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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711026

RESUMO

The emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected health-care workers' psychological and mental health. Few studies have been conducted examining the psychological effect of COVID-19 on health-care worker psychological health in Jordan. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the respective levels of fear, anxiety, depression, stress, social support, and the associated factors, experienced by Jordanian health-care workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic. This study adopted a cross-sectional, correlational design to collect data from 365 health-care workers in Amman, Jordan, from August 16th to 23rd, 2020. Along with collecting sociodemographic characteristics, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support electronically administered to participants. The majority of the participants (69.3%) were registered nurses. The mean overall score for the Fear of COVID-19 scale was 23.64 (SD + 6.85) which again exceeded the mid-point for the total score range (21), indicating elevated level fear of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants had displayed extremely severe depression 40%, extremely severe anxiety 60%, and 35% severely distressed. Scores for depression (21.30 ± 10.86), anxiety (20.37 ± 10.80), stress (23.33 ± 10.87) were also high. Factors determined to be associated with psychological distress were being male, married, aged 40 years and older, and having more clinical experience. Assessment of social support indicated moderate-to-high levels of perceived support for all dimensions (significant other: 5.17 ± 1.28, family: 5.03 ± 1.30, friends: 5.05 ± 1.30). Weak significant correlations were found between social support and the other study variables (r < 0.22), indicating a weak association with fear, depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. Overall, Jordanian health-care workers sample reported fear, depression, anxiety, and stress. The associated factors were being male, married, aged 40 years and older, and having more clinical experience. Regarding social support, participants primarily relied on support from their families, followed by support from friends.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Medo/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , /virologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(1): 40-53, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and compare the prediction model for suicide attempts by Korean adolescents using logistic regression and decision tree analysis. METHODS: This study utilized secondary data drawn from the 2019 Youth Health Risk Behavior web-based survey. A total of 20 items were selected as the explanatory variables (5 of sociodemographic characteristics, 10 of health-related behaviors, and 5 of psychosocial characteristics). For data analysis, descriptive statistics and logistic regression with complex samples and decision tree analysis were performed using IBM SPSS ver. 25.0 and Stata ver. 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 1,731 participants (3.0%) out of 57,303 responded that they had attempted suicide. The most significant predictors of suicide attempts as determined using the logistic regression model were experience of sadness and hopelessness, substance abuse, and violent victimization. Girls who have experience of sadness and hopelessness, and experience of substance abuse have been identified as the most vulnerable group in suicide attempts in the decision tree model. CONCLUSION: Experiences of sadness and hopelessness, experiences of substance abuse, and experiences of violent victimization are the common major predictors of suicide attempts in both logistic regression and decision tree models, and the predict rates of both models were similar. We suggest to provide programs considering combination of high-risk predictors for adolescents to prevent suicide attempt.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Árvores de Decisões , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia , Ideação Suicida , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245868, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534820

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has become one of the main international concerns regarding its impact on mental health. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, and behavioral aspects amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in a Brazilian population. An online survey was administered from May 22 to June 5, 2020 using a questionnaire comprising of sociodemographic information, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. Participants comprised 3,000 people from Brazil's 26 states and the Federal District, with an average age of 39.8 years, women (83%), married (50.6%), graduates (70.1%) and employees (46.7%). Some contracted the virus (6.4%) and had dead friends or relatives (22.7%). There was more consumption of drugs, tobacco, medication, and food (40.8%). Almost half of participants expressed symptoms of depression (46.4%), anxiety (39.7%), and stress (42.2%). These were higher in women, people without children, students, patients with chronic diseases, and people who had contact with others diagnosed with COVID-19. The existence of a group more vulnerable to situations with a high stress burden requires greater attention regarding mental health during and after the pandemic. That said, it should be emphasized that these findings are preliminary and portray a moment still being faced by many people amid the pandemic and quarantine measures. Therefore, we understand that the magnitude of the impacts on mental health will only be more specific with continuous studies after total relaxation of the quarantine.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(1): 165976, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that the neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders depression, ataxia and dystonia share common biological pathways. We therefore aimed to increase our understanding of their shared pathophysiology by investigating their shared biological pathways and molecular networks. METHODS: We constructed gene sets for depression, ataxia, and dystonia using the Human Phenotype Ontology database and genome-wide association studies, and identified shared genes between the three diseases. We then assessed shared genes in terms of functional enrichment, pathway analysis, molecular connectivity, expression profiles and brain-tissue-specific gene co-expression networks. RESULTS: The 33 genes shared by depression, ataxia and dystonia are enriched in shared biological pathways and connected through molecular complexes in protein-protein interaction networks. Biological processes common/shared to all three diseases were identified across different brain tissues, highlighting roles for synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and nervous system development. The average expression of shared genes was significantly higher in the cerebellum compared to other brain regions, suggesting these genes have distinct cerebellar functions. Several shared genes also showed high expression in the cerebellum during prenatal stages, pointing to a functional role during development. CONCLUSIONS: The shared pathophysiology of depression, ataxia and dystonia seems to converge onto the cerebellum that maybe particularly vulnerable to changes in synaptic transmission, regulation of synaptic plasticity and nervous system development. Consequently, in addition to regulating motor coordination and motor function, the cerebellum may likely play a role in mood processing.


