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1.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236355

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate whether the presence of awake bruxism was associated with temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms, pain threshold at pressure, pain vigilance, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and anxiety and depression symptoms in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. METHODOLOGY: This observational study followed patients who had started receiving orthodontic treatment for six months. The following variables were measured three times (at baseline, one month, and six months): pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the right and left masseter, anterior temporalis, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ), and right forearm; pain vigilance and awareness questionnaire; and shortened form of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14). Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured using the Beck anxiety inventory and the Beck depression inventory, respectively. The patients were divided into two main groups according to the presence (n=56) and absence (n=58) of possible awake bruxism. The multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied on the date (p=0.050). RESULTS: TMJ and/or muscle pain were not observed in both groups. Time, sex, age group, and awake bruxism did not affect the PPT in the masticatory muscles and pain vigilance (p>0.050). However, the primary effect of awake bruxism was observed when anxiety (ANOVA: F=8.61, p=0.004) and depression (ANOVA: F=6.48, p=0.012) levels were higher and the OHRQoL was lower (ANOVA: F=8.61, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: The patients with self-reported awake bruxism undergoing an orthodontic treatment did not develop TMJ/masticatory muscle pain. The self-reported awake bruxism is associated with higher anxiety and depression levels and a poorer OHRQoL in patients during the orthodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Bruxismo/psicologia , Bruxismo/terapia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Limiar da Dor/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Bruxismo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19671, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of post-stroke depression (PSD) with anti-depressant drugs is partly practical. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers the potential for a novel treatment modality for adult patients with PSD. In this study, we will assess the efficacy and safety of tACS for treating PSD and explore its effect on gamma and beta-oscillations involving in emotional regulation. METHODS: The prospective study is an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Seventy eligible participants with mild to moderate PSD aged between 18 years and 70 years will be recruited and randomly assigned to either active tACS intervention group or sham group. Daily 40-minute, 77.5-Hz, 15-mA sessions of active or sham tACS targeting the forehead and both mastoid areas on weekdays for 4 consecutive weeks (week 4), and an additional 4-week observational period (week 8) will be followed up. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants having an improvement at week 8 according to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-Item (HAMD-17) score, including the proportion of participants having a decrease of ≥ 50% in HAMD-17 score or clinical recovery (HAMD-17 score ≤ 7). Secondary outcomes include neurological function, independence level, activities of daily living, disease severity, anxiety, and cognitive function. The exploratory outcomes are gamma and beta-oscillations assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 8. Data will be analyzed by logistical regression analyses and mixed-effects models. DISCUSSION: The study will be the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tACS at a 77.5-Hz frequency and 15-mA current in reducing depressive severity in patients with PSD. The results of the study will present a base for future studies on the tACS in PSD and its possible mechanism. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03903068, pre-results.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ondas Encefálicas , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evidence the potential impact of the intensity, duration and recurrence of depression on the development of arterial stiffness (AS) leading to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction (DD) in patients with new onset depression (NOD) and recurrent depression (RD) in comparison to 33 control subjects without depression. Another aim was to identify potential predictive factors regarding the occurrence of diastolic dysfunction (DD). METHODS: Our study group included 58 patients diagnosed with NOD and 128 diagnosed with RD, without any previously diagnosed significant heart diseases. The intensity of depression was evaluated by means of the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Assessment of pulse wave velocity (PWV), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and echocardiographic parameters characterizing DD were performed for each patient. RESULTS: The cardiology evaluations suggested an increased prevalence of AS in all patients, of significantly higher rate than in controls (p<0.001), which was statistically correlated with the severity and duration of depression. Another significant finding was an increased prevalence of DD (29.31% and 63.28%, respectively; p<0.001) correlated with the MADRS score, total duration and number of recurrences/relapses. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified PWV, the intensity and duration of depression as significant predictive factors for the occurrence of DD. