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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 177-182, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915355

RESUMO

Global population is ageing and Bangladesh has one of the fastest growing ageing populations in this region. Growth in the elderly population relative to other age groups challenges existing health services, family relationships and social security. Combined with this, depression has become a major mental health problem for elderly people especially for urban elderly for nuclear family norm in urban areas. The study was descriptive type of cross-sectional in nature and was conducted in Rangpur Medical College Hospital, Rangpur & Prime Medical College Hospital, Rangpur, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to assess the lifestyle and level of depression in urban elderly. Depression was measured by questionnaire of geriatric depression scale among 254 respondents. 87.8% of the respondents were age between 60-70 years. Majorities (63%) of the respondents were male, 54% of the respondents lived in nuclear type family and the rest (46%) in joint type of family. Among respondents near half (47.2%) of the respondents found Mild depressive, around one third (32.7%) were severe depressive, and the rest (20.1%) were normal. There was significant association between occupational status of the respondents and depression (x² = 45.600, df=14, p=0.000). Farmers unemployed found severely depressive (52.1%) followed by day-labourer (50%) and businessmen (37.5%). There was significant association between financial self dependency and depression of the respondents (x²= 34.072, df=4, p=0.000). Severe depression (43.8%) was found among those who were not financially self dependent. There was also significant association between monthly income and depression of the respondents (x²= 67.327, df=8, p=0.000). The study also found that lower income group (

Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): 494-500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the effects of acculturation on quality of life and emotional health, especially during pregnancy, we developed an intervention that would target these factors in order to improve maternal well-being during the prenatal period and potentially improve infant outcomes, particularly preterm birth for Mexican-American women (Latinas). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these pilot studies was to test the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the mastery lifestyle intervention (MLI) to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms and improve coping as implemented in prenatal clinics with culturally homogenous groups of Latinas. METHODS: The MLI was tested in three small pilot studies (n = 15), one in El Paso, Texas (an urban area), and two in Bastrop, Texas (a rural area outside Austin), for acceptability and feasibility. A pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used with pregnant self-identified Mexican-American Latinas at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative coping were used. RESULTS: Feasibility was a success in terms of implementation of the MLI in an active prenatal clinic setting and the use of electronic tablets for data collection and entry of data into REDcap. Satisfaction was high, with the location of the MLI being at their primary OB/GYN clinic. Participants reported that six intervention sessions appear to be ideal as was the class length of 1.5 to 2 hours. On Cohen's d, there were medium to large effect size decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms and small to medium effect size decreases in the use of negative coping strategies and small effect sizes for increases in positive coping strategies. DISCUSSION: Pilot testing of the MLI indicated that it was well accepted from the participants and feasible as a culturally tailored behavioral therapy administered in a group setting by nurse practitioners. Our initial pilot results also suggest preliminary efficacy as indicated by moderate to large Cohen's d effect sizes for depression and anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
3.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(5): 576, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282690

