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1.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Imunofluorescência , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Cóclea/anatomia & histologia , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Radicais Livres , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/prevenção & controle
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112257, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589968

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hydrolea zeylanica L. Vahl. (Hydroleaceae) is an aquatic medicinal plant used as leafy vegetable in some parts of India. In south Odisha and Hazaribag district of Jharkhand, India, decoction of leaves is used as household remedy for diabetes. To our knowledge, no prior studies have examined the antidiabetic activity of H. zeylanica to validate its ethnomedicinal claim. PURPOSE: With this aim in mind, we examined the bioactivity of hydroalcohol fraction of leaves of H. zeylanica (HAHZ) in streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro antidiabetic and free radical scavenging activities of different fractions of H. zeylanica were performed. The most effective bioactive fraction e.g. HAHZ was considered for kinetic studies to understand the mode of inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. To understand the chemical composition, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of HAHZ were performed. To find out the molecular mechanism of action of HAHZ, streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress and metabolic changes in diabetic rats were studied. RESULTS: HAHZ demonstrated significantly higher radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities. Kinetic analysis revealed that HAHZ inhibited α-glucosidase competitively, and α-amylase mixed competitively. To understand the chemical composition, GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of HAHZ identified 32 compounds and among which R-limonene (0.52%), perillartine (0.41%), N-formyl-L-lysine (1.49%), limonen-6-ol, pivalate (1.43%), lidocaine (1.70%) and gamolenic acid (2.80%) were reported to have antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. HAHZ-400 mg/kg showed significant (p < 0.001) improvement in serum markers (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total bilirubin, total protein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C) and oxidative markers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH) in serum, liver and pancreas at effective dose dependent manner. In histopathological observation, HAHZ-400 mg/kg showed marked improvement in restoring cellular architecture of liver and pancreas. CONCLUSION: In diabetic rats, the improvement in glycemic control mechanism was achieved upon stimulating insulin secretion by R-limonene, perillartine, N-formyl-L-lysine, limonen-6-ol, pivalate, lidocaine and gamolenic acid of HAHZ.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanales/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Índia , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Estreptozocina/toxicidade
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1324-1327, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607719

RESUMO

Background: Acute cerebral infarction threats human health and life safety. The edaravone is a new antioxidant and hydroxyl radical scavenger, which is the novel scavenger for clinical use, mainly for nervous system diseases. Objective: The purpose of this study is to observe the clinical treatment effects of edaravone on the degree of improvement of neurological impairment and functional movement impairment in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Method: A total of 130 patients admitted to our hospital because of acute cerebral infarction from December 2015 to May 2017 were selected for group analysis. These patients were divided into a control group (n = 65) and a treatment group (n = 65) with a random odd-even method. The control group accepted conventional treatment, while the treatment group received edaravone treatment on top of the conventional treatment of the control group. After treatment, the differences in functional movement, living ability score, neurological score, treatment effect, and adverse reaction of these two groups were tested and compared. Results: The total treatment efficiency of conventional treatment in the control group was significantly lower than the combination treatment in the treatment group (P < 0.05). The inter-group differences in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, activities of daily living, and Fugl-Meyer assessment scores after the treatment were significant between these two groups (P < 0.05). The posttreatment effect on the treatment group was superior to that on the control group (P < 0.05). The adverse reaction rate of the treatment group did not significantly vary from that of the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Edaravone can significantly improve the degree of neurological impairment during acute cerebral infarction, functional movement, and living quality with a definite effect and high safety. Thus, this drug has a good prospect in clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Edaravone/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 34(1): 33-42, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449269

RESUMO

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a leading pan-systemic endocrine disorder with attendant high morbidity and mortality owing to its deleterious effects on vital body organs caused by untreated chronic hyperglycemia, attendant oxidative stress and glycation processes. The present study is designed to investigate possible protective role and mechanism(s) of action 125-500 mg/kg/day of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract (MLASE) on renal and hepatic functions in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats for 8 days. Forty-two alloxan-induced hyperglycemiic male Wistar rats were randomly allotted to Groups II-VI and orally treated with 10 ml/kg/day distilled water, 5 mg/kg/day glibenclamide, 125 mg/kg MLASE, 250 mg/kg MLASE, and 500 mg/kg/day MLASE, respectively. Group I normal rats served as untreated control and were orally treated with 10 ml/kg of distilled water, all under same sham-handling. Blood samples were taken for measurement of fasting blood glucose, renal and hepatic function profile. Liver and kidney tissue samples were taken for determination of the activities of oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD). Results showed that intraperitoneal injection with 120 mg/kg of alloxan in cold 0.9% normal saline reliably and significantly induced a steadily sustained hyperglycemia which were ameliorated by short-term oral treatment with 125-500 mg/kg/day of MLASE, dose dependently, similar to that ameliorated by the standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide. Similarly, MLASE significantly mitigated against derangements in the measured renal and hepatic function parameters as well as oxidative stress induced by alloxan-induced hyperglycemia. In conclusion, results of this study showed the protective role of 125-500 mg/kg/day of MLASE in chronic hyperglycemia-associated renal and hepatic dysfunctions which was mediated via antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of MLASE.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Morinda , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Caules de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Água
6.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 129: 170-178, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181439

