highly pure and structurally intact Lp.LTA was purified from L. plantarum. Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis were co-cultured to form oral multispecies biofilm in the presence or absence of Lp.LTA on culture plates or human dentin slices. Preformed biofilm was treated with or without Lp.LTA, followed by additional treatment with intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide or chlorhexidine digluconate. Confocal microscopy and crystal violet assay were performed to determine biofilm formation. Biofilm on human dentin slices was visualized with a scanning electron microscope. RESULTS: Biofilm formation of multispecies bacteria on the culture dishes was dose-dependently reduced by Lp.LTA compared with the nontreatment control group. Lp.LTA also inhibited multispecies biofilm formation on the dentin slices in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, Lp.LTA was shown to reduce preformed multispecies biofilm compared with the nontreatment group. Moreover, Lp.LTA potentiated the effectiveness of the intracanal medicaments in the removal of preformed multispecies biofilm. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Lp.LTA is a potential anti-biofilm agent for treatment or prevention of oral infectious disease, including apical periodontitis, which is mainly caused by multispecies bacterial biofilm.


Assuntos
Actinomyces/fisiologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Lactobacillus salivarius/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Teicoicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Teicoicos/farmacologia , Actinomyces/patogenicidade , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Depressão Química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lactobacillus salivarius/patogenicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Periodontite Periapical/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite Periapical/microbiologia , Periodontite Periapical/prevenção & controle , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Ácidos Teicoicos/uso terapêutico
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(2): 215-220, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729945

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with or without erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr: YSGG) laser irradiation in root canals experimentally infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 105 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with E. faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The teeth were randomly divided into seven experimental (n = 15) groups according to the protocol for decontamination: syringe irrigation (SI) with distilled water (DW), SI with 2.5% NaOCl, SI with 2.5% Ca (OCl)2, laser-activated irrigation (LAI) with DW, LAI with 2.5% NaOCl and LAI with 2.5% Ca (OCl)2 and LAI with no solution. Microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted before and after irrigation procedures and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results: Mean numbers of recovered bacteria in the SI with DW group were significantly higher than those in the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). The high bactericidal reduction was observed in any of the other treatment groups: SI using NaOCl or Ca (OCl)2 and LAI with DW, NaOCl, Ca (OCl)2 or no solution, with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Er,Cr: YSGG laser with or without an irrirgation solution has antimicrobial effects on dentinal tubules infected with E. faecalis. The antimicrobial property of 2.5% Ca (OCl)2 was effective as 2.5% NaOCl on E. faecalis with conventional or laser activated irrigation in root canals.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Cálcio , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Érbio , Gálio , Humanos , Escândio , Ítrio
6.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180163, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Microcosm biofilm has been applied to induce carious lesions in dentin. However, no study has been done to compare the impact of the type of model for providing nutrients to microcosm biofilm formation on dentin. This study compared the performance of two kinds of models (static and semi-dynamic) on the biofilm formation and the development of dentin carious lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In both models, biofilm was produced using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva for the first 8 h (5% CO2 and 37°C). Afterwards, for the static model, the samples were placed in 24-wells microplate containing McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose, which was replaced at 24 h. In the semi-dynamic model, the samples were submitted to artificial mouth system with continuous flow of McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose (0.15 ml/min, 37°C) for 10 h a day (for the other 14 h, no flow was applied, similarly to the static model). After 5 days, biofilm viability was measured by fluorescence and dentin demineralization by transverse microradiography. RESULTS: Biofilm viability was significantly lower for the static compared with semi-dynamic model, while dentin demineralization was significantly higher for the first one (p<0.05). The static model was able to produce a higher number of typical subsurface lesions compared with the semi-dynamic model (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The type of model (static and semi-dynamic) applied in the microcosm biofilm may have influence on it's viability and the severity/profile of dentin carious lesions.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microrradiografia , Saliva/microbiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Desmineralização do Dente/microbiologia
7.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(5): 761-771, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632881