RESUMO

Reports an error in "Development and evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS)" by Andrew Young Choi, Tania Israel and Hotaka Maeda (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2017[Jan], Vol 64[1], 52-64). In this erratum, the first sentence under the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Short Form (CES-D-10) subheading in the Measures section, "(0 = rarely or none of the time to 4 = all of the time)" should be "(0 = rarely or none of the time to 3 = all of the time)" to reflect the appropriate Likert metric. In the first sentence under the Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) subheading in the Procedure section, "rotation" should be excluded as this technique is only applicable in the EFA context. In the last sentence under the CFA subheading in the Cross-validation section, "statically" should be "statistically." And in the third sentence of the third paragraph of the Discussion section, "interethnic" should be "intraracial" to appropriately represent within-race discrimination (rather than between ethnicity). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-00131-004.) This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias. Confirmatory factor analysis with a separate subsample (n = 331) indicated that the proposed correlated factors model was strongly consistent with the observed data. Factor determinacies were high and demonstrated that the specified items adequately measured their intended factors. Bifactor modeling further indicated that this multidimensionality could be univocally represented for the purpose of measurement, including the use of a mean total score representing a single continuum of internalized racism on which individuals vary. The IRAAS statistically predicted depressive symptoms, and demonstrated statistically significant correlations in theoretically expected directions with four dimensions of collective self-esteem. These results provide initial validity evidence supporting the use of the IRAAS to measure aspects of internalized racism in this population. Limitations and research implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Hostilidade , Racismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/etnologia , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1627-1647, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Migration-related experiences can increase Latinas' risk of perinatal depression and anxiety. Few studies have investigated these associations among Latinas due to a lack of survey instruments explicitly assessing migration experiences. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the Migration Experiences Survey (MES), a newly-developed measure of migration and deportation fears and explored associations between those experiences and mental health in a sample of immigrant Latinas in the perinatal period. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited women from community health clinics in Chapel Hill, NC between July 2013 and 2014. Twenty-five immigrant women were enrolled in the study during their third trimester of pregnancy. Women were interviewed in English or Spanish during pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to determine anxiety symptoms. The MES was administered at 8 weeks postpartum. Nonparametric tests were conducted to determine associations between deportation fears and maternal mood. RESULTS: Results show that the MES is acceptable for collecting data on migration experiences and assessing deportation fears among immigrant Latinas, regardless of depressive or anxiety symptoms. More than 40% had migration safety concerns and fears of deportation. Self or family-related fears of deportation were significantly associated with prenatal state anxiety and trait anxiety (p < .05). No significant associations between deportation fears and depressive symptoms were observed. DISCUSSION: The MES is a useful tool for gathering information about migration experiences associated with perinatal anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , América Latina/etnologia , México/etnologia , Assistência Perinatal , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(4): 643-666, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169469

RESUMO

In a large national survey in Cambodia (N = 2689), the present study investigated the prominence of certain culturally salient symptoms and syndromes in the general population and among those with anxious-depressive distress (as determined by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, or HSCL). Using an abbreviated Cambodian Symptom and Syndrome Addendum (CSSA), we found that the CSSA complaints were particularly elevated among those with anxious-depressive distress. Those with anxious-depressive distress had statistically greater mean scores on all the CSSA items as well as severity of endorsement analyzed by percentage: among those with HSCL caseness, 75.3% were bothered "quite a bit" or "extremely" by "thinking a lot" (vs. 27.5% without caseness); 53.8% were bothered by "standing up and feeling dizzy" (vs. 13.8%); and 45.6% by blurry vision (vs. 16.8%). In a logistic regression analysis to predict anxious-depressive distress, 51% of the variance was accounted for by five predictors: "weak heart," "thinking a lot," dizziness, "khyâl hitting up from the stomach," and sleep paralysis. Using ROC analysis, a cut-off score of 1.81 on the CSSA was optimal as a screener to indicate anxious-depressive distress, giving a sensitivity of 0.86. The study results suggest that to avoid category truncation (i.e., the omission of key complaints that are part of an assessed distress domain) when profiling anxious-depressive distress among Cambodia population that items other than those in standard psychopathology measures should be assessed such as "thinking a lot," "weak heart," "blurry vision," and "dizziness upon standing up."