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, diastolic dysfunction was a common finding among patients with RD, but it was also noted, to a lesser extent, in those suffering with NOD. DD was associated with altered AS, and strongly correlated with the intensity and the duration of depressive symptoms. The two latter factors, together with an increased PWV, were strong predictors for the occurrence of DD.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Recidiva , Rigidez Vascular , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(3): 262-271, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying modifiable risk factors is essential to reduce the prevalence adolescent depression. Self-report data suggest that physical activity and sedentary behaviour might be associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents. We examined associations between depressive symptoms and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescents. METHODS: From a population-based cohort of adolescents whose mothers were invited to participate in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study, we included participants with at least one accelerometer recording and a Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) depression score at age 17·8 years (reported as age 18 years hereafter). Amounts of time spent in sedentary behaviour and physical activity (light or moderate-to-vigorous) were measured with accelerometers at around 12 years, 14 years, and 16 years of age. Total physical activity was also recorded as count per minute (CPM), with raw accelerometer counts averaged over 60 s epochs. Associations between the physical activity and sedentary behaviour variables and depression (CIS-R) scores at age 18 years were analysed with regression and group-based trajectory modelling. FINDINGS: 4257 adolescents from the 14 901 enrolled in the ALSPAC study had a CIS-R depression score at age 18 years. Longitudinal analyses included 2486 participants at age 12 years, 1938 at age 14 years, and 1220 at age 16 years. Total follow-up time was 6 years. Total physical activity decreased between 12 years and 16 years of age, driven by decreasing durations of light activity (mean 325·66 min/day [SD 58·09] at 12 years; 244·94 min/day [55·08] at 16 years) and increasing sedentary behaviour (430·99 min/day [65·80]; 523·02 min/day [65·25]). Higher depression scores at 18 years were associated with a 60 min/day increase in sedentary behaviour at 12 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1·111 [95% CI 1·051-1·176]), 14 years (1·080 [1·012-1·152]), and 16 years of age (1·107 [1·015-1·208]). Depression scores at 18 years were lower for every additional 60 min/day of light activity at 12 years (0·904 [0·850-0·961]), 14 years (0·922 [0·857-0·992]), and 16 years of age (0·889 [0·809-0·974]). Group-based trajectory modelling across 12-16 years of age identified three latent subgroups of sedentary behaviour and activity levels. Depression scores were higher in those with persistently high (IRR 1·282 [95% CI 1·061-1·548]) and persistently average (1·249 [1·078-1·446]) sedentary behaviour compared with those with persistently low sedentary behaviour, and were lower in those with persistently high levels of light activity (0·804 [0·652-0·990]) compared with those with persistently low levels of light activity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (per 15 min/day increase) at age 12 years (0·910 [0·857-0·966]) and total physical activity (per 100 CPM increase) at ages 12 years (0·941 [0·910-0·972]) and 14 years (0·965 [0·932-0·999]), were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Sedentary behaviour displaces light activity throughout adolescence, and is associated with a greater risk of depressive symptoms at 18 years of age. Increasing light activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour during adolescence could be an important target for public health interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of depression. FUNDING: Details of funding are provided in the Acknowledgments.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Depressão , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Correlação de Dados , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Psiquiatria Preventiva/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have provided equivocal evidence of antidepressant use on subsequent cognitive impairment; this could be due to inconsistent modeling approaches. Our goals are methodological and clinical. We evaluate the impact of statistical modeling approaches on the associations between antidepressant use and risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in older adults with depression. METHODS: 716 participants were enrolled. Our primary analysis employed a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model. We also implemented two fixed-covariate proportional hazards models-one based on having ever used antidepressants during follow-up, and the other restricted to baseline use only. RESULTS: Treating antidepressant use as a time-varying covariate, we found no significant association with incident MCI (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.20). In contrast, when antidepressant use was treated as a fixed covariate, we observed a significant association between having ever used antidepressants and lower risk of MCI (HR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.56). However, in the baseline-use only model, the association was non-significant (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.17). DISCUSSION: Our results were dependent upon statistical models and suggest that antidepressant use should be modeled as a time-varying covariate. Using a robust time-dependent analysis, antidepressant use was not significantly associated with incident MCI among cognitively normal persons with depression.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
7.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 13(2): 135-146, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990596