Assuntos
Ataxia , Encéfalo , Cerebelo , Depressão , Distonia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Transmissão Sináptica , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/metabolismo , Ataxia/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cerebelo/patologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Distonia/genética , Distonia/metabolismo , Distonia/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105550, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidences have demonstrated the roles of several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in depression. We aim to examine the capabilities of lncRNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5) on mice with depression-like behaviors and the mechanism of action. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy mice were selected for model establishment. Morris water maze test and trapeze test were performed for evaluating learning and memory ability. The binding relationship between lncRNA GAS5 and microRNA-26a (miR-26a) and the target relationship between miR-26a and EGR1 were verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. The apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice was detected by TUNEL staining. The expression of inflammatory factors, lncRNA GAS5, miR-26a, early growth response gene 1 (EGR1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway- and apoptosis-related factors in hippocampal tissues was tested by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. RESULTS: miR-26a expression was down-regulated while EGR1 and lncRNA GAS5 expression were up-regulated in hippocampal tissues of mice with depression-like behaviors. LncRNA GAS5 specifically bound to miR-26a and miR-26a targeted EGR1. Silencing of lncRNA GAS5 curtailed the release of inflammatory factors and the apoptosis of hippocampal neuron of mice with depression-like behaviors. EGR1 suppressed PI3K/AKT pathway activation to promote the release of inflammatory factors and the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in mice with depression-like behaviors. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that silencing of lncRNA GAS5 could activate PI3K/AKT pathway to protect hippocampal neurons against damage in mice with depression-like behaviors by regulating the miR-26a/EGR1 axis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Comportamento Animal , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Região CA1 Hipocampal/patologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiopatologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/patologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the health of intersex adults (people with differences of sex development) in the U.S. using community-based research methods. METHODS: In July-September 2018, we conducted a national health study of intersex adults aged 18 and older in the U.S., using a survey hosted on Qualtrics. The study describes the physical and mental health experiences of intersex adults, including differences by age (18 to 39 vs. 40 and older). Questions were derived from national (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System) and intersex-related health studies. RESULTS: A non-probability sample of 198 intersex adults completed the survey over three months. Over 43% of participants rated their physical health as fair/poor and 53% reported fair/poor mental health. Prevalent health diagnoses included depression, anxiety, arthritis, and hypertension, with significant differences by age. Nearly a third reported difficulty with everyday tasks and over half reported serious difficulties with cognitive tasks. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first national study of intersex adults in the U.S. Greater understanding of intersex health over the life course is essential. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal studies and further examination of potential health disparities experienced by intersex populations.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 331: 109278, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038329