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of double antibiotic paste (DAP), silver nanoparticle (AgNP) gel, and tailored amorphous multiporous bioactive glass (TAMP-BG) in concentrations suitable for regenerative endodontics (RE) against 3-week-old Enterococcus faecalis biofilms after 24 hours and 7 days. Results: Radicular human dentin specimens were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis to form 3-week-old biofilms. DAP (1 mg/mL), AgNPs 0.02%, and TAMP-BG 100 mg/mL, in methylcellulose gel formulations, were used as antimicrobials. The biofilm disruption assay was done followed by quantification of bacterial colony-forming units and scanning electron microscopic analysis. Results showed that 1 mg/mL of DAP or AgNPs 0.02% provided significant antibiofilm effects at both time intervals. Both DAP and AgNPs significantly reduced bacterial counts and biofilms after 7 days compared with 24 hours. Furthermore, 100 mg/mL of TAMP-BG had a comparable antibiofilm effect, but it was less potent than DAP and AgNPs at both time intervals. Conclusions: DAP (1 mg/mL), 0.02% AgNPs, and TAMP-BG (100 mg/mL) can significantly reduce E. faecalis biofilms. However, complete elimination was only possible with DAP and AgNPs.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dentina/química , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Géis , Vidro/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microtomia , Modelos Biológicos , Endodontia Regenerativa/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Microbiol ; 57(4): 310-315, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671742

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium commonly isolated in patients with refractory apical periodontitis, invades dentin tubules easily and forms biofilms. Bacteria in biofilms, which contribute to recurrent and/or chronic inflammatory diseases, are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than planktonic cells and easily avoid phagocytosis. Although Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) is associated with biofilm formation, the effect of Lp.LTA on biofilm formation by E. faecalis is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated whether Lp.LTA inhibits E. faecalis biofilm formation. The degree of biofilm formation was determined by using crystal violet assay and LIVE/DEAD bacteria staining. The quantification of bacterial growth was determined by measuring the optical density at 600 nm with a spectrophotometer. Formation of biofilms on human dentin slices was observed under a scanning electron microscope. E. faecalis biofilm formation was reduced by Lp.LTA treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Lp.LTA inhibited biofilm development of E. faecalis at the early stage without affecting bacterial growth. LTA from other Lactobacillus species such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG also inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation. In particular, among LTAs from various lactobacilli, Lp.LTA showed the highest inhibitory effect on biofilms formed by E. faecalis. Interestingly, LTAs from lactobacilli could remove the biofilm preformed by E. faecalis. These inhibitory effects were also observed on the surface of human dentin slices. In conclusion, Lactobacillus species LTA inhibits biofilm formation caused by E. faecalis and it could be used as an anti-biofilm agent for prevention or treatment against E. faecalis-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ácidos Teicoicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ácidos Teicoicos/metabolismo , Doenças Dentárias/microbiologia
9.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2019: 9219238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692877

RESUMO

Objective: To quantify Enterococcus faecalis density in root canal dentin after chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using alternated irrigating regimen. Methodology: Root canals (RC) were contaminated with E. faecalis (ATCC 19433) for 3 weeks and evident biofilms were obtained. After initial sampling (S1), the CMP was aided by irrigants: saline solution (control; n=12), a conventional regimen (CR) (group 1; n=12) using 5.25% NaOCl and a final rinse with 17% EDTA, and an alternating regimen (AR) of intercalated use of NaOCl and EDTA (group 2, n=12), followed by a second sampling (S2). After 2 weeks, S3 was obtained. Two roots were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Each root was divided into cervical, mild, and apical segments and sampling of the superficial (n=90) and deep (n=90) dentin layers was obtained using Gates-Glidden burs. The E. faecalis density (CFU/mg) in log10 was categorized as residual (0 > 0.2), moderate (0.2 ≥ 0.5), or elevated (> 0.5). The prevalence of positive samples in BHI and BHI-A was analyzed by Pearson's chi-square test. The data were normalized by a log10 transformation of CFU and were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Results: Biofilms were observed only in the control root canal walls. Topographically, the controls and CR showed similar distributions of E. faecalis in the dentin. Microbiologically positive root canals harbored much E. faecalis in the adjacent dentin (p < 0.05). Irrigating saline provided moderate density of E. faecalis in the dentin while CR and AR resulted in a residual density of microorganisms (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The Enterococcus faecalis density in dentin was influenced by the irrigating regimen and the microbiological status of the root canal. The CMP aided by the alternating regimen interfered with the recolonization of the root canal and topographic distribution of Enterococcus in root dentin.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
10.
Quintessence Int ; 50(1): 22-28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Root canal obturation still is a relevant research topic and patients spend substantial amounts of financial resources for this step of endodontic treatment. Three experiments were conducted challenging the necessity of root canal obturation. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Applying micro computed tomography, the volume of dentin tubules that cannot be instrumented during root canal therapy was determined. Using a simple biofilm model of human tooth segments, the effect of root canal obturation on the persistency of bacteria was evaluated and freshly extracted root canal treated teeth were examined for bacteria remaining in dentin. RESULTS: The volume of dentinal canals was found to be at least three times greater than the volume of the root canal itself. Bacterial growth was observed both in specimens with and without root canal obturation implying that the treatment rendered was ineffective in removing bacterial biofilm and the obturation material was incapable of hindering bacterial regrowth. CONCLUSION: Despite showing adequate root canal obturation radiographically, persistent bacteria could be identified in all teeth extracted. While perfect disinfection of root canals is mandatory, root canal obturation seems questionable as current materials have no antibacterial activity, do not stabilize the tooth, and cannot seal the canal system if a coronal restoration is missing.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentina/microbiologia , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Obturação do Canal Radicular , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Extração Dentária , Procedimentos Desnecessários
11.
Lasers Med Sci ; 34(2): 359-366, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069683