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Linguagem , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Camboja , Competência Cultural , Etnopsicologia/métodos , Etnopsicologia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Allied Health ; 48(2): 100-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American Indian (AI) populations suffer disproportionately from cardiovascular disease and depression as compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Behaviors that contribute to obesity are considered obesogenic and include poor diet, low physical activity, and high screen time. This study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesogenic behaviors on cardiometabolic risk factors in AI youth. METHODS: Participants (n=121) were evaluated for depressive symptoms, obesogenic behaviors, weight, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose levels. RESULTS: All participants failed to meet guidelines for intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruits/vegetables, 74% did not meet physical activity guidelines, and 85% did not meet screen time guidelines. Lower physical activity was associated with higher body fat percentage (b=-4.20 ± 1.82, p=0.022). Elevated depressive symptoms and presence of at-risk cardiometabolic risk factors were found. Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher blood glucose (random, fasting, and hemoglobin A1c). CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity, high screen time, and the presence of depressive symptomology heighten cardiometabolic risk factors in AI children. Associations between depressive symptoms and blood glucose underscore the impact of emotional health on cardiometabolic disease and emphasize need for proper depression assessment in chronic disease prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Doenças Metabólicas/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Adolescente , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela
7.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(10): 1199-1207, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of serious psychological distress (SPD), depression, and suicidal ideation in an adult Indigenous population in Panamá. METHODS: Data were collected from 211 Kuna adults using a paper-based survey. Depression and suicidal ideation were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and SPD was measured using the Kessler-6. Univariate analyses were used to describe demographic variables, followed by chi2 tests to compare differences in demographic variables for each of the mental health outcomes (depression, serious psychological distress, suicidal ideation). A regression model, adjusted for all demographic variables, was then run for each mental health outcome to understand independent correlates. RESULTS: Within the sample surveyed, 6.2% (95% CI 3.4-10.4) reported serious psychological distress, 32.0% (95% CI 25.7-38.9) reported depression, and 22.9% (95% CI 17.4-29.1) reported suicidal ideation. Significant demographic differences existed with 14% of individuals between the age of 60-90 and 17% of individuals with no education reporting SPD. Women were nearly 5 times more likely to report depression than men (OR 4.90, 95% CI 1.27-19.00) and those with higher incomes were less likely to report depression (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.78). CONCLUSION: High levels of depression, SPD, and suicidal ideation were present in an Indigenous Kuna community in Panamá. Women and individuals with low income were more likely to report depression, and SPD was more common in older individuals and those with low levels of education. Suicidal ideation was high across all demographic factors, suggesting that a community-wide program to address suicide may be warranted.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panamá/epidemiologia , Pobreza/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064059

RESUMO

Background. Despite the prevalence of multimorbidity among African American (AA) older adults, little information exists on correlates of polypharmacy (using 5+ medications) in AA older adults. There is more information available regarding the link between polypharmacy and physical aspects of health than subjective ones. Aims. In a local sample of AA older adults in Los Angeles, this study investigated the association of polypharmacy with self-rated health (SRH) and depression. We also explored gender differences in these links. Methods. This community-based study was conducted in south Los Angeles. A total number of 708 AA older adults (age ≥ 55 years) were entered into this study. From this number, 253 were AA men and 455 were AA women. Polypharmacy was the independent variable. Self-rated health (SRH) and depression were the dependent variables. Age, educational attainment, financial difficulty (difficulty paying bills, etc.), and marital status were covariates. Gender was the moderator. Multimorbidity, measured as the number of chronic diseases (CDs), was the mediator. Logistic regressions were applied for data analysis. Results. Polypharmacy was associated with worse SRH and depression. Multimorbidity fully mediated the association between polypharmacy and depressive symptoms. Multimorbidity only partially mediated the association between polypharmacy and poor SRH. Gender moderated the association between polypharmacy and SRH, as polypharmacy was associated with poor SRH in women but not men. Gender did not alter the association between polypharmacy and depression. Conclusions. AA older women with polypharmacy experience worse SRH and depression, an association which is partially due to the underlying multimorbidity. There is a need for preventing inappropriate polypharmacy in AA older adults, particularly when addressing poor SRH and depression in AA older women with multimorbidity.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Polimedicação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Los Angeles/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Autorrelato
9.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 40(8): 672-681, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081707

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of the Giscombe Superwoman Schema Questionnaire. Three separate studies conducted with 739 African American women provided preliminary evidence that the Questionnaire's factor structure aligns with the Superwoman Schema Conceptual Framework and has good reliability. In addition, it is positively associated with perceived stress, depressive symptoms, using food to cope with stress, poor sleep quality, and physical inactivity. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that the Giscombe Superwoman Schema Questionnaire is psychometrically sound; Superwoman Schema is associated with health behaviors and psychological states that may increase risk for illness.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(2): 410-417, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086159