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate if the cardioplegic solution HTK can be improved by the addition of the ROS scavenger melatonin. 158 guinea pig hearts without (UI80) or with HTK protection (HTK80) were investigated in ischemia/reperfusion experiments. Ischemia lasted 80 min at 30 °C. Melatonin was given before ischemia (UI80 + M1, HTK80 + M1) or before and after ischemia (UI80 + M2, HTK80 + M2). We measured the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), diastolic pressure (LVPmin), cardiac rhythm (VC-RR), time of electrical cell uncoupling (t-in) and recovery (t-ret), intracellular Ca++ [Ca++], and postischemic ROS. After 45 min reperfusion, LVDP in UI80 was significantly higher than in HTK80 (p < .01). Compared to UI80, the postischemic ROS burst was slightly smaller in HTK80 and significantly smaller in HTK80 + M1 and HTK80 + M2 (p < .05). Melatonin had no effect on LVPmin, t-in, t-ret, [Ca++], and on LVDP in groups UI80 + M1 and HTK80 + M1, improved slightly VC-RR (n. s.) but significantly decreased LVDP in the groups UI80 + M2 and HTK80 + M2 (p < .01). With melatonin we were able to attenuate the postischemic ROS burst, but the tissue damage by ROS seemed to be less important for the chosen ischemia condition because melatonin was unable to improve the functional recovery during reperfusion of HTK protected hearts.


Assuntos
Soluções Cardioplégicas/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Parada Cardíaca Induzida/métodos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/terapia , Animais , Feminino , Cobaias , Coração/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/cirurgia
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110551, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163217

RESUMO

Tea is a natural resource of catechins and exhibits antioxidative and anticancer activities. This study was designed to elucidate the comparative efficacy of white tea and pure EGCG in containing benzo (a) pyrene (BaP)-induced pulmonary stress. Rats were treated with white tea extract (WT) (1%) and pure EGCG at a dose of 80µg/ml in drinking water on alternate days for 12 weeks (4 weeks prior, during and after BaP treatment). BaP(50 mg/kg b. wt) was administered to rats orally in olive oil twice a week for four weeks. The indices such as stress biomarkers (LPO, PCC & ROS), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH, GST, GR, GPx) activities and lung histoarchitecture were assessed. BaP administration enhanced the levels of inflammatory markers (NO and citrulline) and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes. We observed similar antioxidant efficacy by both WT and EGCG as seen by their ameliorative action in restoring BaP induced oxidative and inflammatory stress as well as lung histoarchitecture. Our findings suggest that WT is equally beneficial as EGCG in maintaining the integrity of alveoli and is a potential candidate to be used as a cost effective and protective agent in conditions of BaP-induced lung damage.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Chá/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Citrulina/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Hinyokika Kiyo ; 65(4): 117-121, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247689

RESUMO

The patient was a 56-year-old female. She was referred to our department for further examination of right hydronephrosis in 2010. Computed tomography (CT) showed right hydronephrosis, and retrograde pyelography (RP) revealed stenosis of the right lower ureter. Urine cytology was negative. Transurethral biopsy of the right ureter was performed using ureteroscopic cup forceps and the histopathlogical diagnosis was ureteral amyloidosis. A whole-body search was performed, including rectal biopsy, but no evidence of amyloidosis was obtained. She was diagnosed with localized amyloidosis of the right ureter. A ureteral stent was indwelled and the patient was given occulusive dressing technique (ODT) therapy using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 1 year. After ODT therapy, right hydronephrosis improved. After a 2-year followup, it worsened. ODT therapy was restarted and continued for 2 years. She consulted our department because of fever and right lumbago in April 2017 after a 4-month interruption of ODT therapy. CT revealed progression of the right hydronephrosis. A ureteral stent was indwelled and ODT therapy was restarted. The right hydronephrosis improved after 1 year. ODT therapy using DMSO was effective for localized ureteral amyloidosis, but periodic follow-up was necessary and ODT therapy was also effective when it recurred after the interruption of treatment.