RESUMO

Introduction: The use of ketamine infusions for chronic pain has surged, with utilization exceeding the proliferation of knowledge. A proposed mechanism for the long-term benefit in chronic pain is that ketamine may alter the affective-motivational component of pain.Areas covered: In this review, we discuss the classification and various dimensions of pain, and explore the effects of ketamine on different pain categories and components. The relationship between ketamine's action at the NMDA receptor, the development of chronic pain, and the its possible role in preventing the persistence of pain are examined. We also summarize animal models evaluating the antinociceptive effects of ketamine and risk mitigation strategies of ketamine-associated side effects.Expert opinion: Although ketamine exerts most of its analgesic effects via the NMDA receptor, recent evidence suggests that other receptors such as AMPA, and active metabolites such as nor-ketamine, may also play a role in pain relief and alleviation of depression. Data from clinical studies performed in patients with chronic pain and depression, and the observation that ketamine's analgesic benefits outlast its effects on quantitative sensory testing, suggest that the enduring effects on chronic pain may be predominantly due ketamine's ability to modulate the affective-motivational dimension of pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995596

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB). This has not been studied in Puerto Rico, an area with high PTB rates. Our objective was to develop a conceptual model describing the interrelationships between measures of psychosocial stress and depression, a result of stress, among pregnant women in Puerto Rico and to examine their associations with PTB. We used data from the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats pregnancy cohort (PROTECT, N = 1,047) to examine associations among depression and different continuous measures of psychosocial stress using path analysis. Psychosocial stress during pregnancy was assessed using validated measures of perceived stress, negative life experiences, neighborhood perceptions and social support. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between psychosocial stress measures in tertiles and PTB. Perceived stress, negative life experiences, and neighborhood perceptions influenced depression through multiple pathways. Our model indicated that perceived stress had the strongest direct effect on depression, where one standard deviation (SD) increase in perceived stress was associated with a 57% SD increase in depression. Negative life experiences were directly but also indirectly, through perceived stress, associated with depression. Finally, neighborhood perceptions directly influenced negative life experiences and perceived stress and consequently had an indirect effect on depression. Psychosocial stress was not associated with PTB across any of the measures examined. Our study examined interrelationships between multiple measures of psychosocial stress and depression among a pregnant Puerto Rican population and identified negative neighborhood perceptions as important upstream factors leading to depression. Our findings highlight the complex relationship between psychosocial stress measures and indicate that psychosocial stress and depression, assessed using 5 different scales, were not associated with PTB. Future research should investigate other environmental and behavioral risk factors contributing to higher rates of PTB in this population.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
11.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(4): 637-645, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849381