RESUMO

The success of endodontic treatment depends on the thorough removal of microorganisms from the root canal system. The search for new ways to eliminate the microorganisms is therefore justified. Nd:YAP is a laser that uses yttrium aluminum perovskite, doped with neodymium crystal, as active laser medium. We used the Nd:YAP laser in an in vitro experiment to evaluate the bactericidal effect of three parameters of Nd:YAP laser-activated irrigation on biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis in root canals. The canals of 45 extracted human single-root teeth were prepared on a #35 Mtwo instrument and contaminated with E. faecalis for 14 days. Forty infected single-root teeth were then randomly divided into four groups according to the irrigation agitation protocols as follows: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), Nd:YAP laser (180 mJ) + NaOCl, Nd:YAP laser (280 mJ) + NaOCl, and Nd:YAP laser (360 mJ) + NaOCl. The remaining bacteria were counted immediately using the cell count method. Teeth were firstly spilt and one half examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The other half involved examination of bacterial colonization in dentinal tubules using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Nd:YAP laser (280 mJ) + NaOCl and Nd:YAP laser (360 mJ) + NaOCl completely removed the E. faecalis biofilms from the root canal walls and made it the cleanest among the treatment groups. Bacterial reductions in the treatment groups for dentinal tubules are presented in a descending order as follows: Nd:YAP laser (360 mJ) (53.7%), Nd:YAP laser (280 mJ) (51.5%) > Nd:YAP laser (180 mJ) (45.3%) > 5.25% NaOCl (31.9%) > control (19.3%) (p < 0.05). Nd:YAP laser of 280 mJ and 360 mJ showed effective bactericidal effect in removing E. faecalis biofilm from the root canal walls and dentinal tubules.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos da radiação , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Cavidade Pulpar/efeitos da radiação , Cavidade Pulpar/ultraestrutura , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos da radiação
12.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(9): 3457-3469, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the biological, antimicrobial, and mechanical effects of the treatment of deep dentin with simvastatin (SV) before application of a glass-ionomer cement (GIC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dentin discs were adapted to artificial pulp chambers and SV (2.5 or 1.0 mg/mL) was applied to the occlusal surface, either previously conditioned or not with EDTA (±EDTA). The extracts (culture medium + SV that diffused through dentin) was obtained and then applied to cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization nodule (MN) deposition were evaluated. Untreated discs were used as control. The antibacterial activity of SV (2.5 or 1.0 mg/mL) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as well as the bond strength of GIC to dentin in the presence of SV 2.5 mg/mL (±EDTA) were also assessed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey tests (α = 5%). RESULTS: EDTA + SV 2.5 mg/mL significantly enhanced the ALP activity and MN deposition in comparison with the control, without changing in the cell viability (p < 0.05). The association EDTA + SV 2.5 mg/mL + GIC determined the highest ALP and MN values (p < 0.05). SV presented intense antimicrobial activity, and the EDTA dentin conditioning followed by SV application increased bond strength values compared with SV treatment alone (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: SV presents antimicrobial activity and diffuses across conditioned dentin to biostimulate odontoblast-like pulp cells. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of SV as adjuvant agent for indirect pulp capping may biostimulate pulp cells thus preserving vitality and function of the pulp-dentin complex.