Assuntos
Amiloidose , Dimetil Sulfóxido , Depuradores de Radicais Livres , Ureter , Doenças Ureterais , Amiloidose/tratamento farmacológico , Bandagens , Dimetil Sulfóxido/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Ureterais/tratamento farmacológico
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 163, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia remains a significant danger to both mother and child and current prevention and treatment management strategies are limited. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the current literature on evidence for the use of the regenerative capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy, the anticoagulant activity of antithrombin (AT), or the free radical scavenging activity of alpha-1-microglobulin (A1M) as potential novel treatments for severe preeclampsia and Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count (HELLP). METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of potential biological therapies for preeclampsia. We screened MEDLINE and Embase from inception through May 2017 for studies using AT, A1M or MSCs as potential treatments for preeclampsia and/or HELLP. A meta-analysis was performed to pool data from randomized control trials (RCTs) with homogenous outcomes using the inverse variance method. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, the Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs, and SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies were used to investigate potential bias of studies. RESULTS: The literature search retrieved a total of 1015 articles, however, only 17 studies met the selection criteria: AT (n = 9, 8 human and 1 animal); A1M (n = 4, 3 animal and 1 ex-vivo); and, MSCs (n = 4, 3 animal and 1 ex-vivo). A meta-analysis of AT therapy versus placebo and a meta-analysis for AT therapy with heparin versus heparin alone did not show significant differences between study groups. Animal and ex-vivo studies demonstrated significant benefits in relevant outcomes for A1M and MSCs versus control treatments. Most RCT studies were rated as having a low risk of bias across categories with some studies showing an unclear risk of bias in some categories. The two cohort studies both received a total of four out of nine stars (a rating of "poor" quality). Most animal studies had an unclear risk of bias across most categories, with some studies having a low risk of bias in some categories. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review are strengthened by rigorous systematic search and review of the literature. Results of our meta-analyses do not currently warrant further exploration of AT as a treatment of preeclampsia in human trials. Results of animal and ex-vivo studies of A1M and MSCs were encouraging and supportive of initiating human investigations.


Assuntos
alfa-Globulinas/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Animais , Terapia Biológica , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 73, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-acetylcysteine is a classic mucolytic agent. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine on reducing the risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis patients. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between April 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016 in five general hospitals in Shandong Province, China. Adult bronchiectasis patients with at least two exacerbations in the past year were potentially eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg, twice daily, 12 months) or on-demand treatment. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were eligible for randomization (81 to the N-acetylcysteine group and 80 to the control group). During the 12-month follow-up, the incidence of exacerbations in the N-acetylcysteine group was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.31 vs. 1.98 exacerbations per patient-year; risk ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.66; P = 0.0011). The median number of exacerbations in the N-acetylcysteine group was 1 (0.5-2), compared with 2 (1-2) in the control group (U = - 2.95, P = 0.003). A total of 24.7% of the N-acetylcysteine group patients and 11.3% of the control group patients remained exacerbation-free throughout the 12-month follow-up (χ2 = 4.924, P = 0.026). Compared with the control group, the volume of 24-h sputum in the N-acetylcysteine group was significantly reduced (t = - 3.091, P = 0.002). Additionally, the N-acetylcysteine group showed a significant improvement in the quality of life. No severe adverse events were reported in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The long-term use of N-acetylcysteine is able to reduce the risk of exacerbations for bronchiectasis patients in Shandong Province, China. The results of this study should be verified in a larger randomized controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02088216) (Registered date: March 5, 2014).


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Bronquiectasia/tratamento farmacológico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Anat Sci Int ; 94(4): 285-294, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949912

RESUMO

Oxidative stress contributes to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and diabetic neuropathy. Despite the greater capability of peripheral nerves to regenerate compared with those in the brain or spinal cord, chronic oxidative stress leads to irreversible neurodegeneration in peripheral nerves. Thus, many efforts have been made to defend against irreversible peripheral nerve degeneration and oxidative stress. Numerous phytochemicals have been revealed as antioxidants which neutralize free radicals and reduce peripheral neurocellular damage. Among them, polyphenols alleviate neurodegeneration by interacting with reactive oxygen species. Apigenin is a polyphenol found in plant-derived foods, including parsley, thyme, celery, and chamomile tea. Apigenin has been reported to exert antioxidative effects by scavenging free radicals. In particular, apigenin has a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress in neurological disorders, such as cerebral ischemia. However, to date, no studies have shown an association of the inhibitory effect of apigenin with peripheral nerve degeneration. In this work, we showed that apigenin has a neuroprotective effect against peripheral nerve degeneration according to four key phenotypes: axonal degradation, myelin fragmentation, trans-dedifferentiation, and proliferation of Schwann cells via Krox20- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-independent processes. Thus, apigenin could be a good candidate to treat peripheral neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apigenina/uso terapêutico , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Axônios/patologia , Desdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína 2 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann/patologia , Nervo Isquiático/patologia
12.
Clin Perinatol ; 46(2): 311-325, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010562