RESUMO

Only in the last decade the long-term consequences of sepsis started to be studied and even less attention has been given to the treatment of psychological symptoms of sepsis survivors. It is estimated that 60% of sepsis survivors have psychological disturbances, including depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. Although the causative factors remain largely poorly understood, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbances, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress have been investigated. Therefore, we sought to explore if the immunomodulatory and antioxidant selenocompound 3-[(4-chlorophenyl)selanyl]-1-methyl-1H-indole (CMI) would be able to ameliorate long-term behavioral and biochemical alterations in sepsis survivors male Swiss mice. CMI treatment (1 mg/kg, given orally for seven consecutive days) attenuated depression- and anxiogenic-like behaviors and cognitive impairment present one month after the induction of sepsis (lipopolysaccharide, 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Meantime, CMI treatment modulated the number of neutrophils and levels of reactive species in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. In addition, peripheral markers of liver and kidneys dysfunction (AST, ALT, urea, and creatinine) were reduced after CMI treatment in post-septic mice. Notably, CMI treatment to non-septic mice did not alter AST, ALT, urea, and creatinine levels, indicating the absence of acute hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity following CMI treatment. Noteworthy, CMI ameliorated BBB dysfunction induced by sepsis, modulating the expression of inflammation-associated genes (NFκB, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IDO, COX-2, iNOS, and BDNF) and markers of oxidative stress (reactive species, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation levels) in the prefrontal cortices and hippocampi of mice. In conclusion, we unraveled crucial molecular pathways that are impaired in post-septic mice and we present CMI as a promising therapeutic candidate aimed to manage the long-lasting behavioral alterations of sepsis survivors to improve their quality of life.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Indóis/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Sepse/patologia , Animais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sepse/complicações
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044961

RESUMO

Research found that adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have more problems with financial decision-making than healthy controls. The present study investigates the impact of symptoms of ADHD on impulsive buying and the use of financial decision styles. Furthermore, the influence of personality, symptoms of depression and demographics on the association between ADHD and these aspects of financial decision-making is evaluated. A community sample of 1292 participants (age range 18-93 years, 45.4% male) completed questionnaires related to ADHD, impulsive buying, financial decision styles, personal financial situation, depression and personality. Four groups were formed based on self-reported ADHD symptoms: an 'ADHD' group (n = 45), an 'Adult-only ADHD' group (n = 57), a 'Subthreshold ADHD' group (n = 162) and a 'No ADHD' group (n = 265). Groups were compared using ANOVA and chi-square tests. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses in the complete sample were employed to examine the association between ADHD and financial decision-making. The ADHD and Adult-only ADHD groups reported significantly more impulsive buying, used more often an avoidant or spontaneous decision style and less often saved money compared to the No ADHD group. Regression analyses revealed that impulsive buying and financial decision styles were not significantly associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for personality, symptoms of depression and demographics. The present study confirms previous research on adults with ADHD by indicating more impulsive buying and a more frequent use of disadvantageous financial decision styles (i.e., avoidant and spontaneous styles) in individuals with an elevated number of current symptoms of ADHD compared to individuals without symptoms of ADHD. Personality and demographic variables were found to be related to both impulsive buying and the use of specific financial decision styles and might be of influence on the association between impulsive buying, the use of financial decision styles and ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/patologia , Status Econômico , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104730