Assuntos
Forramento da Cavidade Dentária , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Sinvastatina , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/microbiologia , Cimentos de Ionômeros de Vidro , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Odontoblastos , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico
13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(3): 1253-1262, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study compared the penetration, pH, calcium ion release, solubility, and intradentinal decontamination capacity of calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes with different vehicles and additives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Infected standard bovine dentine contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis were treated with propolis extract, chlorhexidine, and camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CPMC) loaded in CH paste for the bacterial viability evaluation made by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and microbiological culture. Beside this, 50 acrylic teeth were filled with the previously mentioned pastes to evaluate the pH and calcium ion release (pHmeter and atomic absorption spectrophotometer at time intervals of 7, 15, and 30 days) and solubility (micro-computed tomographic imaging before and after 15 days). RESULTS: After treatment, all samples decreased intra-dentinal contamination, specially, the CH paste with CPMC. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when evaluating the intra-canal paste penetration. In the pH measurements, CH with distilled water showed the smallest pH values. Regardless the solubility percentage of the pastes, the paste of CH + PG presented the highest values. CONCLUSION: The vehicles and additives tested may increase CH antimicrobial effect, but with small differences. In general, all CH pastes tested here were effective in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and were similar in the penetration, pH, calcium ion release, and solubility of calcium hydroxide when compared to distilled water. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The use of calcium hydroxide pastes as intracanal medication with an aqueous or viscous vehicle, as propylene glycol, can be useful, since all formulations of the tested pastes resulted in great bacterial reduction inside root canals.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Descontaminação , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorofenóis/farmacologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis , Própole/farmacologia
14.
Int Endod J ; 52(1): 114-122, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019752

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the free available chlorine of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) alone and combined with 9% etidronic acid (HEDP) in the presence of inhibitors, organic tissue and organic tissue plus dentine debris; to evaluate the influence of dentine debris on the tissue-dissolving capacity of both NaOCl solutions; and to determine the antimicrobial action of these solutions when in contact with organic tissue and organic tissue plus dentine debris. METHODOLOGY: The available chlorine of the solutions over time in the absence and presence of the inhibitors was measured using a titration method. The organic tissue dissolution by the solutions alone and in the presence of dentine powder was evaluated by weighing bovine tissue specimens before and after exposure to the solutions for 3 and 10 min. For the antimicrobial activity, biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis were exposed to the solutions for 3 min in the absence and presence of organic tissue and organic tissue + dentine debris. The biovolume and percentage of damaged membrane cells of the biofilm were measured by means of confocal microscopy and the live/dead technique. Nonparametric tests were used to determine statistical differences (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Both inhibitors consumed the free available chlorine of the solutions over time. The presence of dentine debris significantly reduced the tissue dissolution capacity of the NaOCl solutions (P < 0.05). The percentages of biovolume reduction were not affected by the presence of the inhibitors in the two NaOCl solutions, whereas the percentage of damaged membrane cells was significantly reduced (P < 0.001). Overall, a similar behaviour was observed in the NaOCl and NaOCl/HEDP groups. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of organic tissue and organic tissue + dentine debris favoured rapid consumption of the free chlorine of NaOCl and NaOCl/HEDP. This resulted in a decreased ability to dissolve organic tissue without affecting the short-term antimicrobial activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Etidrônico/farmacologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloro/farmacologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Etidrônico/administração & dosagem , Técnicas In Vitro , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Confocal , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Pharm ; 552(1-2): 206-216, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278255