RESUMO

Neonatal brain injury (NBI) remains a major contributor to neonatal mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental morbidity. Although therapeutic hypothermia is the only proven treatment to minimize brain injury caused by neonatal encephalopathy in term neonates, it provides incomplete neuroprotection. There are no specific drugs yet proven to prevent NBI in preterm neonates. This review discusses the scientific and emerging clinical trial data for several neuroprotective drugs in development, examining potential efficacy and safety concerns. Drugs with the highest likelihood of success and closest to clinical application include erythropoietin for term and preterm neonates and antenatal magnesium for preterm neonates.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/prevenção & controle , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Leucomalácia Periventricular/prevenção & controle , Neuroproteção , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Inalatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , Darbepoetina alfa/uso terapêutico , Eritropoetina/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Leucomalácia Periventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Xenônio/uso terapêutico
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(2)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814104

RESUMO

An 82-year-old man with a background of prostate carcinoma and bony metastases presented with bilateral discharging neck fistulae. Two years prior to presentation, the patient had been treated with intravenous zoledronic acid for 1 year as part of chemotherapy. Intraoral examination revealed extensive bilateral medication-related osteonecrosis, with orocutaneous fistulae within the neck. Treatment comprised removal of loose necrotic bone sequestrae, debridement of the fistulae and long-term administration of antibiotics, vitamin E and pentoxifylline. Four weeks later, the orocutaneous fistulae had healed.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Mandíbula/patologia , Osteonecrose/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ácido Zoledrônico/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Osteonecrose/tratamento farmacológico , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
14.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(4): 699-705, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the most important complications of contrast media. We aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CIN in diabetic patients undergoing angioplasty using cystatin C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a randomized clinical trial, which was investigated the impact of PTX in the prevention of CIN among 90 diabetic patients undergoing the angioplasty using cystatin C as a novel biomarker of renal injury. The patients randomly were allocated 1:1 into the intervention and the control groups. The intervention group received a total of 1200 mg PTX orally before the angioplasty. The serum level of cystatin C and creatinine was measured at baseline and 24 h after the procedure. RESULTS: The incidence of CIN was 8.9% in the PTX group vs. 6.7% in the control group (p = 1.00). The baseline level of cystatin C was 1.31 ± 0.39 mg/L in the PTX group and 1.24 ± 0.42 mg/L in the control group (p = 0.561). After angioplasty, the level of cystatin C was increased to 1.33 ± 0.61 in PTX group and to 1.31 ± 0.47 in the control group but was not statistically significant. The similar pattern was also seen in the level of serum creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study did not support the potential benefit of PTX in the prevention of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing angioplasty.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Cistatina C/sangue , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Angioplastia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 40: 100-102, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776665

RESUMO

Preclinical evidence shows that the minocycline and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) combination synergistically improved cognition. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with minocycline and NAC have shown some efficacy signal for positive, cognitive, and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Hence, the combination may be more effective than either medication alone. The objective of this article is to highlight the potential role of the minocycline-NAC combination for the treatment of schizophrenia. The antipsychotic-minocycline-NAC combination is promising and has the potential to concurrently treat positive, cognitive, and primary negative symptoms. RCTs are warranted with the minocycline-NAC combination to address the unmet clinical need in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Minociclina/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
17.
Int J Dermatol ; 58(4): 502-510, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathologic grooming disorders can lead to clinically significant distress and functional impairment. Studies on treatment of these disorders with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and anticonvulsants have led to inconsistent findings. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown promise in treatment of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. The objective of this article is to perform an updated review of NAC in the treatment of grooming disorders. METHODS: PubMed was searched from inception to October 2017 to identify literature on the use of NAC in the management of trichotillomania, onychophagia, and pathological skin picking. Case reports, case series, and randomized controlled trials were included. Data on study design, dosing regimens, comorbidities, concurrent treatment, and side effects were extracted from the included articles. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were included in this review, which consisted of 10 case reports, one case series, and four randomized controlled trials. Dosing of oral NAC ranged from 450 to 2,400 mg per day, and treatment periods lasted from 1 to 8 months. Side effects were uncommon, mild, and usually gastrointestinal in nature, with severe aggression reported in one child. CONCLUSIONS: While there are multiple reports of the safety and efficacy of NAC in the treatment of grooming disorders, there are currently few randomized controlled trials on this topic, and more research is needed to develop a formal treatment algorithm. While current data should be considered very preliminary, case reports have demonstrated mostly positive results and a lack of significant side effects. A trial of NAC may be a viable option for pathologic grooming disorders, especially in patients who have failed prior psychologic or pharmacologic treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Hábito de Roer Unhas/terapia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Tricotilomania/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(2): 183-191, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651413