RESUMO

Depression is a normally occurring, severe, repeated disorder associated to diminished role functioning and quality of life, medical morbidity, and mortality. But presentation of depression differs culture to culture. We aimed to see the proportion of depressed patients presented spontaneously with the somatic complaints at department of Psychiatry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. This descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted within the time period of June 2016 to December 2017 among the outdoor patients of the university. Purposive consecutive sampling was used to collect data from 105 depressed patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by the psychiatrist based on the DSM-5 criteria of depression. Data were collected through face to face interview with semi structured preformed pretested questionnaire. All data were entered into SPSS 16.0 software and were analyzed. The mean±SD age was 32.09±12.13 years, ranging from 18 to 70 years. Among the 105 respondents 36% of the depressive patients had complaints of somatic symptoms spontaneously. Headache (34.21%), weakness (2%), body ache (5%), hearing problem, heaviness of the body, restlessness, chest pain, palpitation, dizziness, vertigo, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and burning sensation were the mentionable symptoms. Fear (11), anger (2), undue suspiciousness (2) & sexual dysfunction were the mentionable psychological symptoms. Due to multiple factors depressed patients can spontaneously present with somatic complaints, but after questioning on depression they can be diagnosed as depression. So, unexplained somatic symptoms should be attended and addressed properly in any stage of care.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Somatoformes/etnologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 65(5): 354-367, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms among migrants and non-migrants living in Qatar and identify variables associated with depressive symptomology in these groups, including culture of origin, time living in country and perceived quality of life. In addition, we tested if the latter two variables moderated the effect of culture of origin on depressive symptomology in the migrant groups. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A telephone survey of a probability-based sample of 2,520 participants was conducted in February 2016. The sample was divided into three groups based on nationality and income: labour migrants (LMs), white-collar migrants (WCMs) and non-migrants or Qatari nationals (QNs). Participants completed the Whooley two-question test for depression. RESULTS: The odds of depression were significantly increased in LMs (OR = 3.31, 95% CI = 2.36-4.65) and WCMs (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04-1.90) compared with non-migrants. Among LMs, having a problem with current employer in the last 3 months was also associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.14-3.84). Culture of origin was significantly associated with depressive symptoms including South Asians (OR = 3.12, p < .001), East Asians (OR = 0.52, p = .013) and Westerners (OR = 0.45, p = .044) relative to Arabs. LM status remained strongly associated with depressive symptoms independent of culture of origin (OR = 2.02, p < .001). CONCLUSION: Perceived quality of life, but not length of stay, appears to be an important variable in explaining differences in symptoms between some cultural groups. Findings from this study highlight the importance of the context of migration and culture of origin as potential determinants of depressive symptomology in the host country.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Amostragem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Public Health ; 171: 66-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Over a quarter of UK births are to women who were born outside of the UK. Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) women are disproportionately affected by poor mental health and inequitable access to mental health care in the perinatal period, yet the influence of the migrant status (mothers' UK vs. non-UK birth) is poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the relationship between ethnicity, migration and mental health indicators among mothers participating in a large nationally representative cohort study. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study. METHODS: Logistic regression quantified the crude and adjusted effects of self-reported ethnicity and migrant status on prevalence of psychological distress and treatment for anxiety/depression at 9-month and 5-year postpartum. RESULTS: We found substantial variation in the prevalence of distress according to ethnicity and migrant status, with Indian and Pakistani women at greatest risk. Despite equal or greater risk, BME and migrant women were less likely to report treatment for anxiety/depression. Mutually adjusted analyses showed ethnicity to be a stronger predictor of both outcomes than migrant status; however, at 5 years, being a migrant independently predicted lower odds of treatment, for a statistically similar level of distress. CONCLUSIONS: Migrant women are likely to be at high risk of poor mental health in the perinatal period and beyond, yet may face significant barriers to accessing mental health care. A better understanding of ethnicity and migration as interrelated risk factors for perinatal mental ill-health is needed to help National Health Service organisations develop policy and practice that is flexible and responsive to diversity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/terapia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Ter Arkh ; 91(1): 48-52, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090371