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between insomnia and future risk of developing depression. This was a 6-year cohort survey from 2011 to 2017. A questionnaire was conducted with male workers in a manufacturing industry. The questions included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for evaluating depression and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) for rating insomnia. Data from 1,332 daytime workers aged less than 60 years who had no depressive symptoms at baseline were analyzed. The risk of developing depression in the future was associated with insomnia at baseline, after adjusting for age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.64). Even after adjusting for the covariances of job type, living with family, sleeping time, and undergoing treatment or taking medication, insomnia was associated with the onset of future depression (HR 1.58). In addition, the HR increased as the total AIS score increased: total AIS score 1-3 points (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.23-3.22), 4-5 points (HR 3.58; 95% CI 2.18-5.89), and 6 points and above (HR 4.24; 95% CI 2.49-7.21). The risk of developing depression in the future increased in correlation with greater severity of insomnia at baseline, suggesting that even slight insomnia can be a risk of future developing depression. It may be important to measure the level of insomnia using an indicator such as AIS, and to improve sleep quality in workers to prevent depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 600-605, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was evaluation of the relationship between severity of symptoms of climacteric syndrome, depressive disorders and sleep problems, and the self-rated work ability of peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women in non-manual employment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 287 women aged 45-60 years, employed in various institutions as non-manual workers. Work Ability Index, Greene Climacteric Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Athens Insomnia Scale were used. RESULTS: The examined peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women in non-manual employment obtained good work ability on the Work Ability Index. The severity of menopausal syndrome, according to the Greene Climacteric Scale, was moderate, placing the examined women between results for the general population of women and the pattern for menopausal women. Depressive disorders ranked between low mood and moderate depression. No depression was observed in 59% of the women, whereas moderate depression was observed in 39%, and severe depression in only 2%. Sleep disorders were on the border of normal range. As many as 46% of the women had no sleep problems, which was on the border of normal range in 36%. Only 19% of the examined women suffered from insomnia. Work ability correlated negatively with depression and insomnia severity, as well as with psychological and vasomotor symptoms of climacteric syndrome, but not to its somatic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing the occurrence and treatment of menopausal symptoms, sleep and mood disorders may contribute to maintaining the work ability of women in peri- and post-menopausal age.


Assuntos
Climatério/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Climatério/psicologia , Depressão/economia , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/economia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between sleep quality and depression, among Han and Manchu ethnicities, in a rural Chinese population. METHODS: A sample of 8,888 adults was selected using a multistage cluster and random sampling method. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Depressive symptoms were assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression was conducted to assess associations between sleep quality and depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor sleep quality and depression in the Manchus (20.74% and 22.65%) was significantly lower than that in the Hans (29.57% and 26.25%), respectively. Depressive participants had higher odds ratios of global and all sub PSQI elements than non-depressive participants, both among the Hans and the Manchus. Additive interactions were identified between depressive symptoms and ethnicity with global and four sub-PSQI elements, including subjective sleep quality, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality and depression among the Hans was greater than among the Manchus. Depression was associated with higher odds of poor sleep quality.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(12): 1306-1318, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591521

RESUMO

Most psychopathological disorders develop in adolescence. The biological basis for this development is poorly understood. To enhance diagnostic characterization and develop improved targeted interventions, it is critical to identify behavioural symptom groups that share neural substrates. We ran analyses to find relationships between behavioural symptoms and neuroimaging measures of brain structure and function in adolescence. We found two symptom groups, consisting of anxiety/depression and executive dysfunction symptoms, respectively, that correlated with distinct sets of brain regions and inter-regional connections, measured by structural and functional neuroimaging modalities. We found that the neural correlates of these symptom groups were present before behavioural symptoms had developed. These neural correlates showed case-control differences in corresponding psychiatric disorders, depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in independent clinical samples. By characterizing behavioural symptom groups based on shared neural mechanisms, our results provide a framework for developing a classification system for psychiatric illness that is based on quantitative neurobehavioural measures.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Anisotropia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Correlação de Dados , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5705232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612144

RESUMO

Postmenopausal depression is closely associated with depletion of estrogen which modulates transmission of 5-HT, a key neurotransmitter that regulates stress-managing circuits in the brain. In this study, antidepressive efficacy of white ginseng (Panax gingseng Meyer, WG) was evaluated in stressed ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and repeatedly restraint stressed for 2 weeks (2h/day). Thirty minutes before restraint stress, rats were administered saline (control), WG 200 mg/kg (p.o.), WG 400 mg/kg (p.o.), or fluoxetine (PC, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed to assess antidepressant effect of WG. After behavioral tests, levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and hippocampal 5-HT were measured. Significant decrease of immobility time in TST and FST was shown in rats administered with PC or WG 400 compared to the control. WG200-treated rats showed remarkable reduction in immobility time of TST. PC, WG 200, or WG 400-administred group exhibited significant reduction of CORT compared to the control. PC or WG-treated rats exhibited remarkable increase in hippocampal 5-HT concentration compared to the control. Hippocampal 5-HT levels in WG groups were higher than those in the PC group. The present study demonstrated that WG had antidepressant efficacy in an animal model of menopausal depression. Treatment with WG enhanced hippocampal 5-HT level while suppressing depressive symptom and serum CORT level. These results provide evidence that WG plays an important role in activating serotonergic neurons in stressful situation, suggesting that WG might be a reliable natural alternative of antidepressant drugs to treat menopausal depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Panax/química , Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/métodos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Natação
16.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(3): 232-237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587015