RESUMO

Eliminating the infection from root canals and periodontal tissues of human teeth as well as the repair of infected periodontal bone has been a great challenge. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles have been used for drug delivery due to their biodegradability, sustained drug release and nontoxic properties. As silver ions (Ag+) exhibit strong antibacterial ability and calcium ions (Ca2+) are essential for hard tissue regeneration, the Ag+ and Ca2+ were encapsulated into the PLGA particles to form AgCa-PLGA submicron particles. The physico-chemical properties, ion release, cytotoxicity, ability to infiltrate dentinal tubules, antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) in either planktonic or biofilm forms on dentin as well as in vitro mineralization ability were investigated. Results showed that Ag+ and Ca2+ were encapsulated into the AgCa-PLGA particles, which could release both Ag+ and Ca2+ over 30 days and exhibited strong antibacterial effects against E. faecalis and P. gingivalis. AgCa-PLGA particles could infiltrate into dentinal tubules by ultrasonic activation and inhibit the colonization of E. faecalis and P. gingivalis on dentin. AgCa-PLGA particles showed no cytotoxicity and induced hydroxyapatite (HA)-like crystal formation. AgCa-PLGA submicron particles could become a biomaterial for both infection control and hard tissue regeneration in dentistry and other related medical areas.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/administração & dosagem , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 24: 102-108, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there is a lack of evidence on the effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) by the application of curcumin against complex biofilms of dental caries lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the viability, vitality, and acid metabolism of infected dentin caries microcosms treated with curcumin-mediated aPDT. METHODS: After microcosm biofilms growing anaerobically on bovine dentin disks immersed in McBain medium with 1% sucrose at 37 °C for 5 days, the biofilms were treated by the association of DMSO water solution or 600 µmol L-1 curcumin with 0, 37.5 or 75 J cm-2 blue LED (455 nm). Then, the colony-forming units (CFU) counts of total microorganisms, total streptococci, mutans streptococci, and total lactobacilli were determined by plating. The lactic acid concentration was analyzed by enzymatic spectrophotometry method, while the vitality of intact biofilms was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal Wallis and post-hoc Dunn's tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Curcumin alone did not affect the viability of microorganisms and the vitality of intact biofilms. However, 75 J cm-2 LED alone decreased the total microorganisms and total lactobacilli counts. The combination of curcumin and LED reduced significantly the counts of all microorganism groups and the vitality of intact biofilms. Differences were not observed between the lactic acid concentrations of distinct groups. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, curcumin-mediated aPDT was effective in reducing the viability and the vitality of infected dentin caries microcosms, without interfering in their acidogenicity.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Dentina/microbiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Lactobacillaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Confocal , Streptococcaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 19(8): 904-909, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150487

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of diode laser, associated or not with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), against Enterococcus faecalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty dentin blocks were obtained from single-rooted human teeth and sterilized. Seventy were inoculated with 0.01 mL of fresh bacterial inoculum (within 24 hours of preparation from pure culture) standardized to 1 McFarland turbidity. Contaminated blocks were incubated for 7 days at 37°C in humid conditions. Ten uncontaminated samples were incubated at 37°C during the contamination period to serve as a negative control group, while 10 of the infected specimens served as a positive control group. The dentin blocks were randomly divided into eight experimental groups (n = 10 each) according to the method of decontamination: 2.5% NaOCl alone; 2.5% NaOCl + photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 18 J for 180 seconds; 2.5% NaOCl + PDT with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 8 J for 80 seconds; methylene blue alone; PDT alone with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 18 J for 180 seconds; PDT alone with methylene blue/660 nm laser at 8 J laser for 80 seconds; positive control group; and negative control group. Microbial growth was evaluated by culture medium turbidity and microbial concentration was analyzed by UV spectrophotometry (adjusted to read at wavelength l = 600 nM). RESULTS: Root canals treated with laser alone at 18 J for 180 seconds had higher bacterial contamination compared with groups in which NaOCl was used, with or without laser irradiation at 18 J for 180 seconds (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Photodynamic therapy with a 660 nm diode laser effectively reduced E. faecalis contamination. These findings can guide development of further studies in search of better alternatives for endodontic treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Chemical and mechanical root canal preparation plays an essential role in reducing microbial burden. However, microorganisms present in areas not mechanically reachable by endodontic instruments. As an alternative to fix this problem, the laser can be applied.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos da radiação , Lasers Semicondutores , Fotoquimioterapia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9822, 2018 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959351

RESUMO

Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is prevalent in archaeological skeletal collections and is a rich source of oral microbiome and host-derived ancient biomolecules. Recently, it has been proposed that dental calculus may provide a more robust environment for DNA preservation than other skeletal remains, but this has not been systematically tested. In this study, shotgun-sequenced data from paired dental calculus and dentin samples from 48 globally distributed individuals are compared using a metagenomic approach. Overall, we find DNA from dental calculus is consistently more abundant and less contaminated than DNA from dentin. The majority of DNA in dental calculus is microbial and originates from the oral microbiome; however, a small but consistent proportion of DNA (mean 0.08 ± 0.08%, range 0.007-0.47%) derives from the host genome. Host DNA content within dentin is variable (mean 13.70 ± 18.62%, range 0.003-70.14%), and for a subset of dentin samples (15.21%), oral bacteria contribute > 20% of total DNA. Human DNA in dental calculus is highly fragmented, and is consistently shorter than both microbial DNA in dental calculus and human DNA in paired dentin samples. Finally, we find that microbial DNA fragmentation patterns are associated with guanine-cytosine (GC) content, but not aspects of cellular structure.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Cálculos Dentários/genética , Dentina/metabolismo , Metagenômica , Preservação Biológica/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Cálculos Dentários/microbiologia , Dentina/microbiologia , Humanos , Microbiota
19.
Int Endod J ; 51(12): 1420-1433, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862516