RESUMO

Gaming disorder has been described as an urgent public health problem and has garnered many systematic reviews of its associations with other health conditions. However, review methodology can contribute to bias in the conclusions, leading to research, policy, and patient care that are not truly evidence-based. This study followed a pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018090651) with the objective of identifying reliable and methodologically-rigorous systematic reviews that examine the associations between gaming disorder and depression or anxiety in any population. We searched PubMed and PsycInfo for published systematic reviews and the gray literature for unpublished systematic reviews as of June 24, 2020. Reviews were classified as reliable according to several quality criteria, such as whether they conducted a risk of bias assessment of studies and whether they clearly described how outcomes from each study were selected. We assessed possible selective outcome reporting among the reviews. Seven reviews that included a total of 196 studies met inclusion criteria. The overall number of participants was not calculable because not all reviews reported these data. All reviews specified eligibility criteria for studies, but not for outcomes within studies. Only one review assessed risk of bias. Evidence of selective outcome reporting was found in all reviews-only one review incorporated any of the null findings from studies it included. Thus, none were classified as reliable according to prespecified quality criteria. Systematic reviews related to gaming disorder do not meet methodological standards. As clinical and policy decisions are heavily reliant on reliable, accurate, and unbiased evidence synthesis; researchers, clinicians, and policymakers should consider the implications of selective outcome reporting. Limitations of the current summary include using counts of associations and restricting to systematic reviews published in English. Systematic reviewers should follow established guidelines for review conduct and transparent reporting to ensure evidence about technology use disorders is reliable.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/patologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Comportamento Aditivo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/complicações , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/complicações , Humanos , Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238712, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Veterans Health Administration (VA) cares for over 80,000 Veterans with cirrhosis annually. Given the importance of understanding patient reported outcomes in this complex population, we aimed to assess the associations between attitudes towards care, disease knowledge, and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in a national sample. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we mailed paper surveys to a random sample of Veterans with cirrhosis, oversampling those with decompensated disease. Surveys included the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (measuring HRQoL) and questions about demographics, characteristics of care, satisfaction with care ("attitudes towards care"), and symptoms of cirrhosis. Those who reported being "unsure" about whether they had decompensation events were defined as "unsure about cirrhosis symptoms" ("disease knowledge"). We used multivariable regression models to assess the factors associated with HRQoL. RESULTS: Of 1374 surveys, 551 (40%) completed surveys were included for analysis. Most Veterans (63%) were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with VA liver care. Patients often self-reported being unsure about whether they had experienced hepatic decompensation events (34%). Overall average physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores of HRQoL were 30±11 and 41±12. In multivariable regression models, hepatic decompensation (PCS:ß = -3.8, MCS:ß = -2.2), medical comorbidities (ß = --2.0, ß = -1.7), and being unsure about cirrhosis symptoms (ß = -1.9, ß = -3.3) were associated with worse HRQoL, while age (ß = 0.1, ß = 0.2) and satisfaction with care (ß = 0.6; ß = 1.6) were associated with significantly better HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic decompensation, lower satisfaction with care, and being unsure about cirrhosis symptoms were associated with reduced QOL scores in this national cohort.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares , Veteranos , Idoso , Ascite/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pacientes , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239004, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915921