RESUMO

Emotional stress is considered a serious pathogenetic factor of depression. In this study an ultrasound model of emotional stress developed in our laboratory was applied. It is characterized by the use of ultrasound as the stressor agent. Animals are triggered not by any organic or physical disturbances but by the perception of adverse information. This type of stress can induce depressive-like behavioral changes in rodents, manifested by decreased sucrose preference and increased time of immobility in a forced swim test. Ultrasound stress also increased the levels of oxidative stress markers. This is important, as stress has an established association with increased oxidative processes in the central nervous system. Total glutathione and carbonyl protein content were selected as relevant brain markers, as glutathione plays a critical role in cellular defensive mechanisms during oxidative stress and the level of protein carbonyls can be a measure of global protein oxidation. We demonstrated that two weeks of chronic exposure to ultrasound was enough to cause depressive-like behavioral changes in rats. Increased levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were also observed after two weeks of such stress. The current study has two goals: the first is to study the relationship of depression and oxidative stress; the second is an additional validation of our approach to modeling stress­induced depressive-like states in rats. The present data further support the validity of the ultrasound model by expanding information related to the influence of ultrasound stress on behavioral and physiological parameters, which are of great importance in the development of stress-induced depression. A time correlation between the onset of symptoms and a change in the level of oxidative stress markers in the brain is also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Ratos
17.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1061-1066, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633407

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Many factors can affect the injury risk and quality of life among high school athletes. Early sport specialization and club sport participation may be components to consider when assessing the injury risk and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To investigate patient-reported quality-of-life and injury-history measures among adolescent athletes at different sport-specialization levels and to compare these measures between those who did and those who did not report participating in club sports. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: High school athletic facility. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: High school student athletes 13 to 18 years of age were recruited and tested during their annual preseason athletic physical examinations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Our primary grouping variables were sport-specialization level (classified as low, moderate, or high) and club sport participation (organized sport outside of traditional school athletics). Our outcome variables were the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Pediatric Profile-37 rating, Severity Measure for Depression-Child score, and injury history. RESULTS: A total of 97 individuals participated (mean age = 15.2 ± 1.1 years; 38% female). Relatively similar proportions of individuals reported participating at each level of sport specialization (low = 34%, moderate = 40%, high = 26%). Forty-six (48%) participants stated they participated in club sports. No differences were evident in quality of life (P values = .15-.92 across domains), depression (P = .60), or injury history (P > .70) among the specialization groups. Those who described participating in club sports had a higher proportion of time-loss musculoskeletal injuries (63% versus 29%; P = .002) and of injuries requiring imaging, injection, a cast, a brace, or crutches (72% versus 46%; P = .013) than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Although no injury-history differences were found among the sport-specialization groups, a higher proportion of club sport athletes than nonclub sport athletes reported a history of injury. Club sports are generally seen as more competitive, and the higher number of injuries seen in this setting could be related to a higher level of play among club sport athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas , Depressão , Qualidade de Vida , Especialização , Estudantes , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3924, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477731