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of combinations of several irrigants on the roughness and wettability of dentine, adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans and adsorption of chlorhexidine (CHX) to the dentine. METHODOLOGY: Bovine dentine samples were prepared and their surface roughness standardized. The samples were distributed in groups (n = 10) and subjected to one of the following irrigation protocols: G1 - saline solution; G2 - sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G3 - NaOCl + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); G4 - NaOCl + peracetic acid (PAA); G5 - NaOCl + 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP); G6 - NaOCl + EDTA + CHX; G7 - NaOCl + PAA + CHX; G8 - NaOCl + HEDP + CHX; and G9 - mixture of NaOCl + HEDP. After treatments, roughness and wettability were measured. In order to evaluate the adhesion of microorganisms to dentine, new dentine samples were prepared and after 2 h of contact with the microorganisms, were analysed using a confocal laser scanning microscope and the number of microorganisms adhering to the surfaces were determined. Absorption spectra were collected by attenuated total reflectance of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy before and after immersion of other dentine samples in each solution of G6, G7 and G8 and in a solution of 2% CHX at various time intervals. The areas of the band associated with CHX with the peak at 1492 cm-1 were calculated between 1479 and 1500 cm-1 of the spectral range. The data obtained in all experiments were subjected to one-way ANOVA (α < 0.05). The values of the CHX band were also subjected to one-way repeated measures ANOVA (α < 0.05). RESULTS: Saline solution, NaOCl, HEDP and CHX did not alter the roughness of the dentine (P > 0.05), whilst EDTA and PAA did (P < 0.05). Dentine surface wettability increased after the use of all irrigants compared to saline solution (P < 0.05), with HEDP causing the greatest increases (P < 0.05). The adhesion of E. faecalis was favoured on surfaces treated with only saline solution and NaOCl, and on samples that had decalcifying agents as the final irrigant (P < 0.05). The adhesion of C. albicans was highest on surfaces treated with only saline solution and on surfaces that had NaOCl used as the last irrigant (P < 0.05). The use of CHX as a final irrigant reduced the adhesion of both microorganisms. The roughness and wettability did not influence the adhesion of the microorganisms tested. The adsorption of CHX to the dentine was significant after 1 min of immersion of the mineralized samples in the irrigant (P < 0.05), and the use of chelating agents prior to CHX potentiated this adsorption. CONCLUSIONS: The irrigation solutions had a variable effect on the properties of dentine, on the adhesion of E. faecalis and C. albicans and the adsorption of CHX to the dentine surface.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/microbiologia , Dentina/patologia , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Adsorção/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Quelantes/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Etidrônico/farmacologia , Teste de Materiais , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Photochem Photobiol ; 94(6): 1240-1248, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923618

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct for minimally invasive treatment (partial removal of carious tissue-PRCT) of deciduous carious tissue evaluating its efficacy in reducing microorganisms. For that, a clinical study was design including children with deciduous molars with active deep caries lesions (DCL). PRCT was performed and remaining dentin was treated with 100 µg mL-1 methylene blue solution (5 min) and than irradiated with a low power laser emitting red light (InGaAIP-indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 300 J cm-2 ; 90 s; 9 J). The colony forming units (CFU) count after PRCT and after PRCT + aPDT/mg of dentin were compared for total microorganisms, including Candida spp., the mutans streptococci group, Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. The dentin was classified (color, consistency and humidity). The microbial reduction varied from 69.88% to 86.29% and was significantly observed for total microorganisms, mutans streptococci, Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp (P < 0.001). The dentin type did not influence reduction of microorganisms (P > 0.05). The aPDT presents a promising future for clinical use as an adjunct for the reduction of microorganisms in PRCT of DCL in all kinds of dentin.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Azul de Metileno/administração & dosagem , Dente Molar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Dente Decíduo/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Cárie Dentária/cirurgia , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Esmalte Dentário/cirurgia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/microbiologia , Dentina/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lasers , Luz , Masculino , Azul de Metileno/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Dente Molar/microbiologia , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dente Decíduo/microbiologia , Dente Decíduo/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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