RESUMO

As the prevalence of overweight and obesity have risen over the past few decades, so have weight control attempts. Research has shown, however, that intentional weight loss results are often short-lived, with people regaining the weight over time. This can lead to weight cycling-losing and gaining weight repeatedly. Previous research, mostly done over two decades ago, concluded there was no relationship between weight cycling and psychological health. The goal of the current paper was to re-examine the relationship between weight cycling and depressive symptoms in a national sample of American adults (N = 2702; 50.7% female; mean age = 44.8 years). If, as hypothesized, there is a relationship between more frequent weight cycling and depressive symptoms, then internalized weight stigma will be examined as a potential mediator of the relationship. Results of a cross-sectional survey showed that 74.6% of adults report they have intentionally tried to lose weight. Amongst those who have tried to lose to weight, the average number of weight cycles over the lifetime was 7.82 cycles. Simultaneous regression showed that greater weight cycling was related to greater reported depressive symptoms (ß = .15, p < .001), controlling for age, gender, education, income, and body mass index. Internalized weight stigma was a partial mediator of this relationship. Discussion focuses on the potential implications for weight cycling and mental health.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Depressão/etiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/patologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 591, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in Malawi. Early prevention efforts in Malawi have been largely focused on preventing heterosexual and vertical transmission of HIV, and MSM have rarely been the specific benefactors of these efforts, despite facing both higher prevalence of HIV coupled with multiple barriers to prevention and care. To better facilitate the design of culturally relevant HIV prevention programs and prioritize resources among MSM in resource limited settings, the objective of this analysis was to estimate the relationship between social factors and HIV related risk behaviors and mental health. METHODS: 338 MSM were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Blantyre, Malawi from April 2011 to March 2012. Structural equation models were built to test the association between six latent factors: participation in social activities, social support, stigma and human rights violations, depression symptomatology, condom use, and sexual risk behaviors, including concurrent sexual partnerships and total number of partners. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 25 years old. Almost 50% (158/338) of the participants were unemployed and 11% (37/338) were married or cohabiting with women. More than 30% (120/338) of the participants reported sexual behavior stigma and 30% (102/338) reported depression symptomatology. Almost 50% (153/338) of the participants reported any kind of HIV-related risk behaviors and 30% (110/338) participated in one of the recorded social activities. Significant associations were identified between stigma and risk behaviors (ß = 0.14, p = 0.03); stigma and depression symptomatology (ß = 0.62, p = 0.01); participation in social activities and depression symptomatology (ß = 0.17, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Results suggest MSM reporting stigma are more likely to report sexual risk practices associated with HIV/STI transmission and depressive symptoms, while those reporting participation in social activities related to HIV education are less likely to be depressed. Furthermore, interventions at the community level to support group empowerment and engagement may further reduce risks of HIV transmission and improve mental health outcomes. Taken together, these results suggest the potential additive benefits of mental health services integrated within comprehensive HIV prevention packages to optimize both HIV-related outcomes and general quality of life among MSM in Malawi.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/patologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Depressão/patologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760108