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the levels of depression and life exhaustion in men and women of the open urban population in the age range. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-stage epidemiological study was conducted among people of both sexes aged 25-64 in Tyumen. A representative sample was formed from the electoral lists of citizens by the method of "random numbers" - 2000 men and women with a response among men 85.0%, among women - 70.3%. The study of depression was conducted according to the algorithms of the program of the world health organization "MONICA-psychosocial". RESULTS: The prevalence of depression in the Tyumen population and in the age and sex groups showed a predominance of the average level over the high, in the age categories 25-34 and 35-44 years - significantly higher prevalence of high levels of depression in women. The higher prevalence of the average level of men and women IN the open population was determined to be relatively high. The average level of LIFE significantly prevails in women in the older age categories and in the population as a whole, the high level of LIFE - at the age of 25-34 years in women and at the age of 55-64 years in men. CONCLUSION: Therefore, in the open population of the middle-urbanized Siberian city there is a need to form an integrated approach to the prevention of non-infectious diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases, as it is established that prevention programs lead to a reduction in the burden of depression and, and effective approaches to the prevention of psycho-emotional States at the level of individual communities include school-oriented programs to teach positive thinking among the population, starting from a young age.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Depressão/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Sibéria/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(4): 481-487, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006213

RESUMO

Depression jeopardizes human health and brings heavy burden to both related families and societies. However, pathogenesis of depression has not been fully clarified yet. Previous studies show that there are some connections seen between dietary factors and depression, which are affected by various lifestyles. This paper aims at providing evidence for the prevention and treatment of depression by evaluating the relationships between factors as nutrients, dietary patterns, lifestyle and depression, based on the published literature.


Assuntos
Depressão/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
15.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(4): 558-565, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975963

RESUMO

Background: Despite evidence linking depression to poor blood pressure (BP) control and increased hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, there is paucity of data about depression among patients with hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed factors associated with depression among patients with hypertension in Ghana and Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Patients with hypertension were recruited from four hospitals: In Ghana, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (n = 120), and in Nigeria, the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, the Lagos State General Hospital, and the University College Hospital Ibadan (n = 237). Demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and clinical factors which predicted depression among the study cohort were assessed by logistic regression. Depression and beliefs about medications were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Beliefs about Medication Questionnaire, respectively. Depression was regarded as PHQ-9 score >4. Results: The mean ages of the Ghanaian and Nigerian cohort were 57.0 ± 13.7 years (58.3% female) and 56.4 ± 12.9 years (57.0% female), respectively. Prevalence of depression was 41.7% and 26.6% among the Ghanaian and Nigerian cohorts, respectively. Significant predictors of depression in the Nigerian cohort were age in years [OR 0.97 (0.95-0.99)], concern about medications [OR 1.15 (1.03-1.30)], and poor BP control [OR 2.06 (1.09-3.88)]. Young age was the only independent predictor of depression in the Nigerian cohort. In the Ghanaian cohort, none of the factors significantly predicted depression. Conclusion: Prevalence of depression is high among patients with hypertension in Ghana and Nigeria. Screening and treatment of depression among patients with hypertension in Ghana and Nigeria may have important implications for improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Am J Public Health ; 109(5): 774-780, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test whether indicators of despair are rising among US adults as they age toward midlife and whether this rise is concentrated among low-educated Whites and in rural areas. METHODS: We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative study of US adolescents in 1994. Our sample was restricted to individuals who participated in 1 or more of 5 waves (1994-2017) and self-identified as non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic (n = 18 446). We examined change in indicators of despair from adolescence to adulthood using multilevel regression analysis, testing for differences by race/ethnicity, education, and rurality. RESULTS: We found evidence of rising despair among this cohort over the past decade. This increase was not restricted to low-educated Whites or to rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that generally rising despair among the young adult cohort now reaching midlife that cuts across racial/ethnic, educational, and geographic groups may presage rising midlife mortality for these subgroups in the next decade.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(8): 987-996, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems and mental health related mortality have increased among adolescents, particularly girls. These trends have implications for etiology and prevention and suggest new and emerging risk factors in need of attention. The present study estimated age, period, and cohort effects in depressive symptoms among US nationally representative samples of school attending adolescents from 1991 to 2018. METHODS: Data are drawn from 1991 to 2018 Monitoring the Future yearly cross-sectional surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students (N = 1,260,159). Depressive symptoms measured with four questions that had consistent wording and data collection procedures across all 28 years. Age-period-cohort effects estimated using the hierarchical age-period-cohort models. RESULTS: Among girls, depressive symptoms decreased from 1991 to 2011, then reversed course, peaking in 2018; these increases reflected primarily period effects, which compared to the mean of all periods showed a gradual increase starting in 2012 and peaked in 2018 (estimate = 1.15, p < 0.01). Cohort effects were minimal, indicating that increases are observed across all age groups. Among boys, trends were similar although the extent of the increase is less marked compared to girls; there was a declining cohort effect among recently born cohorts, suggesting that increases in depressive symptoms among boys are slower for younger boys compared to older boys in recent years. Trends were generally similar by race/ethnicity and parental education, with a positive cohort effect for Hispanic girls born 1999-2004. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are increasing among teens, especially among girls, consistent with increases in depression and suicide. Population variation in psychiatric disorder symptoms highlight the importance of current environmental determinants of psychiatric disorder risk, and provide evidence of emerging risk factors that may be shaping a new and concerning trend in adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1161-1174, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847637