RESUMO

The serotonergic system and in particular serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) are implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we demonstrated that 5-HT1AR is palmitoylated in human and rodent brains, and identified ZDHHC21 as a major palmitoyl acyltransferase, whose depletion reduced palmitoylation and consequently signaling functions of 5-HT1AR. Two rodent models for depression-like behavior show reduced brain ZDHHC21 expression and attenuated 5-HT1AR palmitoylation. Moreover, selective knock-down of ZDHHC21 in the murine forebrain induced depression-like behavior. We also identified the microRNA miR-30e as a negative regulator of Zdhhc21 expression. Through analysis of the post-mortem brain samples in individuals with MDD that died by suicide we find that miR-30e expression is increased, while ZDHHC21 expression, as well as palmitoylation of 5-HT1AR, are reduced within the prefrontal cortex. Our study suggests that downregulation of 5-HT1AR palmitoylation is a mechanism involved in depression, making the restoration of 5-HT1AR palmitoylation a promising clinical strategy for the treatment of MDD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lipoilação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/genética
19.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 533-538, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478419

RESUMO

Introduction: Depression in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD) is associated with worse prognosis. Indeed, depressed MCI patients have worse cognitive performance and greater loss of gray-matter volume in several brain areas. To date, knowledge of the factors that can mitigate this detrimental effect is still limited. The aim of the present study was to understand in what way cognitive reserve/brain reserve and depression interact and are linked to regional atrophy in early stage AD. Methods: Depression was evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in 90 patients with early AD, and a cutoff of ≥ 5 was used to separate depressed (n = 44) from non-depressed (n = 46) patients. Each group was further stratified into high/low cognitive reserve/brain reserve. Cognitive reserve was calculated using years of education as proxy, while normalized parenchymal volumes were used to estimate brain reserve. Voxel-based morphometry was carried out to extract and analyze gray-matter maps. 2 × 2 ANCOVAs were run to test the effect of the reserve-by-depression interaction on gray matter. Age and hippocampal ratio were used as covariates. Composite indices of major cognitive domains were also analyzed with comparable models. Results: No reserve-by-depression interaction was found in the analytical models of gray matter. Depression was associated with less gray matter volume in the cerebellum and parahippocampal gyrus. The brain reserve-by-depression interaction was a significant predictor of executive functioning. Among those with high brain reserve, depressed patients had poorer executive skills. No significant results were found in association with cognitive reserve. Conclusion: These findings suggest that brain reserve may modulate the association between neurodegeneration and depression in patients with MCI and dementia of the AD type, influencing in particular executive functioning.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Reserva Cognitiva , Depressão/psicologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Atrofia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Giro Para-Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro Para-Hipocampal/patologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480539

RESUMO

An olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) rodent is a widely-used model for depression (especially for agitated depression). The present study aims to investigate the hippocampus metabolic profile and autophagy-related pathways in OBX rats and to explore the modulatory roles of fluoxetine. OBX rats were given a 30-day fluoxetine treatment after post-surgery rehabilitation, and then behavioral changes were evaluated. Subsequently, the hippocampus was harvested for metabonomics analysis and Western blot detection. As a result, OBX rats exhibited a significantly increased hyperemotionality score and declined spatial memory ability. Fluoxetine reduced the hyperemotional response, but failed to restore the memory deficit in OBX rats. Sixteen metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers for the OBX model including six that were rectified by fluoxetine. Disturbed pathways were involved in amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, purine metabolism, and energy metabolism. In addition, autophagy was markedly inhibited in the hippocampus of OBX rats. Fluoxetine could promote autophagy by up-regulating the expression of LC3 II, beclin1, and p-AMPK/AMPK, and down-regulating the levels of p62, p-Akt/Akt, p-mTOR/mTOR, and p-ULK1/ULK1. Our findings indicated that OBX caused marked abnormalities in hippocampus metabolites and autophagy, and fluoxetine could partly redress the metabolic disturbance and enhance autophagy to reverse the depressive-like behavior, but not the memory deficits in OBX rats.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória , Animais , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Bulbo Olfatório/cirurgia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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