RESUMO

Stress is a part of everyday life, but excessive stress can be related to diverse diseases. Recently, oral intake of a non-centrifuged cane sugar, Kokuto, was reported to produce potential anti-stress effects in humans. However, the molecular components associated with the anti-stress property of Kokuto remain mostly unknown. Therefore, we focused on the non-sugar component (NSC) fractions of Kokuto, and investigated how serum corticosterone level (used as a stress marker) and antioxidant activity were affected in restraint-stressed mice treated with NSC fractions obtained from the elusion on HP-20 resin with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% aqueous methanol (MeOH) solutions. Among the four NSC fractions, the 50% MeOH fraction showed a high content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity. Moreover, oral administration of the 50% MeOH fraction suppressed both corticosterone secretion into the serum and reduction of antioxidant activity in serum and liver in restraint-stressed mice. Component analysis of the 50% MeOH fraction identified five antioxidative phenolic compounds: p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxyacetophenone, schaftoside, isoschaftoside, and p-coumaric acid. Phenolic compounds detected in the NSC fractions of Kokuto might contribute to the anti-stress property of Kokuto. In addition, this research provides more understanding of potential health benefits offered by the constituents of Kokuto.


Assuntos
Sacarose na Dieta/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Sacarose na Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Saccharum/química
19.
Int J Audiol ; 58(3): 151-157, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study if the antioxidant (AO) N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reduces the risk of hearing loss after acoustic accidents in humans. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational study. STUDY SAMPLE: Personnel of the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) exposed to military acoustic accidents during a 5 year period. Included in the study were 221 cases (mean age: 22.9 years). Most of the exposures, 84%, were weapon related. NAC (400 mg) was given directly after the accident in 146 cases; 75 had not received NAC. RESULTS: The prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥25 dB HL, and the incidence of threshold shifts ≥10 dB, was lower in the NAC group than in the non-NAC group directly after the noise exposure. The deterioration was temporary and not discernable a long time after the accident. The difference was most pronounced in the right ear. The risk reduction to get a temporary hearing loss (TTS), affecting one or both ears was 39% (significant) in the NAC group. CONCLUSIONS: The study has demonstrated a significant reduction of the incidence of TTS by the use of NAC. Since cases of both permanent hearing loss (PTS) and noise-induced tinnitus are recruited from cases with TTS, the demonstrated risk reduction indicates a positive effect of NAC.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(4): 745-754, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604234

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gas-structure mediator. It is proposed to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-P-aminophenol; APAP) is an antipyretic and analgesic medication known as paracetamol. When taken at therapeutic doses there are few side-effects, but at high doses APAP can cause clear liver and kidney damage in humans and experimental animals. In this study, the effects of the H2S donor of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on acute renal toxicity induced by APAP in rats were researched in comparison with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). METHOD: Rats were divided into six groups (n = 7) as control. APAP, APAP + NAC, APAP + NaHS 25 µmol/kg, NaHS 50 µmol/kg and NaHS 100 µmol/kg. After oral dose of 2 g/kg APAP, NAC and NaHS were administered via the i.p. route for 7 days. In renal homogenates, KIM-1 (Kidney Injury Molecule-1), NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), TNF-α and TGFß levels were measured with the ELISA method for tissue injury and inflammation. In renal tissue, oxidative stress levels were identified by spectrophotometric measurement of TAS and TOS. Histopathologic investigation of renal tissue used caspase 3 staining for apoptotic changes, Masson trichrome and H&E staining for variations occurring in glomerular and tubular systems. RESULTS: NaHS lowered KIM-1, NGAL, TNF-α, TGF-ß and TOS levels elevated in renal tissue linked to APAP and increased TAS values. NaHS prevented apoptosis in the kidney and was identified to ensure histologic amelioration in glomerular and tubular structures. NaHS at 50 µmol/kg dose was more effective, with the effect reduced with 100 µmol/kg dose. CONCLUSION: H2S shows protective effect against acute renal injury linked to APAP. This protective effect reduces with high doses of H2S. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of H2S may play a role in the renoprotective effect.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Lipocalinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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