RESUMO

It is unclear how autonomy-related parenting processes are associated with Latinx adolescent adjustment. This study uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify typologies of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent conflict and examines their association with Latinx youth's school performance and depressive symptoms. The sample included 248 Latinx 9th and 10th graders (50% female) who completed surveys during fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters of the school year. When compared to a high monitoring/low conflict parenting profile, a moderate monitoring/moderate conflict profile was associated with stronger declines in school performance; for boys, a high monitoring/moderately high conflict profile also was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms. For Latinx immigrant families, researchers should consider monitoring and conflict as co-occurring processes.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Ajustamento Social , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/etiologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Georgia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(5): 864-875, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879164

RESUMO

Life course models of the impact of discrimination on health and mental health outcomes posit that the pernicious effects of discrimination may not be immediate, but instead may become apparent at later stages in development. This study tests whether peer discrimination changes at particular transition points (i.e., transition to middle and high school) predict subsequent internalizing symptoms in Mexican-origin youth. In a sample of 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female), this study used a latent change score framework to model changes in peer discrimination across time and to test whether changes in peer discrimination at 7th and 9th grades predicted greater depressive and anxiety symptoms in 12th grade controlling for 5th grade symptoms. Irrespective of longitudinal changes, greater peer discrimination in 5th grade predicted greater depressive and anxiety symptoms in 12th grade. Further, significant increases in peer discrimination from 7th to 8th grade and in 9th to 10th grade uniquely predicted greater anxiety symptoms in 12th grade. These findings suggest that longitudinal research on peer discrimination needs to take into account unique periods of risk. Future research implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 34(2): 149-170, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903551

RESUMO

This study examined the association between widowhood and depressive symptoms and the extent to which the association is contingent upon risk and resiliency, including immigration status, functional limitations, financial strains, and intergenerational support, among older Mexican Americans. The sample included 344 parent-child pairs reported by 83 respondents. Clustered regression analysis showed that widowhood elevated risks for depressive symptoms. We found that having some functional limitations, having more children and living in the same city with children exacerbated the adverse effects of widowhood on depressive symptoms. We also found that living in the same city with children increased the detrimental effects of widowhood on the depressive symptoms in men, whereas we did not find this pattern in women. The findings highlight the heterogeneity within the widowed Mexican American older adults. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Casamento/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Viuvez/etnologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/etnologia , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos , Viuvez/economia , Viuvez/psicologia
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