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the coronavirus and the strategies to slow it have disrupted just about every aspect of our lives. Such disruption may be reflected in changes in psychological function. The present study used a pre-posttest design to test whether Five Factor Model personality traits changed with the coronavirus outbreak in the United States. Participants (N = 2,137) were tested in early February 2020 and again during the President's 15 Days to Slow the Spread guidelines. In contrast to the preregistered hypotheses, Neuroticism decreased across these six weeks, particularly the facets of Anxiety and Depression, and Conscientiousness did not change. Interestingly, there was some evidence that the rapid changes in the social context had changed the meaning of an item. Specifically, an item about going to work despite being sick was a good indicator of conscientiousness before COVID-19, but the interpretation of it changed with the pandemic. In sum, the unexpected small decline in Neuroticism suggests that, during the acute phase of the coronavirus outbreak, feelings of anxiety and distress may be attributed more to the pandemic than to one's personality.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Neuroticismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/patologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estado de Consciência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Depressão/patologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760131

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put considerable physical and emotional strain on frontline healthcare workers. Among frontline healthcare workers, physician trainees represent a unique group-functioning simultaneously as both learners and caregivers and experiencing considerable challenges during the pandemic. However, we have a limited understanding regarding the emotional effects and vulnerability experienced by trainees during the pandemic. We investigated the effects of trainee exposure to patients being tested for COVID-19 on their depression, anxiety, stress, burnout and professional fulfillment. All physician trainees at an academic medical center (n = 1375) were invited to participate in an online survey. We compared the measures of depression, anxiety, stress, burnout and professional fulfillment among trainees who were exposed to patients being tested for COVID-19 and those that were not, using univariable and multivariable models. We also evaluated perceived life stressors such as childcare, home schooling, personal finances and work-family balance among both groups. 393 trainees completed the survey (29% response rate). Compared to the non-exposed group, the exposed group had a higher prevalence of stress (29.4% vs. 18.9%), and burnout (46.3% vs. 33.7%). The exposed group also experienced moderate to extremely high perceived stress regarding childcare and had a lower work-family balance. Multivariable models indicated that trainees who were exposed to COVID-19 patients reported significantly higher stress (10.96 [95% CI, 9.65 to 12.46] vs 8.44 [95% CI, 7.3 to 9.76]; P = 0.043) and were more likely to be burned out (1.31 [95% CI, 1.21 to1.41] vs 1.07 [95% CI, 0.96 to 1.19]; P = 0.002]. We also found that female trainees were more likely to be stressed (P = 0.043); while unmarried trainees were more likely to be depressed (P = 0.009), and marginally more likely to have anxiety (P = 0.051). To address these challenges, wellness programs should focus on sustaining current programs, develop new and targeted mental health resources that are widely accessible and devise strategies for creating awareness regarding these resources.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235709, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2005, the Smoking Treatment for Ontario Patients (STOP) program has provided smoking cessation treatment of varying form and intensity to smokers through 11 distinct treatment models, either in-person at partnering healthcare organizations or remotely via web or telephone. We aimed to characterize the patient populations reached by different treatment models. METHODS: We linked self-report data to health administrative databases to describe sociodemographics, physical and mental health comorbidity, healthcare utilization and costs. Our sample consisted of 107,302 patients who enrolled between 18Oct2005 and 31Mar2016, across 11 models operational during different time periods. RESULTS: Patient populations varied on sociodemographics, comorbidity burden, and healthcare usage. Enrollees in the Web-based model were youngest (median age: 39; IQR: 29-49), and enrollees in primary care-based Family Health Teams were oldest (median: 51; IQR: 40-60). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and hypertension were the most common physical health comorbidities, twice as prevalent in Family Health Teams (32.3% and 30.8%) than in the direct-to-smoker (Web and Telephone) and Pharmacy models (13.5%-16.7% and 14.7%-17.7%). Depression, the most prevalent mental health diagnosis, was twice as prevalent in the Addiction Agency (52.1%) versus the Telephone model (25.3%). Median healthcare costs in the two years up to enrollment ranged from $1,787 in the Telephone model to $9,393 in the Addiction Agency model. DISCUSSION: While practitioner-mediated models in specialized and primary care settings reached smokers with more complex healthcare needs, alternative settings appear better suited to reach younger smokers before such comorbidities develop. Although Web and Telephone models were expected to have fewer barriers to access, they reached a lower proportion of patients in rural areas and of lower socioeconomic status. Findings suggest that in addition to population-based strategies, embedding smoking cessation treatment into existing healthcare settings that reach patient populations with varying disparities may enhance equitable access to treatment.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Fumantes/psicologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, profoundly impacting an individual's performance and quality of life. Due to their unique working conditions, nursing is counted among the occupational groups at high risk for developing depression. Because of the shortage of nursing resources in China, Chinese nurses suffer from heavy daily workloads more than those in many other countries. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the overall prevalence of depressive symptoms and analyse the potential risk factors of depressive symptoms in Chinese nurses. METHODS: A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Weipu and Wanfang databases up to Dec 31st, 2019 was performed regarding the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Chinese nurses. Eligibility assessment and data extraction were performed independently by 2 researchers, and meta-analysis was used to synthesize the data. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and quantified using the I2 statistic. To explore the potential source of heterogeneity, subgroup analyses were also performed. In addition, both funnel plot and Egger's tests were adopted to assess publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 102 studies published from 1996 to 2019 covering 22 provinces were included for further analysis. The total number of participants was 52,592, with a range of 46 to 7205 per study. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms in Chinese nurses was 43.83% (95%CI: 40.26%-47.42%), and 31.12% (95%CI: 27.30%-35.07%) were classified as mild degrees of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms may be significantly affected by region, province or municipality and department marital status. Moreover, an increasing trend in the prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in recent years. CONCLUSION: The results presented a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses, which suggests interventional programmes by health decision-makers to improving the mental state of nurses is needed urgently, especially in nurses with high risk factors for depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the nationwide investigation of depressive symptoms prevalence should be performed with a standard diagnostic tool, which may be more useful for policy makers and planners.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/patologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579575

RESUMO

Globally, cancer patients obtain much of their disease information online. Online health communities allow patients to share questions and information about diseases. However, there have been few studies on the factors affecting online health community participation behavior in cancer patients. Online social networking is associated with mental health problems, and patients with thyroid cancer experience high levels of distress, anxiety and depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with use of online health communities by patients with thyroid cancer to understand the characteristics of patients participating in such online communities. A questionnaire survey was completed by 114 thyroid cancer patients admitted for surgery at a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. General characteristics, clinical characteristics, attitude toward cancer, distress, and anxiety and depression scores of patients who joined an online health community (user group) and patients who did not (non-user group) were compared. The factors affecting online health community participation were education (p = 0.049), tumor size (p = 0.010), attitude toward cancer (p = 0.022), and anxiety and depression (p = 0.021). The average score of satisfaction with the online health community was 4.25 of 5. The user group had larger tumors, a high awareness of the risk of thyroid cancer, and high levels of anxiety and depression. Patients who actively used the online health community have relatively larger cancer size and had higher levels of mental stress. As such patients are often very anxious and depend heavily on the gathered information, the quality of this information is important. Healthcare professionals need to develop appropriate interventions for patients participating in the online health community.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma Papilar/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Papilar/etnologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231563, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the association between anxiety and depression with physical and sensory functional difficulties, among adults living in five low and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: A secondary data analysis was undertaken using population-based disability survey data from five LMICs, including two national surveys (Guatemala, Maldives) and 3 regional/district surveys (Nepal, India, Cameroon). 19,337 participants were sampled in total (range 1,617-7,604 in individual studies). Anxiety, depression, and physical and sensory functional difficulties were assessed using the Washington Group Extended Question Set on Functioning. Age-sex adjusted logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association of anxiety and depression with hearing, visual or mobility functional difficulties. The findings demonstrated an increased adjusted odds of severe depression and severe anxiety among adults with mobility, hearing and visual functional difficulties in all settings (with ORs ranging from 2.0 to 14.2) except for in relation to hearing loss in India, the Maldives and Cameroon, where no clear association was found. For all settings and types of functional difficulties, there was a stronger association with severe anxiety and depression than with moderate. Both India and Cameroon had higher reported prevalences of physical and sensory functional difficulties compared with Nepal and Guatemala, and weaker associations with anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: People with physical and sensory functional difficulties are more likely to report experiencing depression and anxiety. This evidence supports the need for ensuring a good awareness of mental health among those working with individuals with physical and sensory functional difficulties in LMICs. This implies that these practitioners must have the skills to identify anxiety and depression. Furthermore, mental health services must be available and accessible to patients with these conditions, which will likely require further programmatic scale-up in these LMIC settings.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Transtornos da Visão/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502163

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a public health concern among youth, and it is pertinent to identify factors that can help prevent development of depressive symptoms in adolescence. This study aimed to investigate the association between negative life events and depressive symptoms among adolescents, and to examine the influence and relative contributions of personal, social and family protective factors related to resilience. METHODS: Data stem from the cross-sectional youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland, Norway. In all, 9,546 adolescents, aged 16-19 years old (52.8% girls) provided self-report information on depressive symptoms, negative life events and protective factors related to resilience. RESULTS: Experiencing a higher number of negative life events was related to increases in depressive symptoms, while the potential protective factors goal orientation, self-confidence, social competence, social support, and family cohesion individually were associated with fewer symptoms. Although there were small moderating effects of goal orientation and self-confidence, the results mainly supported a compensatory resilience model. When considering the potential protective factors jointly, only self-confidence and family cohesion were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms for both genders, with the addition of social support for girls. There were significant interactions between all the potential protective factors and gender, indicating a greater reduction of depressive symptoms with higher levels of protective factors among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at fostering self-confidence and family cohesion could be effective in preventing depressive symptoms for adolescent boys and girls, regardless of their exposure to negative events. Results further indicate that preventive interventions targeting these potential protective factors could be especially beneficial for adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Depressão/patologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Fatores de Proteção , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2301, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385265

RESUMO

Depression is a leading cause of worldwide disability but there remains considerable uncertainty regarding its neural and behavioural associations. Here, using non-overlapping Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) datasets as a reference, we estimate polygenic risk scores for depression (depression-PRS) in a discovery (N = 10,674) and replication (N = 11,214) imaging sample from UK Biobank. We report 77 traits that are significantly associated with depression-PRS, in both discovery and replication analyses. Mendelian Randomisation analysis supports a potential causal effect of liability to depression on brain white matter microstructure (ß: 0.125 to 0.868, pFDR < 0.043). Several behavioural traits are also associated with depression-PRS (ß: 0.014 to 0.180, pFDR: 0.049 to 1.28 × 10-14) and we find a significant and positive interaction between depression-PRS and adverse environmental exposures on mental health outcomes. This study reveals replicable associations between depression-PRS and white matter microstructure. Our results indicate that white matter microstructure differences may be a causal consequence of liability to depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Fatores de Risco
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